Jude the Obscure

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Jude Fawley Character Analysis

The novel’s protagonist, a poor orphan who is raised by his great-aunt after his parents divorced and died. Jude dreams of attending the university at Christminister, but he fails to be accepted because of his working class background. He is a skilled stonemason and a kindly soul who cannot hurt any living thing. Jude’s “fatal flaw” is his weakness regarding alcohol and women, and he allows his marriage to Arabella, even though it is unhappy, to distract himself from his dream. He shares a deep connection with his cousin Sue, but their relationship is doomed by their earlier marriages, society’s disapproval, and bad luck. Jude starts out pious and religious, but by the end of his life he has grown agnostic and bitter.

Jude Fawley Quotes in Jude the Obscure

The Jude the Obscure quotes below are all either spoken by Jude Fawley or refer to Jude Fawley. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
Marriage Theme Icon
). Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the Penguin Classics edition of Jude the Obscure published in 1998.
Part 1, Chapter 3 Quotes

As the halo had been to his eyes when gazing at it a quarter of an hour earlier, so was the spot mentally to him as he pursued his dark way.
“It is a city of light,” he said to himself.
“The tree of knowledge grows there,” he added a few steps further on.
“It is a place that teachers of men spring from, and go to.”
“It is what you may call a castle, manned by scholarship and religion.”
After this figure he was silent for a long while, till he added,
“It would just suit me.”

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker)
Related Symbols: Christminster
Page Number: 25-26
Explanation and Analysis:

Jude has been fantasizing about Christminster, asking other men about it and hoping to catch a glimpse of it from the roof of the Brown House on clear nights. Although the men have told Jude that at Christminster they read books in languages he will never understand, Jude has resolved to make it his life's goal to attend one of the colleges there. In this passage, Jude gazes at the distant "halo" of the city while describing it to himself in positive, even holy terms. Indeed, phrases such as "city of light" and "tree of knowledge" emphasize the way in which Christminster is holy to Jude, and that his dedication to it has become akin to religious faith. 

At the same time, the way Jude talks to himself about Christminster illustrates how isolated and uninformed he really is about his goal. The information he's received about the city has almost entirely come from other working-class men who have never been there, and this is part of the reason why Jude elevates it to mystical, unrealistic proportions. Jude's lack of realistic information also foreshadows the fact that he will ultimately fail to be admitted to the university. His final statement, "It would just suit me," is tragically erroneous. Although the ideal climate of "scholarship and religion" that Jude imagines would indeed suit him, the reality of Christminster is a place that is closed off to Jude and other men of his social class. 

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Part 1, Chapter 9 Quotes

And so, standing before the aforesaid officiator, the two swore that at every other time of their lives till death took them, they would assuredly believe, feel, and desire precisely as they had believed, felt, and desired during the few preceding weeks. What was as remarkable as the undertaking itself was the fact that nobody seemed at all surprised at what they swore.

Related Characters: Jude Fawley, Arabella Donn
Page Number: 57
Explanation and Analysis:

Jude has told Arabella that he thinks he should move away, and in response Arabella has lied, telling him that she is pregnant. Although Jude believes this will signal the end of his dreams of going to Christminster, he nonetheless agrees to marry her, as this is the honorable thing to do. In this passage, the narrator describes the marriage ceremony, describing it in detached language and framing it as a pact to "believe, feel, and desire precisely as they had believed, felt, and desired during the few preceding weeks." Although marriage was a completely normal and central institution during the Victorian era (and still is), the narrator here seeks to defamiliarize it, showing how the very concept is strange and unrealistic.

The narrator remarks that it was "remarkable" that "nobody seemed at all surprised" by the ceremony, suggesting the reader themselves should feel surprised or alarmed by what has taken place. Indeed, the narrator's words highlight the bizarre and arguably immoral nature of marriage by describing the vows as a promise to feel the same way forever. The way Jude and Isabella have felt in the short, tumultuous weeks they have spent together is now supposedly to automatically extend for a lifetime. This is alarming not only because of its unrealistic resistance to growth, maturity, and change, but also because the "few preceding weeks" have been hardly ideal in the first place. Although sensually attracted to each other, it is clear that Jude and Isabella are not particularly compatible, and the whole reason why the marriage is taking place is because Isabella lied to Jude––a rather worrying precedent for a lifetime of marriage. 

Part 1, Chapter 11 Quotes

Their lives were ruined, he thought; ruined by the fundamental error of their matrimonial union: that of having based a permanent contract on a temporary feeling which had no necessary connection with affinities that alone render a life-long comradeship tolerable.
“Going to ill-use me on principle, as your father ill-used your mother, and your father’s sister ill-used her husband?” she asked. “All you Fawleys be a queer lot as husbands and wives.”

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker), Arabella Donn (speaker)
Page Number: 69
Explanation and Analysis:

Jude and Arabella's marriage is a disaster; Jude has overheard friends of Arabella's saying that she tricked him into marriage, and the couple have been arguing ferociously. In this passage, Jude comes to the realization that "their lives were ruined... by the fundamental error of their matrimonial union." Jude's thoughts frame the problem not as unique to his and Arabella's unhappy situation, but rather as a fundamental issue with the institution of marriage in general. The feelings he and Arabella had for one another were temporary, and not conducive to "life-long comradeship." Note that this kind of question remains at the heart of debates over marriage in the present day, and thus this passage reveals just how forward-thinking Hardy was for his time.

Arabella's taunts to Jude are also significant for the way that they invoke the notion of fate. Arabella suggests that unhappy marriages are a kind of curse in Jude's family, repeating within each generation in a cycle of misery. Again, consider the way in which this kind of thinking preempts 20th-century sociological and psychoanalytic discourse about cycles of trauma and abuse. Although Arabella's words seem unfairly harsh, it is nonetheless reasonable to infer that Jude's distrust of the institution of marriage originates in witnessing his parents' unhappy marriage and eventual divorce. 

Part 2, Chapter 2 Quotes

Only a wall divided him from those happy young contemporaries of his with whom he shared a common mental life; men who had nothing to do from morning till night but to read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest. Only a wall – but what a wall!

Related Characters: Jude Fawley
Related Symbols: Christminster
Page Number: 86
Explanation and Analysis:

Jude has finally gone to Christminster, and on his first night there walks around in a rapture, feeling as if he is surrounded by the ghosts of dead writers. In the morning, however, reality begins to sink in. Jude has noticed that the buildings are decayed, and briefly considers the notion that being a stoneworker is perhaps as valuable as being a scholar. However, this thought does not last long, and Jude ponders the "wall" that separates him and the students at Christminster. These thoughts reveal Jude's insight as well as his naïveté. Of course, much more than a wall separates Jude from the Christminster students––at the same time, by exclaiming "what a wall!", Jude shows understanding of how the wall symbolizes the exclusivity and elitism of the university. 

Indeed, this passage raises complex questions about the relationship between material existence and the life of the mind. As Jude rightly infers, even an elite university like Christminster relies on the work of stonemasons and other manual laborers in order to function. Ironically, it is these workers who construct the walls that then symbolize their exclusion from the institution within them. 

Part 3, Chapter 1 Quotes

“Cathedral? Yes. Though I think I’d rather sit in the railway station,” she answered, a remnant of vexation still in her voice. “That’s the centre of the town life now: the Cathedral has had its day!”
“How modern you are!”
“So would you be if you had lived so much in the middle ages as I have done these last few years! The Cathedral was a very good place four or five centuries ago; but it is played out now… I am not modern, either. I am more ancient than mediaevalism, if you only knew.”

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker), Sue Bridehead (speaker)
Page Number: 135
Explanation and Analysis:

Jude and Sue have met in Melchester, and Jude has learned of Sue's engagement to Phillotson. Although he is devastated, Jude attempts to appear happy for Sue, and suggests that they visit the cathedral together. In this passage, Sue admits that she'd rather "sit in the railway station," as "that's the centre of the town life now." Despite this straightforwardly modern statement, when Jude remarks that Sue is "modern," she corrects him, saying she is "more ancient than mediaevalism." Why does Sue deny that she is modern, after associating herself with the train station, one of the key symbols of modernity? 

Part of the reason is that Sue's wild, free spirit is associated with paganism. Her fierce character is closer to the rugged natural world than to the industrial, urban landscapes we associate with modernity. In addition, Sue's dismissal of modernity is also perhaps the result of the pessimism that defines the novel. Although Jude the Obscure is highly critical of Victorian culture and norms, it resists romanticizing the future as a time in which the problems of the Victorian era will be resolved. Indeed, the suicide of Little Father Time is a good indicator of the extent to which the novel presents a pessimistic view of the future. 

Part 3, Chapter 4 Quotes

You prove it in your own person. You are one of the very men Christminster was intended for when the colleges were founded; a man with a passion for learning, but no money, or opportunities, or friends. But you were elbowed off the pavement by the millionaires’ sons.

Related Characters: Sue Bridehead (speaker), Jude Fawley
Related Symbols: Christminster
Page Number: 151
Explanation and Analysis:

Sue is staying at Jude's house, although he has had to hide her from his landlady in order to avoid a scandal. The pair have discussed their education, and Jude has realized that Sue is more widely-read than he is. Sue has described to Jude how she lived platonically with a Christminster undergraduate who was in love with her; however, she did not love him, and he died of what Sue suspects was a broken heart. In this passage, Sue tells Jude that she believes he (Jude) is "one of the very men Christminster was intended for when the colleges were founded," but that the original ideal of accessible education has been corrupted by exclusivity and elitism.

Once again, Sue shows a level of insight and maturity that makes Jude look naïve in comparison. She understands the paradox at the heart of Christminster and other elite educational institutions: although they have the potential to promote progressive values and social mobility, they are taken over by "the millionaires' sons" and thus remain a privilege only afforded to the wealthy. Note the similarity of Sue's critique to Christminster to critiques of the way Christianity has changed since its earliest forms in the centuries after Christ's death. It is certainly possible to draw a parallel between the way that both religious and educational institutions have egalitarian ideals at their core, but are corrupted by elitism, exclusion, and the desire for power.

Part 4, Chapter 2 Quotes

Jude, before I married him I had never thought out fully what marriage meant, even though I knew… I am certain one ought to be allowed to undo what one has done so ignorantly. I daresay it happens to lots of women; only they submit, and I kick… When people of a later age look back upon the barbarous customs and superstitions of the times that we have the unhappiness to live in, what will they say!

Related Characters: Sue Bridehead (speaker), Jude Fawley, Richard Phillotson
Page Number: 215
Explanation and Analysis:

Jude and Sue's aunt has died, and they have met in Marygreen for the funeral. Sue has confessed that she likes Phillotson as a friend but finds him repulsive as a husband. She tells Jude that she wishes it were possible "to undo what one has done so ignorantly," and that she believes people in the future will look back on marriage as a "barbarous custom." Although Sue has previously claimed to be more pagan than modern, in this passage she strongly identifies herself with a more enlightened, fair, and rational future that she imagines will follow the era in which she lives. Note the similarity between Sue's objection to marriage and that expressed by Jude; both point to the absurdity of committing forever to feelings that can change so quickly.

Part 5, Chapter 3 Quotes

Jude, do you think that when you must have me with you by law, we shall be so happy as we are now? The men and women of our family are very generous when everything depends upon their good-will, but they always kick against compulsion. Don’t you dread the attitude that insensibly arises out of legal obligation? Don’t you think it is destructive to a passion whose essence is its gratuitousness?

Related Characters: Sue Bridehead (speaker), Jude Fawley
Page Number: 272
Explanation and Analysis:

Sue has spoken with Arabella, who advised her to marry Jude. However, this has only further convinced Sue that marriage is a "vulgar institution." In response, Jude has remarked that Sue seems more like someone from an ancient civilization than the Christian era in which she lives. Yet Sue continues to confess her doubts about marriage, asking Jude if he thinks he would continue to love her if they got married, and reminding him that there is a history of resistance to "compulsion" within their family. Once again, Sue raises the notion that the legalistic nature of marriage can destroy "passion," happiness, and love. Although she conveys a more generous view of hers and Jude's family than Arabella, she clearly feels concerned about the familial legacy of divorce and how it might influence her own fate.

What does it matter, when you come to think of it, whether a child is yours by blood or not? All the little ones of our time are collectively the children of us adults of the time, and entitled to our general care. That excessive regard of parents for their own children, and their dislike of other people’s, is, like class-feeling, patriotism, save-your-own-soul-ism and other virtues, a mean exclusiveness at bottom.

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker)
Related Symbols: Little Father Time
Page Number: 274
Explanation and Analysis:

Jude and Sue have been living happily together, having put aside their concerns about marriage. Meanwhile, Arabella has written a letter telling Jude that she has given birth to his son in Australia, and asks if Jude and Sue can take the boy in. Although Jude is not certain that the child is his, in this passage he asserts that it doesn't matter; adults have a responsibility for all children "of the time," and to artificially prefer one's own children to others is immoral in the same way as "class-feeling, patriotism, [and] save-your-own-soul-ism." Having presented radical views on love and marriage, the novel now undermines traditional notions of the family.

Jude's thoughts equate focusing on the blood relation between parents and children as exclusionary and unjust. Indeed, his statement about caring for all children "of the time" suggests a communalist ideology that conflicted with the Victorian Christian focus on the patriarchal, nuclear family unit. 

Part 5, Chapter 8 Quotes

“She’d have come round in time. We all do! Custom does it! it’s all the same in the end! However, I think she’s quite fond of her man still – whatever he med be of her. You were too quick about her. I shouldn’t have let her go! I should have kept her chained on – her spirit for kicking would have been broke soon enough! There’s nothing like bondage and a stone-deaf task-master for taming us women. Besides, you’ve got the laws on your side. Moses knew… ‘Then shall the man be guiltless; but the woman shall bear her iniquity.’ Damn rough on us women; but we must grin and put up wi’ it – Haw haw! – Well; she’s got her deserts now.”
“Yes,” said Phillotson, with biting sadness. “Cruelty is the law pervading all nature and society; and we can’t get out of it if we would!”

Related Characters: Arabella Donn (speaker), Richard Phillotson (speaker), Jude Fawley
Page Number: 318
Explanation and Analysis:

Arabella has run into Phillotson on the road and introduced herself to him. Phillotson reveals that he was disgraced as a result of divorcing Sue, and Arabella tells him that Sue is now unhappy and that Phillotson should have stayed with her. Arabella's words present a bleak, depressing view of gender, marriage, and indeed human existence in general. She compares women to horses that need to be tamed, and says that Sue has got what she deserved. Phillotson is not as harsh, but seems lost and defeated by the tragic circumstances of his life, exclaiming that "cruelty is the law pervading all of nature and society."

In many ways, this statement can be interpreted as the main message of the novel. Regardless of the choices one makes––whether one chooses to pursue individual happiness and freedom or succumbs to societal expectations––life is ruthless and most people are miserable. Arabella's claim that "it's all the same in the end" resonates with this bleak view of humanity. No matter how hard people try to find happiness, they are inevitably broken down by the cruelty of life. 

Part 6, Chapter 2 Quotes

“No,” said Jude. “It was in his nature to do it. The doctor says that there are such boys springing up amongst us – boys of a sort unknown in the last generation – the outcome of new views of life. They seem to see all its terrors before they are old enough to have staying power to resist them. He says it is the beginning of the coming universal wish not to live.”

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker), Little Father Time
Related Symbols: Little Father Time
Page Number: 337
Explanation and Analysis:

The day after Sue and Little Father Time's conversation about life, Sue goes to bring the children breakfast only to discover all three children hanged––Little Father Time has murdered the others before killing himself. Though all three are dead, Jude summons a doctor anyway, who confirms that there is no hope for them and adds that Little Father Time was in some sense predestined to commit suicide. The doctor even suggests that Little Father Time's actions were representative of "the coming universal wish not to live." This remarkable statement is surprising given the shocking nature of the murder-suicide. Little Father Time's actions completely contradict the way children are expected to behave, and thus the doctor's words indicate the boy's total dissimilarity from traditional ideas of childhood innocence.

Indeed, as Jude stresses in this passage, Little Father Time seems to have bypassed this state of innocence altogether, arriving at a sorrowful, pessimistic view of the world before he is old enough to be able to properly cope with suffering. The doctor's suggestions that Little Father Time is representative of a more general "wish not to live" emphasizes Little Father Time's association with a bleak, cruel future. At the same time, this death-drive itself is a cancellation of futurity, suggesting that even as Little Father Time symbolizes the coming of modernity, this future world is just darkness, nihilism, and death.

The boy’s face expressed the whole tale of their situation. On that little shape had converged all the inauspiciousness and shadow which had darkened the first union of Jude, and all the accidents, mistakes, fears, errors of the last. He was their nodal point, their focus, their expression in a single term. For the rashness of those parents he had groaned, for their ill-assortment he had quaked, and for the misfortunes of these he had died.

Related Characters: Jude Fawley, Little Father Time
Related Symbols: Little Father Time
Page Number: 337
Explanation and Analysis:

Little Father Time has hanged his siblings and then himself in a horrifying murder-suicide. A doctor has told Jude and Sue that Little Father Time's nihilistic view of the world is symbolic of a new desire for death among the younger generation. Jude and Sue go to see the children's bodies, and feel that Little Father Time's face "expressed the whole tale of their situation." This passage utilizes the language typically used to describe parental love for children in positive terms, while twisting it in a decidedly sinister way, suggesting that Little Father Time has paid for his parents' "accidents, mistakes, fears, [and] errors." Once again, Little Father Time is represented less as an individual character than a symbol for some of the novel's key themes—a kind of Christ figure of modernity, who dies without reason or hope because of the sins of the world.

We said – do you remember? – that we would make a virtue of joy. I said it was Nature’s intention. Nature’s law and raison d’etre that we should be joyful in what instincts she afforded us – instincts which civilization had taken upon itself to thwart. What dreadful things I said! And now Fate has given us this stab in the back for being such fools as to take Nature at her word!

Related Characters: Sue Bridehead (speaker), Jude Fawley
Related Symbols: Little Father Time
Page Number: 339
Explanation and Analysis:

Following Little Father Time's murder-suicide, Jude and Sue have gone to view the children's bodies. They hear an organ playing a hymn, and Sue comments that it feels as though a force is punishing them for the way they have behaved. In this passage, Sue continues to fixate on the idea that "Fate has given us this stab in the back for being such fools." This is a crucial turning point in Sue's attitude toward faith, freedom, and morality. Whereas before the children's deaths Sue staunchly associated herself with a kind of "ancient," pagan atheism, the trajectory of her life has caused her to experience a crisis in which she believes she is being punished by God. 

This passage displays not only Sue's sudden turn to religiosity but also her newfound sense of pessimism. In previous years, Sue justified her nonconformist lifestyle by claiming that she was living according to natural instincts. Now, however, she suddenly sees nature as deceitful and cruel, and exclaims in shame about the "dreadful things" she used to think.

Part 6, Chapter 3 Quotes

“I see marriage differently now!... My babies have been taken from me to show me this! Arabella’s child killing mine was a judgment; the right slaying the wrong. What, what shall I do! I am such a vile creature – too worthless to mix with ordinary human beings.”
…He returned vehemently… “You make me hate Christianity, or mysticism, or Sacerdotalism, or whatever it may be called, if it’s that which has caused this deterioration in you. That a woman-poet, a woman-seer, a woman whose soul shone like a diamond – whom all the wise of the world would have been proud of, if they could have known you – should degrade herself like this! I am glad I had nothing to do with Divinity – damn glad – if it’s going to ruin you in this way!”

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker), Sue Bridehead (speaker), Arabella Donn, Little Father Time
Related Symbols: Little Father Time
Page Number: 350
Explanation and Analysis:

Following the children's deaths, Sue and Jude and have moved to Beersheba, where they live in a state of depression and despair. Sue has declared that they are being punished by God, and thus have "no choice" but to "conform." In this passage, Sue explains her dramatic change of heart, telling Jude that she interprets Little Father Time killing her children as "the right slaying the wrong." Jude responds by telling Sue that she makes him "hate Christianity, or mysticism, or Sacerdotalism," and feel glad that he's not religious. Jude's reply is interesting, as it highlights the fact that he has now taken on Sue's previous beliefs wholeheartedly, and is indeed defending them from Sue herself. Jude and Sue have switched places, and Jude is now the one speaking with Hardy's skeptical and pessimistic but defiant voice.

Perhaps as we couldn’t conscientiously marry at first in the old-fashioned way, we ought to have parted. Perhaps the world is not illuminated enough for such experiments as ours! Who were we, to think we could act as pioneers!

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker)
Page Number: 352
Explanation and Analysis:

Sue has grown increasingly religious, obsessed with the idea that the children's deaths were God's punishment for the fact that she and Jude lived together despite being unmarried. Jude is horrified by Sue's sudden religiosity, though in this passage he too concedes that perhaps they shouldn't have been together considering they "couldn't conscientiously marry at first in the old-fashioned way." Note the stark difference in the way Jude and Sue interpret the "mistake" of their relationship: whereas now Sue believes that marriage is important because it is part of the natural law of God, Jude believes that it is simply too difficult to "act as pioneers" and live against the rules and conventions of society. Despite everything, Jude infers that their way of life was an "illuminated... experiment" in a backwards world.

Part 6, Chapter 8 Quotes

We’ve both re-married out of our senses. I was made drunk to do it. You were the same. I was gin-drunk; you were creed-drunk. Either form of intoxication takes away the nobler vision. Let us then shake off our mistakes, and run away together!

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker), Sue Bridehead
Page Number: 390
Explanation and Analysis:

Both Jude and Sue have remarried their original partners, Arabella and Phillotson, although they secretly remain in love with one another. Jude has developed a respiratory illness and, knowing he will soon die, travels to Marygreen to see Sue. They meet in the church and argue at first, before kissing passionately. In this passage, Jude tells Arabella that they were both "drunk" when they got remarried; Sue was drunk on religion, and Jude on gin. He suggests that he and Sue run away together, showing that despite everything that has happened, Jude has still not relinquished his desire to be with Sue and live against societal customs. 

Indeed, this passage shows that despite his nihilistic cynicism, Jude simultaneously remains a romantic idealist. His dream of running away with Sue is hardly realistic, especially considering Jude is extremely sick and was barely able to make the journey to Marygreen. Furthermore, Jude seems to believe that Sue's conversion to a dogmatic, legalistic strain of Christianity is a temporary state of being, like getting drunk. He refuses to accept that Sue will never go back to the version of herself Jude used to know. 

Part 6, Chapter 10 Quotes

As for Sue and me when we were at our best, long ago – when our minds were clear, and our love of truth fearless – the time was not ripe for us! Our ideas were fifty years too soon to be any good to us. And so the resistance they met with brought reaction in her, and recklessness and ruin on me!

Related Characters: Jude Fawley (speaker), Sue Bridehead
Page Number: 400
Explanation and Analysis:

Time has passed, and Jude's illness has abated, before returning. Arabella has told Jude that she will allow Sue to come and see him, but Jude responds that he doesn't wish to see her. Jude then reminisces about his time with Sue, reflecting that "our minds were clear, and our love of truth fearless," but that society was not ready to handle such courage and independence. Although undeniably tragic, Jude's thoughts in this passage also contain a note of optimism. His assertion that he and Sue were "fifty years too soon" suggests that more honest and free ways of living may be possible in the near future. Unlike Sue, he also refuses to blame himself for the events that befell him, but understands that they were the result of terrible luck and a harsh, oppressive society. 

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Jude Fawley Character Timeline in Jude the Obscure

The timeline below shows where the character Jude Fawley appears in Jude the Obscure. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Part 1, Chapter 1
Fate Theme Icon
...piano that he is unsure of how to move or store. An eleven-year-old boy named Jude Fawley, who is helping Phillotson pack, suggests that his aunt could store the piano in... (full context)
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Jude is sad that Phillotson is leaving, as he has been Jude’s best and closest teacher.... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 2
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Jude returns home. He lives with his great-aunt, Drusilla Fawley, who is a baker, as both... (full context)
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Jude feels uncomfortable at all the attention and goes off to the bakehouse to eat breakfast.... (full context)
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Farmer Troutham, the owner of the cornfield, catches Jude “idling” and beats him with his own clacker. He fires Jude and sends him home,... (full context)
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Jude goes back to his aunt, who is disappointed that he has been fired. She tells... (full context)
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Later that day Jude goes into town and asks a man where Christminster is. The man points north-eastward, and... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 3
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Jude walks a few miles north and comes to an old barn called the Brown House.... (full context)
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Dusk falls and Jude prays to see Christminster, and eventually he sees distant lights and spires, “either directly seen... (full context)
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One day Jude returns to the Brown House at dusk and waits for night to fall, watching for... (full context)
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The men tell Jude that the people of Christminster read books in languages that he will never understand, and... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 4
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On his way home Jude runs into Physician Vilbert, an itinerant quack-doctor who travels constantly and sells false remedies to... (full context)
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Two weeks later Physician Vilbert returns and Jude gives him the orders for medicines he has taken. Vilbert is pleased, but he says... (full context)
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After a few weeks Phillotson sends Jude two grammar books. Jude begins to read them excitedly, but then he is overwhelmed by... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 5
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In the following years Jude starts helping his great-aunt at the bakery, and he delivers her bread via horse-drawn cart... (full context)
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One day the sixteen-year-old Jude is passing by the Brown House in his cart. He notices the beautiful sunset and... (full context)
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Jude thinks more practically about moving to Christminster, and he decides to take up stoneworking as... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 6
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One weekend the nineteen-year-old Jude is walking to Marygreen from Alfredston. He feels optimistic about reaching Christminster soon, and he... (full context)
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Jude is suddenly struck on the ear by a piece of pig’s flesh (genitalia, though the... (full context)
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...of the pig farmer, and she boldly separates herself from the group to talk to Jude. She produces dimples in her cheeks at will, and Jude is struck by her prettiness,... (full context)
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Jude leaves in a daze, suddenly feeling like his studies and work are not so important.... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 7
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The next day Jude considers studying his Greek and ignoring Arabella’s invitation, but then he decides it would be... (full context)
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Arabella and Jude see a fire in the distance and they run off to investigate it. It gets... (full context)
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When they enter Arabella’s house Jude is surprised that her family thinks of him as a serious suitor. Jude returns to... (full context)
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...recounting all the details of the previous night and declaring that she wants to marry Jude. Her two friends, Sarah and Anny, propose that Arabella try a special trick to “catch”... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 8
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Jude and Arabella’s romance progresses, and one weekend they chase a lost pig through the village... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 9
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...meets with the quack-doctor Vilbert, who tells her something that cheers her up. That evening Jude tells Arabella that he should probably move away, but Arabella cries and tells him (in... (full context)
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That night Jude starts to realize that Arabella will not make a good wife, and the townspeople gossip... (full context)
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...bigger), and also that she used to be a barmaid in Aldbrickham, a nearby town. Jude realizes that Arabella has a kind of “artificiality in [her] very blood.” (full context)
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...reveals that she isn’t actually pregnant, and Anny congratulates her on “shamming it.” One night Jude asks Arabella about the pregnancy, and she says she “made a mistake.” Jude is shocked,... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 10
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Autumn comes and Jude and Arabella wait for the pig-killer Challow to come slaughter their pig. Challow never shows... (full context)
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One day Jude is walking off to Alfredston when he hears some of Arabella’s friends talking about how... (full context)
Part 1, Chapter 11
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The next morning the couple argues again, and Arabella throws Jude’s books onto the floor. Jude gets angry and pulls her away. Jude suddenly realizes that... (full context)
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Jude goes to see his great-aunt and asks her about his parents and his aunt and... (full context)
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On his way back to his cottage Jude walks out onto a frozen pond and tries to break the ice (and kill himself)... (full context)
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Arabella doesn’t return for a few days, and then Jude gets a letter from her saying that her parents are moving to Australia, and she... (full context)
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Now that he is alone, Jude returns to his dreams of Christminster. He passes by a milestone where his sixteen-year-old self... (full context)
Part 2, Chapter 1
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Three years after his marriage, Jude finally goes to Christminster. He has grown skilled at his craft of stoneworking, and marches... (full context)
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Jude enters the town and takes lodgings in an area called Beersheba. He goes out at... (full context)
Part 2, Chapter 2
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That day Jude goes out into the streets again to find Christminster looking much less romantic – “What... (full context)
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Jude is discouraged and asks his aunt to send the portrait of Sue. Drusilla does so,... (full context)
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Jude finally gets a job offer from a stonemason and he accepts, deciding that his first... (full context)
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Afterwards Jude often follows Sue or seeks out her presence, but she doesn’t notice that he is... (full context)
Part 2, Chapter 3
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Jude learns that Sue goes to the church services of the Cardinal College, and he goes... (full context)
Part 2, Chapter 4
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Jude works a while refinishing old buildings and lettering tombstones. One day he is on a... (full context)
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One afternoon Sue comes to the stonemason’s yard while Jude is away, and she asks for Jude Fawley. One of Jude's coworkers mentions the visit,... (full context)
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Jude asks Sue if she knows Mr. Phillotson (whom he assumes is a parson), but she... (full context)
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They find Phillotson, and his “homely complexion” destroys the idealized vision Jude had had of him. Phillotson doesn’t remember Jude, but he vaguely remembers sending him the... (full context)
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As they walk home Jude is struck by “what a revelation of woman” Sue is, and he realizes he is... (full context)
Part 2, Chapter 5
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...wonders why Jerusalem should be so honored over Athens, Rome, or Alexandria. Suddenly she notices Jude, also watching the model and enthralled by it. He compliments the model but then tries... (full context)
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On Friday Jude goes out to meet Sue and Phillotson, but as he (unseen) watches them approaching he... (full context)
Part 2, Chapter 6
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Jude’s great-aunt grows ill and Jude returns to Marygreen to visit her. Drusilla is angry that... (full context)
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Jude is struck by their words and he resolves to renew his attempts to enter a... (full context)
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Jude finally receives a response from a professor at Biblioll College. The professor recommends that Jude... (full context)
Part 2, Chapter 7
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The next day Jude feels like a fool. He thinks that Sue is the only soul he truly has... (full context)
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Uncle Joe, one of Jude’s companions, challenges Jude to recite the Nicene Creed in Latin to prove his academic prowess.... (full context)
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Jude wakes up at dawn and is ashamed that Sue has seen him in this state,... (full context)
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Jude wakes up feeling that he is a failure “both in ambition and in love.” Jude... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 1
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Jude decides to follow the clergyman’s advice and pursue the church separate from a scholarly life.... (full context)
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Jude postpones his move for a few weeks, waiting for the days to grow longer after... (full context)
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Jude finds Sue and they greet each other. She looks more prim and disciplined than before,... (full context)
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Jude is upset but he tries to congratulate Sue. She recognizes his distress and tries to... (full context)
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Jude begins finding piecemeal work and then is employed to work at repairing the Cathedral, whose... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 2
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One day both Jude and Sue have a day off, and they decide to take a trip together. Jude... (full context)
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...Sue comments that she enjoys the shepherd’s simple, naturalistic life, and especially his great freedom. Jude dismisses this, calling Sue a “product of civilization” and an “urban miss.” (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 3
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Meanwhile Sue arrives at Jude’s lodgings, freezing and soaked through from crossing the river. Jude is reading when she tosses... (full context)
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Jude feels that he and Sue are “counterparts,” as she came to him in her time... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 4
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Jude’s landlady comes upstairs to ask about dinner, and Jude hides Sue from her. He offers... (full context)
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Sue tells Jude that she used to live platonically with an undergraduate, who lent her books. She says... (full context)
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Afterwards Sue had lost her money and then moved to Christminster to the design shop. Jude calls her innocent and unconventional, and Sue declares that she is still a virgin. Jude... (full context)
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Jude is stung by Sue’s criticism of his ideal, but Sue says that he is the... (full context)
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Jude calls Sue “Voltairean” (thinking like the philosopher Voltaire), and is struck by her unorthodox ideas.... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 5
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Jude returns to his room to find Sue dressed and ready to leave. She is suddenly... (full context)
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Jude goes home, depressed, but the next morning he gets a letter from Sue saying that... (full context)
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Jude discusses his forbidden love for Sue, and the narrator comments that he ought to kiss... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 6
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...of her scandalous departure. Phillotson is shocked, and he goes into the cathedral. He notices Jude is there too, working, and Phillotson approaches him. (full context)
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Phillotson asks Jude about Sue, and Jude assures him that nothing has happened between them, though he hints... (full context)
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Sue acts coldly towards Jude, and he remarks that she is nicer in her letters than in person. Jude then... (full context)
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Jude and Sue walk around town, and Jude says that Arabella is the only obstacle between... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 7
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Two days later Sue sends Jude a letter saying that she is marrying Phillotson in a few weeks. She signs the... (full context)
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Jude agrees to give Sue away, and offers that she and Phillotson stay at his lodgings... (full context)
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Jude takes Sue to visit the church where she is to marry Phillotson, and she walks... (full context)
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Jude is struck again by the cruelty of having him give Sue away to Phillotson, and... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 8
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Jude grows depressed after the wedding, and finds that he can’t stand staying in Melchester any... (full context)
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The next day Jude goes to Christminster and is haunted by Sue’s “phantom” presence there, which affects him much... (full context)
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Jude then notices that Arabella is one of the barmaids, and he gets her attention. Arabella... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 9
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The next morning Arabella tells Jude that she had married a hotel manager in Australia, and she asks Jude to keep... (full context)
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Jude returns to the station and encounters Sue, who is distraught. She thought that Jude had... (full context)
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Sue and Jude ride the train to Alfredston together, and Jude asks her about her marriage to Phillotson.... (full context)
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Jude takes Sue to the train station so she can return to Melchester. He asks if... (full context)
Part 3, Chapter 10
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Jude returns to Melchester and throws himself into his religious studies. He starts to worry that... (full context)
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Jude travels to Kennetbridge and visits the composer, but soon discovers that the man wrote music... (full context)
Part 4, Chapter 1
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...describes the town of Shaston, where Sue now lives, as a place of worldly pleasures. Jude arrives there and comes to the schoolroom where Sue teaches, but he finds it empty.... (full context)
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...both are struck by the similarity of their natures. They spontaneously hold hands several times. Jude accuses Sue of being a flirt sometimes and she is offended by this, but she... (full context)
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Sue tells Jude to come back the following week and she sends him away. Jude wanders about town,... (full context)
Part 4, Chapter 2
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The next morning Sue sends Jude a letter retracting her invitation for the following week, saying they were “too free” before.... (full context)
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Sue arrives in Marygreen for the funeral a few days later. After the ceremony Jude and Sue discuss their tragic family and their unhappy marriages. Sue muses on how divorce... (full context)
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Jude apologizes to Sue for not warning her about marrying Phillotson. Jude and Sue vaguely discuss... (full context)
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Jude pushes his face against Sue’s cheek and asks if she would have married him if... (full context)
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Jude talks to her, and Sue admits that she was already sleepless worrying about her marital... (full context)
Part 4, Chapter 3
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The next day Jude and Sue part ways in the road, go a few yards, and then run back... (full context)
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Jude gathers up his theological books and pamphlets and burns them behind his aunt’s house. Jude... (full context)
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Phillotson meets Sue at the station, and Sue admits to him that she held Jude’s hand, but says nothing about the kiss. Phillotson seems unperturbed. That night Phillotson wakes up... (full context)
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...if Sue plans to live alone, and she admits that she wants to live with Jude. Phillotson accuses her of being in love with Jude, but Sue denies it. The couple... (full context)
Part 4, Chapter 4
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...his marital troubles and the fact that his wife is repulsed by him. He describes Jude, saying that Jude and Sue “seem to be one person split in two.” Phillotson says... (full context)
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...most moral thing to do, though it goes against law and tradition. Phillotson again describes Jude and Sue’s relationship, comparing them to characters in a poem by Shelley (lovers who are... (full context)
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...she truly separate herself from him and keep all her actions to herself. She mentions Jude’s name and Phillotson says he doesn’t want to know anything more about Jude. Sue feels... (full context)
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...comes to visit Phillotson, and Phillotson admits that he has let Sue leave him for Jude. Phillotson says that he thought he was an “old-fashioned man” regarding marriage, but in such... (full context)
Part 4, Chapter 5
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Jude meets Sue at the train station in Melchester, and he tells her that they are... (full context)
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As they approach Aldbrickham Jude reveals that he has booked one room for them at the Temperance Hotel, and Sue... (full context)
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Jude shows Sue a note he received from Phillotson, asking that Jude be kind to Sue... (full context)
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Sue then asks Jude if they can stay at a different hotel, and Jude accuses her of being a... (full context)
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They reach Aldbrickham and decide to stay at a different hotel. It is the one Jude stayed at with Arabella, though he doesn’t notice this. When Jude is out of the... (full context)
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...she jumped out the window rather than sleep with Phillotson. Sue is clearly jealous, so Jude tells her that Arabella has taken a second husband. He vows to never inform against... (full context)
Part 4, Chapter 6
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...he will forgive everything if she does. Sue again refuses, and she tells Phillotson that Jude is seeking a divorce from his first wife. They part ways and Phillotson tortures himself... (full context)
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...as well endure the rest of his life alone and truly free Sue to marry Jude. Gillingham disagrees with Phillotson’s motives, but thinks it is a good plan. (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 1
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A few months later Jude and Sue are still living in separate but adjacent rooms in Aldbrickham. They get a... (full context)
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Jude and Sue walk about together for a while, and then Jude asks Sue if she... (full context)
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Jude responds that this might do for the “phantasmal, bodiless” Sue, but ordinary folk like him... (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 2
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One night Jude returns home and Sue tells him a woman came to ask for him. Sue thinks... (full context)
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Sue begs Jude not to go, but Jude feels his usual sympathy for Arabella. They argue for a... (full context)
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...Arabella so badly, and she wants to go find her at her inn. Sue kisses Jude passionately and then remarks that “the little bird is caught at last.” Sue goes off... (full context)
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Before leaving, Arabella advises Sue to marry Jude, listing all the practical ways that marriage will help her properly ensnare him. Sue gets... (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 3
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Sue returns to Jude and tells him that her conversation with Arabella has further convinced her what a “vulgar... (full context)
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One day Jude gets a letter from Arabella, whose last name is now Cartlett. In the letter Arabella... (full context)
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Sue is upset by the plight of the unwanted child, and she asks Jude if they can take him in. Jude agrees, saying it doesn’t matter whether the child... (full context)
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...is there to meet him at the train station. Arabella had sent him on to Jude immediately without a kind word at all. The boy looks constantly depressed and weighed down... (full context)
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The child reaches the house just as Jude and Sue are going to bed, and they are surprised to see him. They apologize... (full context)
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...affection for each other. After the boy goes to bed Sue declares that she and Jude must be strong for his sake, and go get legally married. (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 4
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...name, though his nickname is “Little Father Time” because he seems so aged and world-weary. Jude is disturbed by this, but he decides to christen the boy “Jude” when he and... (full context)
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Jude asks the Widow Edlin to attend the “ceremony” the next day, and she comes and... (full context)
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...if the Fawleys were like the cursed house of Atreus in Greek mythology. She and Jude are both unhappy about the marriage, but they go on to the office. It is... (full context)
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...inconsistency, and they go to the parish church where a wedding is already taking place. Jude and Sue are just as upset by this wedding, as watching the ignorant, innocent bride... (full context)
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Sue and Jude return home, having failed to actually get married. The Widow Edlin comments on what a... (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 5
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For a while Jude and Sue are happy together, though Little Father Time remains gloomy and world-weary. One day... (full context)
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Arabella scornfully says that Little Father Time can’t be Sue’s child, as Sue and Jude haven’t been married long enough. Cartlett still has no idea that Arabella has a child... (full context)
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...so enamoured of each other. Cartlett grows bored, so Arabella leaves him and keeps following Jude. She runs into her old friend Anny and then Physician Vilbert, and they all discuss... (full context)
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Arabella watches Sue and Jude observing a model of Christminster that they themselves built, and Arabella mocks Jude’s love for... (full context)
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Meanwhile Jude and Sue keep admiring things at the agricultural show and commenting on their own happiness.... (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 6
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Jude and Sue’s private life becomes more of a subject for gossip, and soon everyone in... (full context)
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One day Jude is hired to reletter the Ten Commandments at a nearby church, and Sue comes along... (full context)
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Later Jude is nudged out of a workers’ union, and the couple decides to move away. They... (full context)
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Jude and Sue leave the house just as the auctioneer is selling two pigeons Sue kept... (full context)
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Afterwards Sue feels guilty and confesses to Jude, and she laments aloud that the law of Nature is “mutual butchery.” Little Father Time... (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 7
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After leaving Aldbrickham Jude and Sue lead an almost nomadic lifestyle, moving from town to town and working. Almost... (full context)
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...Arabella approaches them, saying that she is mourning her husband Cartlett. Arabella questions Sue about Jude, and Sue reveals that they are still living together. They have two children and Sue... (full context)
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Sue says that Jude became ill doing stonework, so now he makes cakes in the shape of colleges –... (full context)
Part 5, Chapter 8
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...with Sue has made her very jealous. After passing the house where she lived with Jude, Arabella quickly convinces herself to give up religion and try to win Jude back. She... (full context)
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Meanwhile Sue goes home, where the Widow Edlin is tending to the sick Jude. Sue tells Jude that she sold all the Christminster cakes, which excites him, but then... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 1
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Three weeks later Jude and Sue arrive at Christminster with their two children and Little Father Time, who has... (full context)
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In the large crowd Jude sees his old companions Tinker Taylor and Uncle Joe. They ask him if he ever... (full context)
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Jude confesses that his desires were too strong and distracted him from his dream, but he... (full context)
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It starts to rain and Sue, who has grown emotional at Jude’s words, wants them to go look for lodgings. Jude wants to keep watching the processing... (full context)
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Jude and Sue wander about looking for lodging, but they are turned away. Little Father Time... (full context)
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...children enter, the landlady asks Sue about her marital situation. Sue admits that she and Jude are not officially married, but that they live together as husband and wife. The landlady... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 2
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...deep depression, looking out the window at Sarcophagus College and wondering at the strength of Jude’s dream that he should have brought them to dreary, unfriendly Christminster. Little Father Time is... (full context)
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Sue wakes up early the next morning and goes to find Jude, who has found a passable inn. They have a quick breakfast together and then return... (full context)
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Jude immediately cuts the children down and lays them on the bed, and then he runs... (full context)
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Jude talks to the doctor and then informs Sue that there is no hope for the... (full context)
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...on Little Father Time’s face they seem to see the expression and condensation of all Jude’s bad luck and failures. They hear an organ in a nearby church playing “Truly God... (full context)
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Sue weeps and tells Jude about her conversation with Little Father Time the night before. She feels that her relationship... (full context)
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...to uncover the coffins. Sue weeps, begging to see her children one last time, but Jude shepherds her home. That night Sue gives birth to a premature, stillborn baby. (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 3
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Jude and Sue find lodgings in the Beersheba district, and Jude finds some stonemasonry work. They... (full context)
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...being punished, and she decides that she still rightfully belongs to Phillotson, as she and Jude never really married. She feels that she has sinned against God by leaving Phillotson, and... (full context)
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Sue says she wishes she could take back all her unorthodox views and formidable intellect. Jude is upset by this, and he asks Sue to marry him if that will satisfy... (full context)
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...children’s graves but didn’t feel comfortable coming to the funeral. Arabella offhandedly describes Sue as Jude’s wife, but Sue denies this and leaves. Arabella tells Jude that her father has returned... (full context)
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Meanwhile Sue has disappeared, and Jude goes to look for her at the church, though it is nighttime. He finds Sue... (full context)
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Jude responds by lamenting that the once brilliant, wise Sue has so degraded herself, and he... (full context)
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Jude accuses Sue of never having really loved him. She says she does love him, but... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 4
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...is at Marygreen ruminating on his encounter with Arabella. He reads about the deaths of Jude and Sue’s children in the newspaper. Later he meets Arabella again, as she has moved... (full context)
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One day Sue comes to Jude’s lodgings and asks him to come out and meet her. They go to the cemetery... (full context)
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...Sue says that they died to show her the error of her ways. She tells Jude that she will marry Phillotson at Marygreen, and asks him to send her her belongings.... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 5
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The next day Christminster is covered in fog and Jude is too depressed to go to work. Meanwhile Sue takes the train to Marygreen and... (full context)
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...and as she unpacks her things Sue finds a nightgown she had bought to impress Jude. She burns it, despite Mrs. Edlin’s protests. Mrs. Edlin begs Sue not to marry Phillotson,... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 6
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Meanwhile Arabella comes to Jude’s lodgings, telling him that her father has kicked her out and she has no money... (full context)
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...goes and returns that same day, practicing making dimples on the train ride. She tells Jude that Sue went through with the marriage, though part of her seemed against it. Arabella... (full context)
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Jude stays out late, and Arabella goes to her father’s house and tells him to leave... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 7
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...work at his pork-shop and Arabella tells him that she has “a prize upstairs” – Jude. She says that they must keep Jude in the house for a while until they... (full context)
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Jude is sick with a bad hangover. Arabella tells Donn that he must provide a steady... (full context)
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Finally one early morning Arabella convinces Jude that he promised to marry her in his drunken state. Jude denies this, but Donn... (full context)
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...don’t recognize divorce in her dogma,” so now all was right with their relationship. Meanwhile Jude asks for more alcohol, laughing bitterly at the sacrifices he has made for his honor,... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 8
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Jude and Arabella get their own lodgings, but Jude soon grows sick with a respiratory illness.... (full context)
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Jude’s condition worsens, and he asks Arabella to write Sue about his illness. Arabella protests that... (full context)
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Arabella estimates Jude’s life “with an appraiser’s eye” and agrees to write to Sue. After a few days... (full context)
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Jude grows weaker on his journey, but he reaches Sue’s school and sends for her. She... (full context)
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They argue again, but suddenly Sue asks Jude to kiss her and they kiss passionately. Sue declares that she does love Jude still,... (full context)
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Jude walks back to Alfredston, freezing in the wind and rain. He passes the Brown House,... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 9
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Arabella meets Jude at the platform, and he admits both that he has seen Sue and has basically... (full context)
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...to Sue’s house to help her with her domestic duties. Sue confesses that she saw Jude and still loves him “grossly.” Sue has decided to do a “penance” for this act... (full context)
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...she steels herself and goes to Phillotson’s room. Sue tells Phillotson about her meeting with Jude and their kiss. Phillotson is slightly upset and makes her promise not to do it... (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 10
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Months pass and Jude’s illness decreases but then returns. He muses on his old dream of Christminster, and says... (full context)
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One day the Widow Edlin visits Jude, and she tells him that Sue and Phillotson have consummated their marriage, though Sue only... (full context)
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...“weak women must provide for a rainy day,” and she needs a new husband if Jude dies. (full context)
Part 6, Chapter 11
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More months pass and summer arrives, and Jude nears death. One afternoon he falls asleep as Arabella is getting ready to go out.... (full context)
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Jude wakes up alone and asks for some water. He calls for both Arabella and Sue,... (full context)
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Meanwhile Arabella flirts with men, and tells Jude’s fellow stoneworkers that he is at home sleeping. They ask her to come with them... (full context)
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Arabella goes back out and tells the men that Jude is still asleep. They go and watch the boat races, and Physician Vilbert approaches her... (full context)
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Jude’s funeral is two days later, and it takes place as distant crowds cheer for illustrious... (full context)