Miss Brill

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Youth and Age Theme Analysis

Themes and Colors
Loneliness and Alienation Theme Icon
Delusion and Reality Theme Icon
Connectedness Theme Icon
Youth and Age Theme Icon
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Miss Brill, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Youth and Age Theme Icon

Miss Brill’s strange behavior of talking to her fur coat can be seen as her nostalgia for a lost youth, when her coat was new and she was at the hopeful age of marriageability (in Mansfield’s time women were married at quite a young age, and not getting married was so looked down upon that spinsters were pitied and shut out of a great deal of social life). As Miss Brill sits in the stands she notices that everyone sitting around her looks just about the same: “odd, silent, nearly all old.” These are people who have been relegated to the sidelines, marginalized and ignored by society, and the story connects that marginalization with being old.

Though Miss Brill’s description of these people could just as well be applied to herself, through much of the story she does not recognize this. The story can be seen as Miss Brill’s awakening toward her understanding of her irrelevance and marginalization in society – her oldness. The silent old woman and old man next to her leave and, in their stead, come a young girl and boy who dismiss Miss Brill, call her a “fried whiting” – a cooked fish. This brushoff represents the way generations succeed each other, and how the young often disdain the old. At the end of the story, when she places her fur coat back in the box, the action suggests a kind of retirement for the coat, which Miss Brill finally sees as old and worn—just like her.

Youth and Age ThemeTracker

The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of Youth and Age appears in each chapter of Miss Brill. Click or tap on any chapter to read its Summary & Analysis.
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Youth and Age Quotes in Miss Brill

Below you will find the important quotes in Miss Brill related to the theme of Youth and Age.
Miss Brill Quotes

And when she breathed, something light and sad—no, not sad, exactly—something gentle seemed to move in her bosom.

Related Characters: Miss Brill
Related Symbols: Fur Coat and Garments
Page Number: 298
Explanation and Analysis:

As Miss Brill sets out for her weekly outing to Jardins Publique, she considers the fur she has chosen to wear, and here reflects the emotions involved in taking it out of its box earlier in the afternoon.

Miss Brill's "light and sad" feeling here indicates the harsh reality that, like Miss Brill herself, the fur has aged past its prime, and what once might have been beautiful has withered away. Also like Miss Brill, who lives unmarried and alone, the fur has been long stored away and isolated. The harsh reality is that both Miss Brill and the fur have grown old and lonely. 

Despite her feelings of sadness and nostalgia over this reality, Miss Brill is quick and purposeful in pretending that her feelings of sadness are in fact, something else, something "gentle." By denying herself the truth, she resists feeling the brunt of the reality that surrounds her and is able to go the gardens and feel content in her fur. Thus, we learn early on that it takes some level of pretending, some level of fantasy, for Miss Brill to process the world around her without despairing. 


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She had become really quite expert, she thought, at listening as though she didn’t listen, at sitting in other people’s lives just for a minute while they talked round her.

Related Characters: Miss Brill
Page Number: 299
Explanation and Analysis:

Though eavesdropping is often associated with nosiness and gossipy behavior, Miss Brill's expertise with it is a means to cope with her own loneliness and alienation from the people around her.

In Miss Brill's constant play between delusion and reality, the fact is that she is almost entirely excluded from the people around her. To feel at all connected to them, she must "sit in" for a minute on their conversations, which circle "round her" but never include her. 

Miss Brill's eavesdropping gives her the comfort of human contact without having to risk social rejection. As a perpetual eavesdropper, never setting out to make conversation herself, she can delude herself into thinking herself connected to other people without confronting the truth, which betrays otherwise. 

The ermine toque was alone; she smiled more brightly than ever. But even the band seemed to know what she was feeling and played more softly…What would she do? What was going to happen now?

Related Characters: Ermine toque and Gentleman in grey
Related Symbols: Fur Coat and Garments
Page Number: 300
Explanation and Analysis:

Like eavesdropping, Miss Brill's intense people-watching in the park is one of the ways she attempts to connect with others and counter her loneliness. Here, she watches a woman, reduced by Miss Brill to the ermine toque (small hat) she wears, solicit a gentleman who immediately rejects her. 

Following the rejection, Miss Brill romanticizes the scene, dramatically wondering what the girl will do next or what will happen next, as if what she has witnessed is part of an entertaining play. Her observation that the band is playing to musical score to reflect the woman's rejection further hints at Miss Brill's fantasized theatricality. 

In the bustle of the garden and its many people, it is important to note that Miss Brill noticed this moment in particular. It is likely she identifies with the ermine toque, who not only also wears fur, but experiences social rejection--the very thing Miss Brill avoids through her self-delusions and is forced to confront at the story's end, when she too is rejected. 

Oh, how fascinating it was...It was exactly like a play.

Related Characters: Miss Brill (speaker)
Page Number: 301
Explanation and Analysis:

Following the recent entertainment of the ermine toque's rejection, Miss Brill immerses herself deeper and deeper in the pleasures of people-watching and eavesdropping. Whether the interactions she sees between people are pleasant or not, she romanticizes the "fascinating" goings-on of the garden as a play.

By transforming the garden into a play, Miss Brill not only envelopes the world around her into her gentler fantasy--fantasy being her only means of coping with reality--but also attempts to solidify her place in the community around her. If the whole garden is a play, she is not just an outsider or spectator, but a true part of the "performance" around her, a more special, more theatrical design than the reality could hope to be. 

They were all on the stage. They weren’t only the audience, not only looking on; they were acting. Even she had a part and came every Sunday.

Related Characters: Miss Brill, Ermine toque and Gentleman in grey
Page Number: 301
Explanation and Analysis:

By reworking the reality of the garden and its people into the fantasy of a play, Miss Brill is able to discard her sense of loneliness, casting herself as one of many in a community of "actors." Miss Brill's perception of herself as having a part in the scene around her--a recurring part at that--not only connects her with others, but also gives her a sense of importance among them.

Just as all parts in a play, however small, serve some integral function to the whole show, so too has Miss Brill reinvented herself as essential to the lives of the people around her. Under the guise of a play and actors, Miss Brill is able to perceive herself as necessary and special to the community, when in reality, seemingly no one else perceives her in this light. 

“Why does she come here at all—who wants her? Why doesn’t she keep her silly old mug at home?”
“It’s her fu-ur which is so funny,” giggled the girl. “It’s exactly like a fried whiting.”

Related Characters: Boy and Girl (speaker), Miss Brill
Related Symbols: Fur Coat and Garments, Fried Whiting
Page Number: 302
Explanation and Analysis:

Contented by the lull of the band, her imagined connection and mutual understanding with the other "actors", a peaceful Miss Brill admires the young couple, whom she calls the "hero and heroine" of her fantasized play, as they sit down near her to listen to the music. 

When the young woman playfully rebuffs the boy's advances, the boy concludes that it's the presence of Miss Brill, whom he calls "that stupid old thing," that makes his partner uncomfortable, and the two joke crudely about her age. The young woman likens Miss Brill's fur, which had hence served as a source of happiness and pride, to "a fried whiting," pointing out the reality of age and ugliness Miss Brill had tried to counter with fantasy. 

In this pivotal moment, Miss Brill's carefully constructed fantasy of connectedness and self-importance cracks, and we witness the reality of how harshly people perceive her. Not unlike her earlier description of the elderly people in the garden, others reduce her to a funny, old, and unwanted "thing." The disconnect between how Miss Brill has aggressively portrayed herself versus how others view her suggests that she is aware of her obsolete position in society-- in this city, no one has much value or respect for an old spinster-- and that all her fantasizing has, in fact, been her only way of achieving happiness in a society that painfully excludes her. 

She unclasped the necklet quickly; quickly, without looking, laid it inside. But when she put the lid on she thought she heard something crying.

Related Characters: Miss Brill
Related Symbols: Fur Coat and Garments
Page Number: 302
Explanation and Analysis:

In contrast to the beginning of the story, where Miss Brill slowly and tenderly removes the fur from its box and fantasizes it to have a life and beauty of it's own, here, she stuffs it away in haste without so much as looking at the garment. 

The change in Miss Brill's perception of the fur demonstrates her transition from comforting delusions to harsher reality. Like the funny, "fried-whiting" fur in its box, Miss Brill is old and alone in a city that seems to celebrate only its youth. 

Whereas in the beginning, Miss Brill chalked down the "light and sad" feeling in her chest to "gentleness," in these final lines, she is truly despairing, unable to turn the harder truths of age into more easily digestible euphemisms. 

Despite the fullness of Miss Brill's transition from delusions into reality, the close-third narration suggests that she still is attempting to soften the blow of her sadness via the ambiguity of who is crying. The line in which Miss Brill "thought she heard something crying" suggests she wants to attribute the crying to the fur rather than herself (if she is physically crying, that is). The purpose of this delusion--an inanimate fur cannot cry--is not to brighten the world around her, as were her past delusions, but to deflect her shame and embarrassment over the truths she now has no choice but to confront.