A Moveable Feast

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Themes and Colors
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Hunger vs. Consumption Theme Icon
Success, Gossip, and Fame Theme Icon
Love, Sex, and Friendship Theme Icon
Happiness and Sadness Theme Icon
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Love, Sex, and Friendship Theme Icon

Although A Moveable Feast is autobiographical, its main focus is arguably not Hemingway himself, but rather his relationships with others. The descriptions of Hemingway’s friendships with other artists and writers emphasize his role within an important creative community, but they also form significant meditations on the nature of friendship itself. Hemingway is clearly preoccupied with what it means to be a good friend. He describes the details of Gertrude Stein and Alice Toklas’ hospitality, and hementions that “Ezra Pound was always a good friend and he was always doing things for people.” Elsewhere, Hemingway describes Pound as “the most generous writer I have ever known” and Hemingway says that Pound is “kinder and more Christian about people than I was.” Hemingway expresses no reluctance in judging those around him (sometimes rather harshly), yet nonetheless he seems to be self-conscious about his tendency to be hard on his friends.

As important as friendship is shown to be in the book, it is also cast as being rather fragile. Pound, for example, is banned from Gertrude Stein’s house for sitting down too quickly and breaking “a small, fragile and, doubtless, uncomfortable chair, that it is quite possible he had been given on purpose.” Despite their initial closeness, Hemingway’s relationship with Stein also falls apart, a fact that Hemingway ultimately attributes to the inherently unsustainable nature of friendship between men and women (especially “ambitious” women).

Indeed, while Hemingway does document his friendships with Stein and Sylvia Beach, overall the connections he foregrounds are those between himself and other men, such as Ezra, Scott, and Mike Ward. Feminist critics have attributed this to Hemingway’s misogyny, evidence of which can be found in Hemingway’s sneering dismissal of women such as Katherine Mansfield and Natalie Clifford Barney. On the other hand, Hemingway’s friendships with men—particularly those of his own age—must also be seen within the context of the war. When Stein uses the now famous term “lost generation” to describe the men of Hemingway’s age who were youths during the First World War, she emphasizes a bitter and haunted connection that binds these men together. This idea is emphasized with Hemingway’s own statement that “in those days we did not trust anyone who had not been in the war,” his use of the term “we” further illuminating the notion of a generational community.

A Moveable Feast also details Hemingway’s relationships with his first wife, Hadley, and (to a lesser extent) his second wife, Pauline. Overall, Hemingway creates the impression that he and Hadley are a happy, loving couple, although he provides little substantive detail about his feelings for her. In this respect, there is a strong contrast drawn between the Hemingways and Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. Hemingway is clearly disdainful of Scott’s intense, all-consuming, and destructive love for Zelda, and he personally dislikes and distrusts Zelda for inhibiting Scott’s ability to work. (He fails to mention the fact that Zelda herself is also a writer, and that Scott obstructs and suppresses her writing at least as much as she does to him.) The contrast between the Hemingways and the Fitzgeralds is further emphasized when Scott confesses that the only woman he’s ever slept with is Zelda, and Hemingway admits that he can’t remember if he and Hadley had sex before marriage. Fitzgerald is shocked that Hemingway could have forgotten such an important fact, but Hemingway is characteristically nonchalant about the matter.

This conversation about premarital sex emphasizes the impression that Hemingway is somewhat sexually repressed. Although he does describe his affair with (and subsequent marriage to) Pauline, Hemingway fails to include any explicit or identifying detail, instead relying on detached observations: “To really love two women at the same time, truly love them, is the most destructive and terrible thing that can happen to a man when the unmarried one decides to marry.” Indeed, it is when describing love that Hemingway adopts his most abstract tone, constructing vague philosophical statements such as: “Our pleasures, which were those of being in love, were as simple and still and mysterious and complicated as a simple mathematical formula that can mean all happiness or can mean the end of the world.”

Hemingway is also fairly forthcoming about his strong aversion to homosexuality. In a climate of increased sexual experimentation and fluidity, Hemingway sets himself apart by openly expressing a “prejudice” about homosexuality to Stein, a lesbian. When Stein protests that “you know nothing about any of this really, Hemingway,” he grows quiet and admits “I was glad when we talked about something else.” Whereas other writers in Hemingway’s era were eager to experiment with the representation of sexuality in literature and art, in A Moveable Feast Hemingway’s focus falls far more on platonic, intellectual, and fraternal relationships than it does on sexual desire.

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Love, Sex, and Friendship Quotes in A Moveable Feast

Below you will find the important quotes in A Moveable Feast related to the theme of Love, Sex, and Friendship.
Chapter 1 Quotes

I've seen you, beauty, and you belong to me now, whoever you are waiting for and if I never see you again, I thought. You belong to me and all Paris belongs to me and I belong to this notebook and this pencil.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker)
Page Number: 18
Explanation and Analysis:

While Hemingway is writing at the café on the Place St.-Michel, a “very pretty” woman enters and sits near him. Hemingway looks up from his writing and stares at her, thinking that she belongs to him, even though she is a stranger. This feeling of ownership is rooted in Hemingway’s writing; the city around Hemingway belongs to him because he is representing it through writing, and thus he is “creating” it in a symbolically God-like manner. The link between literary creation and a sense of power and ownership highlights the most positive side of the life of the writer.

This is also an example of Hemingway’s notoriously large ego. Although Hemingway is frequently bashful about his own writing in A Moveable Feast, this passage indicates that he perhaps enjoys the power that comes from his success as a writer more than he tends to let on. Furthermore, this passage is also an example of the kind of subtle misogyny that many feminist critics argue Hemingway is guilty of expressing. While he does not behave in an overtly sexist, demeaning, or aggressive way to the woman, thinking that she belongs to him arguably suggests that Hemingway enjoys having power over women.


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Chapter 2 Quotes

The wives, my wife and I felt, were tolerated. But we liked Miss Stein and her friend, although the friend was frightening, and the paintings and the cakes and the eau-de-vie were truly wonderful. They seemed to like us too and treated us as though we were very good, well-mannered and promising children and I felt that they forgave us for being in love and being married––time would fix that––and when my wife invited them to tea, they accepted.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway, Gertude Stein, Alice B. Toklas
Page Number: 24
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has introduced the characters of Gertrude Stein and her partner, Alice B. Toklas, although he never mentions Toklas’ name, instead referring to her only as Stein’s “friend.” He has noted that when Stein and Toklas entertain at their house the guests are separated into the men (who are usually famous artists and writers) and their wives. While Stein speaks to the men, Toklas attends to the wives. In this passage, Hemingway writes that, although there are distinct differences between himself and Hadley and Toklas and Stein, they still get along well and enjoy spending time together.

One of these differences is the strict gender division, and Hemingway implies that he and Hadley dislike the fact that the wives are merely “tolerated.” However, there is arguably something a little disingenuous about this claim, considering that Hemingway has very few female friends himself and is often thought of as being rather misogynistic. In addition, while Hemingway suggests that he and Hadley are more progressive when it comes to the equality of husbands and wives, it is clear that he also differs with Stein regarding homosexuality. Hemingway does not acknowledge that Stein and Toklas are a couple, instead referring to Toklas as Stein’s “friend.” While this was a rather common practice at the time, Hemingway’s refusal to give Toklas’ name suggests that his attitude toward wives is perhaps far less egalitarian than he indicates at the beginning of the passage.

Chapter 5 Quotes

I knew how severe I had been and how bad things had been. The one who is doing his work and getting satisfaction from it is not the one the poverty is hard on. I thought of bathtubs and showers and toilets that flushed as things that inferior people to us had or that you enjoyed when you made trips, which we often made.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway
Page Number: 42
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has bought a racing paper and decided that after he finishes work, he and Hadley will go to the races. He has received money from the Toronto Star, but Hadley worries that they still don’t have enough money to bet. Hemingway assures her that they will figure it out, and he apologizes for being “tight and mean about money.” Hemingway regretfully thinks about the way in which their poverty has been “hard on” Hadley. He suggests that it is easy for him to live without money, because he gets “satisfaction” from working as a writer.

It is clear from this passage that Hemingway feels responsible for providing for Hadley, and he seems conflicted between his own nonchalance about material possessions and his desire to give Hadley a comfortable, pleasant life. While he knows that his lifestyle is hard on his wife, he also feels that his simple existence is distinct from true poverty: lacking money is hardest on people without passion and purpose, he suggests, and thus his writing means that he is spared the pain of poverty. He looks on his lack of money as a sign, even, of his dedication to something better than materialism, which suggests that there is something he enjoys about being poor.

Standing there I wondered how much of what we had felt on the bridge was just hunger. I asked my wife and she said, "I don't know, Tatie. There are so many sorts of hunger. In the spring there are more. But that's gone now. Memory is hunger."

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway (speaker)
Related Symbols: The Seasons
Page Number: 48
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway and Hadley have been remarkably successful at the races, and after leaving the track they walk through Paris, discussing a number of different topics. Later, staring through the window of a restaurant, Hemingway reflects on the conversation they had while walking through Paris, wondering if it was “just hunger.” While standing on the bridge, Hemingway and Hadley had discussed Stein and Toklas, memories of their travels, and their friend Chink, so it is not clear what exactly Hemingway is referring to when he discusses “what he had felt on the bridge.”

Hadley’s response unites three of the main themes in the book: hunger, the seasons, and memory. Like Hemingway’s comment about the bridge, Hadley’s words are rather mysterious. Why are there more kinds of hunger in the spring? It’s possible the link between hunger and the spring is rooted in the fact that both are sensual experiences that make people more sensitive and attuned to the world around them. Equally enigmatic is Hadley’s final statement: “memory is hunger.” Perhaps this refers to the nostalgia one feels when thinking back on happy times that have passed. This certainly seems true of Hemingway, who frequently mentions how happy, lucky, and carefree he and Hadley were during the early years in Paris.

Chapter 7 Quotes

She did not like to hear really bad nor tragic things, but no one does, and having seen them I did not care to talk about them unless she wanted to know how the world was going. She wanted to know the gay part of how the world was going; never the real, never the bad.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Gertude Stein
Page Number: 57
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway gets into the habit of visiting Gertrude Stein at 27 rue de Fleurus. Stein is always happy to see Hemingway, and she offers him delicious things to eat and drink. Hemingway notes that “she loved to talk about people and places and things and food,” but in this passage he clarifies that Stein only likes hearing about happy things, not “the real” or “the bad.” This characterization of Stein is intriguing; only wanting to hear about happy and funny things suggests that Stein is frivolous and even ignorant. Although Stein’s sense of humor and playfulness is well-known, elsewhere in the book Hemingway represents her as someone who took herself, her work, and the work of others very seriously.

It is clear from this passage that Hemingway equates “the real” with the sad and tragic side of life. This is significant, as Hemingway emphasizes that representing the truth is the most important goal in writing. Hemingway’s belief that the truth of the world is “bad” and even tragic arguably emerges from his experiences of the war, therefore fulfilling Stein’s assertion that he is part of a “lost generation” who have a nihilistic view of life.

In the three or four years that we were good friends I can not remember Gertrude Stein ever speaking well of any writer who had not written favorably about her work or done something to advance her career except for Ronald Firbank and, later, Scott Fitzgerald. When I first met her she did not speak of Sherwood Anderson as a writer but spoke glowingly of him as a man and of his great, beautiful, warm Italian eyes and of his kindness and his charm. I did not care about his great beautiful warm Italian eyes but I liked some of his short stories very much.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Gertude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald
Page Number: 59
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has already described being annoyed by Stein’s dismissals of authors he admires, but he has also noted that he enjoys her book recommendations tremendously. In this passage, he notes that Stein’s comments about writers they know tend to be dictated by whether or not they have advanced her own career. Generally, unless a writer has supported Stein’s career, she focuses on their personal qualities and avoids discussing their work. Like many of Hemingway’s descriptions of the characters in the book, this is a rather harsh assessment (even if it is also true).

Hemingway expresses a sense of disapproval of this habit of Stein’s, particularly when noting that he himself does not “care about [Anderson’s] great beautiful warm Italian eyes but I liked some of his short stories very much.” This statement echoes Hemingway’s earlier suggestion that Stein has frivolous tendencies. At the same time, throughout A Moveable Feast Hemingway himself gives detailed descriptions of people’s physical appearances, including his fixation with hair. One of the defining attributes of the book is Hemingway’s attention to the ordinary lives and physical presence of the famous artists and writers he lives among in Paris. Hemingway’s comments about Stein thus arguably reflect his own anxieties about the politics of navigating an enriching (yet occasionally competitive and shallow) artistic milieu.

She was angry at Ezra Pound because he had sat down too quickly on a small, fragile and, doubtless, uncomfortable chair, that it is quite possible he had been given on purpose, and had either cracked or broken it. That finished Ezra at 27 rue de Fleurus. That he was a great poet and a gentle and generous man and could have accommodated himself in a normal-size chair was not considered. The reasons for her dislike of Ezra, skillfully and maliciously put, were invented years later.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Gertude Stein, Ezra Pound
Page Number: 60
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has argued that Stein only praises the writing of people who advance her own career, and that she absolutely refuses to discuss James Joyce due to her intense feeling of competition with him. In this passage, Hemingway notes that Stein also developed a powerful grudge against Ezra Pound after he broke one of her chairs, even though it’s possible that she gave it to him in the hope that he would break it. Once again, Hemingway expresses disapproval of Stein’s seemingly arbitrary rejection of Pound, arguing that Stein “invented” reasons for disliking him years after deciding to do so.

Hemingway clearly thinks that Stein behaves in an unfair manner to Ezra, who Hemingway characterizes as being “gentle and generous,” not to mention a talented writer. It is also possible to detect a note of resentment in Hemingway over how much control Stein wields in the artistic and literary community in which they both operate. Because so much of the creative activity of Paris at the time orbits around her home at 27 rue de Fleurus, Stein is able to manipulate this community with greater control than perhaps any other individual. It only takes one fragile chair in order to excommunicate a person from this circle, which almost certainly made Hemingway feel that his own place in Stein’s good graces was precarious.

"All of you young people who served in the war. You are a lost generation…”

"Really?" I said.
"You are," she insisted. “you have no respect for anything. You drink yourselves to death. . .”
"'Was the young mechanic drunk?” I asked.
"Of course not."
"Have you ever seen me drunk?”
"No. But your friends are drunk.”
"I've been drunk" I said. “But I don’t come here drunk.”

"Of course not. I didn't say that.”
"The boy's patron was probably drunk by eleven o’clock in the morning." I said. “That’s why he makes such lovely phrases. "
"Don't argue with me, Hemingway,” Miss Stein said. “It does no good at all. You're all a lost generation, exactly as the garage keeper said."

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Gertude Stein (speaker)
Related Symbols: Alcohol
Page Number: 61
Explanation and Analysis:

Gertrude Stein’s car breaks down, and when she takes it to the garage she complains that the mechanic there has done a poor job. She tells Hemingway that the garage keeper mentioned that all men of the garage keeper’s (and Hemingway’s) age are members of a “lost generation,” a sentiment Stein agrees with. She tells Hemingway that men his age who served in the First World War have developed a nihilistic worldview and “drink yourselves to death.” Hemingway is evidently somewhat resentful of this assessment, and Stein’s refusal to let him argue with her is rather patronizing. After all, Stein herself did not serve in the war, yet she haughtily implies that she is better than the disrespectful, self-destructive, and nihilistic young men.

Despite this tension, however, the “lost generation” is one of the most well-known and influential ideas to emerge from the book. This term is now universally used, both in the sense that Stein uses it here—to describe men of Hemingway’s generation—and, perhaps more often, to describe the particular group of artists and writers Hemingway lived among in Paris at the time. Indeed, the characteristics that Stein attributes to the mechanic—including a lack of “respect” and tendency for destructive drinking—are also true of most of the artists and writers depicted in the book, including Hemingway himself.

When I got home and into the courtyard and upstairs and saw my wife and my son and his car, F. puss, all of them happy and a fire in the fireplace, I said to my wife, “You know, Gertrude is nice, anyway…”
"Of course, Tatie.”
"But she does talk a lot of rot sometimes.”
"I never hear her,” my wife said. “I’m a wife. It’s her friend that talks to me.”

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway (speaker), Jack “Bumby” Hemingway, Gertude Stein, Alice B. Toklas
Page Number: 62-3
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has spent the day with Gertrude Stein, during which time she made her comment about the “lost generation.” Hemingway feels irritated by her words, thinking: “who is calling who a lost generation?” However, when he gets home to his family he takes a gentler tone, reminding himself (and Hadley) that he does like Stein, even if she “talks a lot of rot.” Hadley’s response underlines the sharp gender divide that governs life at 27 rue de Fleurus.

Although Stein and Toklas are both women, Stein insistently elevates herself to the level of the male artists and writers by insisting that Hadley and the other “wives” socialize only with Stein’s own “wife,” Toklas. While this may seem unjust, it is also arguably itself the product of the homophobic and sexist culture that forced Stein to fight bitterly to put herself on an equal footing with the straight men.

Chapter 8 Quotes

Outside on the rue de l’Odeon I was disgusted with myself for having complained about things. I was doing what I did of my own free will and I was doing it stupidly. I should have bought a large piece of bread and eaten it instead of skipping a meal. I could taste the brown lovely crust. But it is dry in your mouth without something to drink. You God damn complainer. You dirty phony saint and martyr, I said to myself. You quit journalism of your own accord. You have credit and Sylvia would have loaned you money. She has plenty of times. Sure. And then the next thing you would be compromising on something else. Hunger is healthy and the pictures do look better when you are hungry. Eating is wonderful too and do you know where you are going to eat right now?

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Sylvia Beach
Related Symbols: Alcohol
Page Number: 68
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has gone to see Sylvia Beach at her bookshop, Shakespeare and Company. Sylvia expresses concern about how thin Hemingway is and asks if he is eating; Hemingway lies to her and tells her he is about to go home for lunch. Afterward, Hemingway feels an intense sense of shame and regret about having “complained” and lied. He curses himself and thinks that he is a “dirty phony saint and martyr.” This passage is significant in a number of ways, in part because it contradicts Hemingway’s initial argument about hunger. Whereas at the beginning of the chapter Hemingway praised the advantages of hunger, framing it as something that improved his life, in this passage he feels guilty and ashamed about skipping meals.

Rather than simply being about hunger itself, this passage can be interpreted as an expression of Hemingway’s insecurities about being a writer. Although he has achieved some critical recognition, Hemingway’s status as a writer is still rather fragile. This leads him to doubt the choice he makes and question the legitimacy of his identity (hence calling himself a “dirty phony saint.”) Hemingway’s internal conflict and uncertainty is conveyed in the final part of the passage, where he acknowledges that there is value in both hunger and eating. Although this is perhaps true, it leaves Hemingway in a state of uncertainty and self-doubt that reflects a broader anxiety about his ability to achieve success as a writer.

Chapter 11 Quotes

Ezra Pound was always a good friend and he was always doing things for people. The studio where he lived with his wife Dorothy on the rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs was as poor as Gertrude Stein's studio was rich. It had very good light and was heated by a stove and it had paintings by Japanese artists that Ezra knew. They were all noblemen where they came from and wore their hair cut long. Their hair glistened black and swung forward when they bowed and I was very impressed by them but I did not like their paintings. I did not understand them but they did not have any mystery, and when I understood them they meant nothing to me. I was sorry about this but there was nothing I could do about it.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Gertude Stein, Ezra Pound, Dorothy Pound
Related Symbols: Hair
Page Number: 87
Explanation and Analysis:

This is the opening of Chapter 11, entitled “Ezra Pound and the Measuring Worm.” Ezra Pound is one of the few characters whom Hemingway represents in an almost entirely sympathetic, admiring way, and it is clear that Hemingway aspires to be as good a friend as Ezra (even as he acknowledges that he is not quite as generous and open-hearted). This passage is also a key example of Hemingway’s fixation with hair. The hair of the Japanese painters is alluring insofar as it is outside of the customs that Hemingway is used to, and is thus akin to a new and avant-garde form of art.

Hemingway’s resistance to the Japanese painters’ work, though, suggests that he is not as open-minded as Ezra. He claims that there is “nothing I could do about it,” but is this really true? Such a statement appears suspect, particularly in the environment in which Hemingway is living, in which artistic, social, political, and moral conventions were constantly being questioned and people were adamant about experimenting with new ways of being. Hemingway’s words indicate that, even though he is open to embracing unfamiliarity in certain contexts, he is still somewhat restricted and traditional in his worldview.

Chapter 12 Quotes

The way it ended with Gertrude Stein was strange enough. We had become very good friends and I had done a number of practical things for her such as getting her long book started as a serial with Ford and helping type the manuscript and reading her proof and we were getting to be better friends than I could ever wish to be. There is not much future in men being friends with great women although it can be pleasant enough before it gets better or worse, and there is usually even less future with truly ambitious women writers.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Gertude Stein, Ford Madox Ford
Page Number: 87
Explanation and Analysis:

This is the opening of Chapter 12, entitled “A Strange Enough Ending.” On one level the end of Stein and Hemingway’s friendship is surprising: up until this point in the book they have appeared to be very close, even if there are occasionally tensions between them (such as those arising from Stein’s comment about the “lost generation”). However, in this passage Hemingway presents the end of his and Stein’s relationship in a rather casual way and even implies that it was inevitable. Hemingway emphasizes that he does favors for Stein, not mentioning how or if she does the same for him. This creates an image of their friendship as rather one-sided, which contradicts the historical fact that Stein was a generous and supportive mentor to Hemingway.

Furthermore, Hemingway’s comment that his friendship with Stein was doomed from the beginning due to gender confirms his misogynist tendencies. While elsewhere in the book he criticizes Stein for separating the men and their wives at 27 rue de Fleurus, in this passage it is clear that Hemingway does the same in his personal life, albeit perhaps in a less formal way. Not only does Hemingway believe that friendships between men and women can’t last, he is also specifically suspicious of Stein for being a “truly ambitious woman writer.”

Chapter 16 Quotes

The winter of the avalanches was like a happy and innocent winter in childhood compared to that winter and the murderous summer that was to follow. Hadley and I had become too confident in each other and careless in our confidence and pride. In the mechanics of how this was penetrated I have never tried to apportion the blame, except my own part, and that was clearer all my life. The bulldozing of three people’s hearts to destroy one happiness and build another and the love and the good work and all that came out of it is not part of this book. I wrote it and left it out. It is a complicated, valuable and instructive story.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway, Pauline Hemingway (née Pfeiffer)
Related Symbols: The Seasons
Page Number: 123
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has described his and Hadley’s winter vacations to Austria. During one of their trips, there are a number of avalanches that kill some of their fellows skiers. However, despite the tragic deaths that take place that year, in this passage Hemingway argues that the next year is even worse, due to the initiation of Hemingway’s affair with Pauline Pfeiffer, which ultimately causes the dissolution of his and Hadley’s marriage. Throughout the book, Hemingway often compares himself and Hadley to children and their happiness to an innocent, youthful naïveté. This emphasizes the distance between Hemingway at the age he is during the book’s events and as the narrator looking back on this time many years later.

This passage is certainly melodramatic, and it is curious and somewhat morally dubious to imply that the winter of the avalanches—in which several people lost their lives—was “happy and innocent” in comparison to the winter in which Pauline enters Hemingway’s and Hadley’s lives. The final sentences of this passage emphasize Hemingway’s theory that omitting the most important and powerful parts of any story will strengthen it. Of course, the reader must then decide for themselves if this is really true. Is A Moveable Feast enriched by the fact that we never learn the concrete details of how Hemingway’s affair with Pauline begins or how he eventually decides to leave Hadley and marry Pauline instead?

Chapter 17 Quotes

Until then I had felt that what a great writer I was had been carefully kept secret between myself and my wife and only those people we knew well enough to speak to. I was glad Scott had come to the same happy conclusion as to this possible greatness, but I was also glad he was beginning to run out of the speech.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald
Page Number: 127
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has described meeting F. Scott Fitzgerald at a bar called the Dingo. He notes that Scott is a handsome man with a “pretty” face, and he explains that during their conversation, Scott begins to enthusiastically praise Hemingway’s writing. This embarrasses Hemingway, but in this passage he admits that he is also happy to hear that Scott recognizes his skill as a writer, which he previously considered to be a secret confined to those close to him. This statement is somewhat playful and humorous, but it is clear that Hemingway is also serious.

Much of A Moveable Feast examines the uncertainty that defines life as a young writer whose reputation has yet to be established. As much as Hemingway professes embarrassment about Scott’s praise, he is simultaneously reassured that the older, critically acclaimed writer publically acknowledges Hemingway’s own talent. It’s worth remembering the validation that Hemingway takes from Fitzgerald’s praise, as Hemingway proceeds to criticize and even belittle Fitzgerald throughout the remainder of the book. This passage marks the emotional complexity of Hemingway’s relationship to Fitzgerald—on the one hand, he admires Fitzgerald and requires his validation, and, on the other hand, he finds Fitzgerald to be silly and badly behaved.

In Europe then we thought of wine as something as healthy and normal as food and also as a great giver of happiness and well-being and delight. Drinking wine was not a snobbism nor a sign of sophistication nor a cult; it was as natural as eating and to me as necessary, and I would not have thought of eating a meal without drinking either wine or cider or beer.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker)
Related Symbols: Alcohol
Page Number: 142
Explanation and Analysis:

During Scott and Hemingway’s trip to Lyon, Scott is behaving in an erratic, melodramatic, and unreasonable way. However, Hemingway finds it difficult to be angry with him. He also admits that “it was hard to accept him as a drunkard,” because Scott drinks only small quantities of alcohol (although what he does drink has as an outsize effect on him). In this passage, Hemingway reflects on the drinking culture in Europe at the time, explaining that alcohol was seen as something “healthy and normal”—a natural accompaniment to any meal. To some extent, this passage contains a defensiveness that suggests that Hemingway (as retrospective narrator) is aware that the “healthy” drinking culture of the time was perhaps not as healthy as he then assumed.

Throughout the book, Hemingway depicts various characters drinking in a destructive and uncontrolled way, and there are moments (such as Stein’s comment about the “lost generation”) in which characters identify alcohol as a problem in their social world. Although Hemingway is famous for his alcohol abuse, in the book he distances himself from the more destructive drinking habits of others, particularly Scott and Zelda. Indeed, Scott serves as a foil (contrasting character) against which Hemingway appears to have a healthy, mature, and casual relationship with alcohol. Only through knowing biographical information about Hemingway’s life would the reader suspect that his relationship with alcohol was more troubled than it appears here.

He had many good, good friends, more than anyone I knew. But I enlisted as one more, whether I could be of any use to him or not. If he could write a book as fine as The Great Gatsby I was sure that he could write an even better one. I did not know Zelda yet, and so I did not know the terrible odds that were against him. But we were to find them out soon enough.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald
Related Symbols: The Seasons
Page Number: 151
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has returned from his (rather stressful) trip with Scott to Lyon, and has told Hadley all about it. A couple of days later, Scott brings a copy of The Great Gatsby for Hemingway to read, and Hemingway is impressed. In this passage, Hemingway argues that The Great Gatsby is an excellent book but that it proves Scott can write an even better book. This could be interpreted as something of a backhanded compliment, although the overall impression is that Hemingway genuinely admires Scott and wishes him well. Indeed, Hemingway demonizes Zelda for inhibiting Scott’s ability to succeed as a writer, placing far more blame on her for Scott’s problems than he does on Scott himself. Again, this is an indication of Hemingway’s rather sexist distrust of women.

Paris Sketches 4 Quotes

They knew nothing of our pleasures nor how much fun it was to be damned to ourselves and never would know nor could know. Our pleasures, which were those of being in love, were as simple and still as mysterious and complicated as a simple mathematical formula that can mean all happiness or can mean the end of the world. That is the sort of happiness you should not tinker with but nearly everyone you knew tried to adjust it.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker), Hadley Hemingway
Page Number: 184
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has explained that when he doesn’t have to wear his hair short for journalistic assignments, he enjoys growing it long. Sometimes during these periods of having long hair, he runs into other foreign correspondents who advise him not to let himself go. In this passage, Hemingway explains that these other people do not understand his and Hadley’s “pleasures,” and that the happiness of being in love is inherently irrational and inexplicable. Hemingway’s words emphasize that he and Hadley are living in an almost magical period of innocence, happiness, and luck. At the same time, the passage foreshadows the end of this happiness through both the specific event of Hemingway’s affair with Pauline and the general impact of growing older.

Paris Sketches 7 Quotes

Everyone had their private cafés there where they never invited anyone and would go to work, or to read or to receive their mail. They had other cafés where they would meet their mistresses and almost everyone had another café, a neutral café, where they might invite you to meet their mistress and there were regular, convenient, cheap dining places where everyone might eat on neutral ground.

Related Characters: Ernest Hemingway (speaker)
Related Symbols: Cafés
Page Number: 203-204
Explanation and Analysis:

Hemingway has explained that he often takes his young son Bumby to cafés where Bumby sits silently while Hemingway works. Bumby enjoys watching people while sitting in the café, and here Hemingway explains that everyone in Paris has different kinds of cafés, which they frequent for different reasons. Although it is clearly an overstatement that “everyone” has a café where they go to meet their mistress or to work, this statement emphasizes the sense of community that arises through café culture.

It also illustrates the way in which cafés are a kind of hybrid space between private and public life. Many of the activities people pursue in cafés are rather private, from opening mail to eating to meeting a mistress. However, cafés are obviously public places where there is always a chance of striking up a conversation with a stranger or running into someone you know. Indeed, Hemingway at times seems to struggle with finding a balance between working in cafés and avoiding unwanted interruptions. No café is ever truly “private,” even if one is less likely to see people one knows there. However, this risk of interruption seems to be made worth it by the advantages of working in such a bustling, stimulating environment, wherein one is surrounded by the inspiration of other people’s existence.