My Antonia

My Antonia

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Themes and Colors
The Immigrant Experience Theme Icon
Friendship Theme Icon
The Prairie Theme Icon
The Past Theme Icon
Innocence and Maturity Theme Icon
Gender Theme Icon
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in My Antonia, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Friendship Theme Icon

In the mid to late 1800s on the American prairie, friendship with neighbors was important to every family's survival and wellbeing. Neighbors provided both a social outlet and the physical help necessary for survival. The Burdens befriend the Shimerdas, the Shimerdas befriend Peter and Pavel, and Jim befriends Jake and Otto. Yet it's Jim's friendship with Ántonia, with its many ups and downs, that is central to My Ántonia. The novel begins with their pure and simple childhood friendship, and follows their many separations and reunions as they grow up. Through it all, both characters remain loyal to the memories of their childhood, and in doing so they preserve an allegiance to each other.

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Friendship Quotes in My Antonia

Below you will find the important quotes in My Antonia related to the theme of Friendship.
Book 1, Chapter 7 Quotes
This was enough for Ántonia. She liked me better from that time on, and she never took a supercilious air with me again. I had killed a big snake – I was now a big fellow.
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker), Ántonia Shimerda
Page Number: 41
Explanation and Analysis:

Jim has confessed that although he liked Ántonia, it bothered him that she would speak to him in a superior tone because she was older. He recalls an occasion when he and Ántonia decided to dig into the prairie-dog holes, only to be attacked by a rattlesnake. Jim kills the snake with a spade, impressing Ántonia; in this passage, Jim announces that "she never took a supercilious air with me again." On one level, this story reflects the kind of innocent dynamics of power and courage that dominate childhood friendships. Despite the danger the snake poses, Jim frames the whole episode as an "adventure," one of many pleasant memories from his and Ántonia's shared past. 

On the other hand, the story of the snake also evokes more complicated, somber themes. Part of the reason why Jim objects to Ántonia treating him as an inferior is because, although younger, he is male and she is female. He considers Ántonia's precocious confidence as a violation of the proper dynamic of gender, and is pleased when he is able to assert his own masculine power through the bold act of killing the snake. This act foreshadows Jim's later attempts to romantically win over Ántonia, which remain unsuccessful. Ántonia sees Jim as a younger brother figure, a dynamic that, despite sustained effort, Jim is never able to change. 


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Book 1, Chapter 10 Quotes
I never forgot the strange taste; though it was many years before I knew that those little brown shavings, which the Shimerdas had brought so far and treasured so jealously, were dried mushrooms. They had been gathered, probably, in some deep Bohemian forest...
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker), Ántonia Shimerda, Mr. Shimerda, Mrs. Shimerda, Yulka Shimerda, Ambrosch Shimerda
Page Number: 59
Explanation and Analysis:

Jim has described the Shimerda's poverty, which was so terrible that during one winter they are forced to share a single overcoat and subsist on prairie-dogs. When Jim and his grandmother bring the Shimerdas food, Mrs. Shimerda gives them some brown shavings in return; the shavings taste strange, and later Jim realizes they must have been dried mushrooms brought from Bohemia. This passage emphasizes the way in which an item as simple as dried mushrooms can take on huge and complex significance within the drama of immigrant and pioneer life.

By offering the mushrooms to Jim and his grandmother, Mrs. Shimerda refuses to accept the role of a charity recipient. This refusal is made more moving by the fact that the mushrooms are clearly significant to the Shimerdas, considering they brought them all the way to America from Bohemia. At the same time, this significance does not necessarily translate to Jim's grandmother, who finds the mushrooms suspicious and thus simply throws them away. This contrast highlights the way in which the past takes on vastly different meanings to different people. Objects and memories that some people "treasure so jealously" are completely meaningless to others. 

Book 1, Chapter 19 Quotes
"Why aren't you always nice like this, Tony?" "How nice?"

"Why, just like this; like yourself. Why do you all the time try to be like Ambrosch?"

She put her arms under her head and lay back, looking up at the sky. "If I live here, like you, that is different. Things will be easy for you. But they will be hard for us."
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker), Ántonia Shimerda (speaker), Ambrosch Shimerda
Page Number: 99
Explanation and Analysis:

School is out for summer, and Jim and Ántonia have been spending more time together. One night, while they sit on a roof to watch a lightning storm, Jim asks why Ántonia isn't always "nice like this." Ántonia replies that life is different for her family than for Jim, and this is why she behaves as she does. Ántonia's response shows that she has understood that there is a division between herself and Jim––a division born out of economic disparities, and that will widen as they grow older.

Her prediction that "things... will be hard for us" is correct: while Jim eventually goes to college, then law school, and becomes a successful professional in New York, Ántonia lives a much more difficult life, getting pregnant out of wedlock before getting married and having eleven children. Jim, on the other hand, remains romantically hopeful about his and Ántonia's relationship, idealizing their bond as more simple and innocent than is really the case. This passage raises the question of whether Ántonia's romantic rejection of Jim is entirely because she sees him as a younger brother, or if she perhaps also makes the decision due to her awareness of the class differences between them. 

Book 2, Chapter 8 Quotes
Yet the summer which was to change everything was coming nearer every day. When boys and girls are growing up, life can't stand still, not even in the quietest of country towns; and they have to grow up, whether they will or no. That is what their elders are always forgetting.
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker)
Page Number: 136
Explanation and Analysis:

Jim has stated that he and the Harling children were never happier than in the first weeks of spring, when they helped Mrs. Harling and Ántonia garden after the end of winter. However, this idyllic scene is overshadowed by the coming summer, which Jim hints will "change everything." His description of the way that time moves for young people further emphasizes the idea that the coming events will prompt a loss of innocence. Indeed, Jim's words highlight a subtle connection between the innocence of children and the innocence of "the quietest of country towns"; like the land itself, children begin life in a natural, simple state, yet as adulthood approaches this existence is complicated in the same way that the land is developed and industrialized by the pioneers. 

Book 4, Chapter 1 Quotes
I was bitterly disappointed in her [Ántonia]. I could not forgive her for becoming an object of pity, while Lena Lingard, for whom people had always foretold trouble, was now the leading dressmaker of Lincoln, much respected in Black Hawk.
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker), Ántonia Shimerda, Lena Lingard
Page Number: 205
Explanation and Analysis:

The summer after finishing college and before he begins studying at Harvard Law School, Jim returns to Black Hawk. Here, he learns that Ántonia is pregnant, and that her fiancee has deserted her; meanwhile, Lena Lingard is incredibly successful, "the leading dressmaker in Lincoln." The disparity between the two girls' fates highlights how dramatically the lives of people who grew up together can diverge. Indeed, Jim points to the unpredictability of the course of life when he mentions that "people had always foretold trouble" for Lena. This further proves the ignorance of people's judgments and expectations of recent immigrants. 

Jim's feelings about Ántonia's fate, meanwhile, seem overly harsh and unforgiving. He claims to be disappointed not for Ántonia, but "in her." Instead of resenting Ántonia's fiancee for abandoning her or the community for judging her, Jim states that he "could not forgive her for becoming an object of pity." It is possible to interpret this statement as emerging from Jim's longstanding admiration of Ántonia; perhaps because she is older than him, he cannot bear to see her in a weak and vulnerable position. On the other hand, the harshness with which he judges Ántonia is also related to her gender. Although the fact that Ántonia is pregnant out of wedlock is at least as much her fiancee's fault as her own, during the time women's sexuality was heavily controlled and women were harshly judged for promiscuity––as is demonstrated by the way people treat Ántonia.

Book 4, Chapter 4 Quotes
As I went back alone over that familiar road, I could almost believe that a boy and girl ran along beside me, as our shadows used to do, laughing and whispering to each other in the grass.
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker)
Related Symbols: The Prairie, Light
Page Number: 221
Explanation and Analysis:

Jim has gone to see Ántonia at the Shimerda's farm, where she looks thin and worn down. They have a warm, pleasant conversation, and as Jim goes to leave, Ántonia tells him that his presence remains with her on the prairie, just as her father's does. As Jim walks away, he imagines a boy and girl running alongside him––the ghosts (or "shadows," continuing the novel's imagery of light) of his and Ántonia's childhood selves. This image emphasizes the way in which the past remains part of the present. Just as Ántonia feels Jim's lingering presence in the prairie, so does Jim imagine that he is accompanied by the "shadows" of himself and Ántonia when they were young. This description suggests that even though human life is transient, traces of it remain within the enduring natural landscape. 

Book 5, Chapter 1 Quotes
In my memory there was a succession of such pictures, fixed there like the old woodcuts of one's first primer: Ántonia kicking her bare legs against the sides of my pony when we came home in triumph with our snake; Ántonia in her black shawl and fur cap, as she stood by her father's grave in the snowstorm; Ántonia coming in with her work-team along the evening sky.
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker), Ántonia Shimerda
Related Symbols: The Prairie, The Plough, Light
Page Number: 239
Explanation and Analysis:

Jim has met Ántonia's children, and Ántonia has shown him photographs she keeps of when they were young. That night, Jim sleeps next to Ántonia's children and brings to mind memories of Ántonia, which appear like "old woodcuts" in his mind. In each memory, Ántonia is slightly different, both in terms of the situation she is in and her stage of development. Each image involves a feature of the natural landscape: in the first, the pony and snake, in the second, the snowstorm, and in the third, the evening sky. Taken together, they trace Ántonia's growing maturity as she is faced with increasingly difficult challenges in life. However, they also depict her as strong and resilient in the face of these challenges. 

The final image of Ántonia walking home from work "along the evening sky" is reminiscent of the moment when Jim, Ántonia, and their friends watch the sunset behind the plough. Both memories illuminate the passing of time against the cyclical monotony of agricultural work. While Jim's memories of Ántonia––like her life––are finite, the land these memories are situated within possesses an enduring, eternal power. 

Book 5, Chapter 3 Quotes
For Ántonia and for me, this had been the road of Destiny; had taken us to those early accidents of fortune which predetermined for us all that we can ever be. Now I understood that the same road was to bring us together again. Whatever we had missed, we possessed together the precious, the incommunicable past.
Related Characters: Jim Burden (speaker), Ántonia Shimerda
Page Number: 251
Explanation and Analysis:

Jim has left Ántonia's farm, promising to return soon. He takes the train to Black Hawk, only to find that most of his old friends are not there, having died or moved away. He watches the sunset and reflects on the fact that, although "fortune" has led him and Ántonia to live vastly different lives, they are inevitably bound together by "the precious, the incommunicable past." These thoughts highlight the way in which the past, present, and future are implicated in one another. Although they could not have known it at the time, Jim and Ántonia's futures were "predetermined" by small moments in their childhood. At the same time, it is their shared history that still connects them to each other many decades later.