One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

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Themes and Colors
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Identity, Principles, and Dignity Theme Icon
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LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Time Theme Icon

The theme of time reaches across many levels in One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. In the broadest sense, the novel is about “doing time”, or being incarcerated. The narrative unfolds over the course of a single day, from the morning reveille to lights out, and the depiction of this single day over the length of the entire novel shows that even this short period remains an immense obstacle for the prisoners. In addition, the loss of time is one of the primary ways prisoners are punished, which is shown figuratively in the fact that prisoners are not allowed to have watches—the guards tell the time for the prisoners—and literally in the fact that the Soviet government has the power to add time to any prisoners sentence without justification.

In another sense, a prisoner’s free time is his most precious possession. The prisoners are held at the camp for extended periods, but they are afforded little time for themselves. Apart from sleep, a prisoner’s only free time is during meals, for a brief time upon wake up, and a few minutes before work. This “time to oneself”, however, is not actually something men can enjoy, as it is spent trying to survive by attaining basic needs, such as food, clothing, and supplies. Because time is necessary for a Zek’s survival, taking away someone’s free time is one of the greatest sins in the camp. When one prisoner falls asleep during work, causing the others to get held up during the count, he is verbally and physically assaulted, depicting the seriousness of his crime.

Because each Zek’s primary focus is his survival on a daily basis, he is essentially trapped in the present. By its very nature, the camp is designed to separate prisoners from their pasts by removing them from their families and communities, and allowing them to write only twice a year. For Shukhov, the past, or more specifically, the time period before Stalin took power in Russia, is reflected on fondly, but seems so distant it isn’t worth much thought. Shukhov treats the future with the same indifference, since he knows either his sentence will be extended, or he will be exiled.

The past, however, does make its way into the present through the characters’ perceptions of themselves and others. Although the camp is designed to strip one of one’s past, Shukhov continues to refer to people based on their standing before entering the camp, and he retains a sense of his own identity through his expertise as a tradesman and upholding the beliefs he developed before coming to the camp. Using these skills, which connect him to his past, are part of what make his day, “an almost good one”. This positive note, however, is stifled by the novel’s final lines, which remind the reader that this day is only one of the three thousand six hundred and fifty three more days Shukhov will be in prison. The last sentence, which states, “the three extra days were for leap years,” leaves the reader with a new perspective on the life of a Zek: that there is no relief in a prisoner’s sentence, and even the extra three days will be an immense struggle.

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Time ThemeTracker

The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of Time appears in each section of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. Click or tap on any chapter to read its Summary & Analysis.
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Time Quotes in One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

Below you will find the important quotes in One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich related to the theme of Time.
Section 1 Quotes

Shukhov never overslept reveille. He always got up at once, for the next ninety minutes, until they assembled for work, belonged to him, not the authorities, and any old-timer could earn a bit.

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov
Page Number: 3-4
Explanation and Analysis:

This passage appears at the beginning of the novel, after the reveille--the prison camp's morning alarm--has sounded.

Here, we see one way in which the prison camp has affected Shukhov's thinking about time. He conceives of time in terms of ownership, his days being divided into periods that either do or do not "belong" to him. The ninety minutes that follow the sound of the reveille belong to him: he is able to exercise some control over what he will do during that time--but this brief bit of independence by no means entails leisure for Shukhov, who takes advantage of this sliver of freedom by performing chores to earn extra money. 

This quote gives us a first glimpse into the radical lack of control Shukhov has over planning his life, and how he views that life as being fundamentally divided into parts which he does and does not own. 


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From the outside, everyone looked the same—their numbered black coats were identical—but within the squad there were great distinctions. Everyone had his grade.

Page Number: 15
Explanation and Analysis:

This passage occurs when Shukhov and his squad eat breakfast in the mess hall.

The bleak homogeneity and repetitiveness characteristic of life as a zek appear here. The prison represses individual identity by branding every zek with a number used in place of their name, and by forcing every prisoner to wear the same uniform, which makes everyone look the same. The prison also radically diminishes spontaneity and possibility from the zeks' lives by turning each day into a repetition of the same, scripted schedule. By strictly regulating the zeks' sleeping, eating, and free-time with mandated inspections, a strictly enforced curfew and wake-up time, and a rationed diet of the same gruel and soup every day, the prison turns its inhabitants' days into one omnipresent routine.

Shukhov notes that all these regulations--the uniform in particular, here--tend to make every zek have the same outward appearance. The prisoners' external appearances, and the external actions which make up their lives (apart from their inner, mental lives), are regulated to the extent that outward differences between individual prisoners become blurred, if not erased. Yet despite this, Shukhov asserts that internally, there are great differences between all the men. In a situation that is as harsh and monotonous as the camp, one's interior experience, beliefs, and identity become the whole of one's dignity and sense of self.

Apart from sleep, the only time a prisoner lives for himself is ten minutes in the morning at breakfast, five minutes over dinner, and five at supper.

Page Number: 16
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs shortly after the previous one, when Shukhov and his squad are eating breakfast in the mess hall.

The division which Shukhov perceives at the core of his life as a prisoner--the division between the periods of time which he owns and those which he gives up to carry out his orders--resurfaces in this passage. Here, the narrator considers sleep to be one of those few periods in daily life when a prisoner "lives for himself." That the narrator regards sleep as one of the few activities which a prisoner performs voluntarily and for his own health--that the unconscious state of being asleep counts as an example of active living--amplifies the senses of fatigue and lost vivacity which permeate everyday existence in the book. 

The narrator paints the activities which zeks perform in their conscious, everyday lives as lifeless in comparison to the time they spend sleeping. The real world of waking consciousness, for the zeks, is a death-sentence to their freedom, and the energy and enjoyment of life has become relegated to the realm of sleep (apart from twenty total minutes of waking life per day), which functions as a reliable, day-to-day form of escape. It's as if the zeks go to sleep feeling they're about to reclaim their lives, yet feel their life wane when they awake--a total inversion of how people ordinarily view the relationship between sleep and life. The zeks awake to death and fall asleep into life.

Section 2 Quotes

No clocks or watches ticked there—prisoners were not allowed to carry watches; the authorities knew the time for them.

Page Number: 21
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs when Shukhov is in the sickbay.

The lack of power that prisoners possess in planning how they spend their time is further exposed here. In previous quotes, we've seen how, in the camp, a zek's relationship to the passing of time is rigidly divided. A zek has very few moments where he can willfully or voluntarily choose how to pass his time, and endures a comparatively overwhelming number of moments when he must follow orders dictating how he must spend his time.

This passage depicts that inhumane and oppressive division at the heart of the prisoners' lives in yet another way. The prisoners, without access to any clocks or watches, are kept in the dark about time. They lead a life not molded and shaped by the unfolding or ticking of numerical time, but rather a life shaped and organized by orders and commands. The authorities arrange, organize, and plan the temporal structure or schedule of the zeks' daily lives. In this way, the authorities come to take over the role of the clock. The passing of time is no longer simply an impersonal, neutral procession measured by an abstract system of numbers, for the authorities have hijacked time from the zeks; consequently, obeying the authorities and trying to avoid punishment are the sole measures in relation to which the zeks can orient their plans, actions, and behaviors if they want to survive.

Section 3 Quotes

During his years in prisons and in camps he’d lost the habit of planning for the next day, for a year ahead, for supporting his family. The authorities did his thinking for him about everything—it was somehow easier that way.

Page Number: 41
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote, following shortly after the previous one, provides another depiction of Shukhov's thoughts as he walks from the prison camp to the town where the day's work will take place.

The monotony and repetitiveness of life in the prison camp, as well as the deep influence which the authorities have over the inner mental lives of the zeks, resurface here. The same, unchanging, scripted schedule that structures his every day in the prison camp causes Shukhov to lose the "habit of planning for the next day." On any given day in the camp's future, the same, pre-established routine will merely repeat itself; there's therefore no use in making special preparations for the next day, or even year, when every new day will follow the same pattern. (This is also a nod to the book's title and central conceit--the narrator only needs to describe "one day in the life of Ivan Denisovich" because all his days are mostly the same.) Shukhov's only horizon of future possibility is the prospect of being released at the end of his ten-year sentence; other than that, his life is wholly absorbed in the present, in the day-to-day procession of a relentlessly repetitive way of life.

That the "authorities did his thinking for him" illustrates how the lack of any thought about preparing for the immediate future has enclosed Shukhov's thinking within an omnipresent reality engineered by the Gulag. Shut off from the possibility of the future--the possibility of something new, something different than the present, day-to-day reality--Shukhov and his fellow zeks are looped into a perpetual replay of the same script, the daily schedule designed by the authorities. Having resigned himself to the inevitability of this constant repetition, Shukhov has effectively handed his power of creative thought--his ability to conceive of the future as something ultimately unpredictable and therefore worthy of advanced preparation--over to the authorities. By stripping Shukhov of his ability to think in terms of the future--which amounts to his ability to think for himself, to plan his own life--the authorities draw him into the daily, unchanging loop of their regime, drastically limiting the control Shukhov has over his own thoughts.

Section 4 Quotes

Writing now was like dropping stones in some deep, bottomless pool. They drop; they sink—but there is no answer. You couldn't write and describe the squad you were working with…just now he had a good deal more to talk about with Kildigs the Lett than his family at home.

Related Characters: Kildigs
Page Number: 39
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs shortly after the previous one, as Shukhov and his fellow zeks march from the prison camp to the town where they're working.

Here Shukhov is discussing the difficulty he has with writing letters to his family. Having been imprisoned for over eight years, Shukhov has acquired a life separate and isolated from his family. Since Shukhov, therefore, no longer has a clear image of what his family is like, sending letters to them is like "dropping stones in some deep, bottomless pool." He would be sending his letters out towards something (his family) which he no longer knows. Like a bottomless pool, the family to which he writes perpetually recedes his dated ideas about them. Furthermore, most of the prison experiences he might convey to his family would (he thinks) be of no interest to them--thus, at this point he ultimately feels a closer connection to his fellow prisoners than to his own family.

Section 6 Quotes

Why, you might wonder, should prisoners wear themselves out, working hard, ten years on end, in the camps? You might think they’d say: No thank you, and that’s all. We’ll drag ourselves through the day till evening, and then the night is ours.
But that didn't work. To outsmart you they thought up work squads—but not squads like the ones outside the camps, where every man is paid his separate wage. Everything was arranged in the camp that the prisoners egged one another on. It was like this: either you all got a bit extra or you all croaked.

Page Number: 57
Explanation and Analysis:

This passage occurs at the work site, when Shukhov and Kildigs are trying to warm up the room that is under construction in the power station.

Here, the fundamental question is raised: why, exactly, do the prisoners feel compelled to work so hard? The answer reveals the cunning strategy of how the Soviet authorities socially engineered the prisons. To ensure a high output and quality of work, the authorities organized the prisoners into "work squads," which promotes competition among fellow zeks because they must constantly be checking up on each other to see if everyone is performing satisfactory work. The zeks are punished or rewarded in rations on a collective, not individual, basis--another way in which individual identity is sacrificed for the collective, but also a sign of the hypocrisy of collectivism itself--for it's only in individual competition (a generally capitalistic idea) that good work is done by the Communist collective.

And then every thought was swept out of his head. All his memories and worries faded. He had only one idea—to try to fix the vent in the stovepipe and hang it up to prevent it smoking.

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov
Page Number: 58
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs as Shukhov works to warm up the room of the power plant in which his squad is working. Tyurin has assigned him the task of fixing a stovepipe so that a fire can be kindled.

The sense of Shukhov's extreme psychological absorption in the present, day-to-day experience of reality and work is further echoed here. His connection to the past and his ideas about the future are wiped away as "every thought [is] swept out of his head" except the idea of his current task: fixing the stovepipe and making the room warm.

This passage gives a concrete shape to Shukhov's relationship with the present--we witness his thinking about time having a definitive impact on his immediate experience--as well as a glimpse into the dedication and dignity with which he performs his work. Even though Shukhov is performing slave labor, he feels connected enough with his task such that it becomes the sole occupation of his thought, and even gives him pleasure and a sense of purpose. Another possible reading, however, might deny that Shukhov's focus has anything to do with dignity and a principled work ethic, but rather that, by turning his thoughts solely towards his task, Shukhov is trying to escape the anxiety and misery that characterize the rest of his experience.

“The sun’s already reached its peak,” he announced.
“If it's reached its peak,” said the captain reflectively, “it’s one o’clock, not noon.”
“What do you mean?” Shukhov demurred. “Every old-timer knows that the sun stands highest at dinner-time.”
“Old timers, maybe,” snapped the captain. “But since their day a new decree has been passed, and now the sun stands highest at one.”
“Who passed that decree?”
“Soviet power.”

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov (speaker), Buynovsky (speaker)
Page Number: 63
Explanation and Analysis:

This passage occurs shortly after Shukhov, working with his squad in the power plant, looks up at the sky and realizes that, based on the sun's position (it's at its peak), it's dinner time.

Seeking to confirm with someone (no name is given) who has informed him and his squad members that it is noon, Shukhov cites his observation of the sun at its peak. Buynovsky, however, challenges Shukhov's belief that the sun reaches its peak at noon. Mocking the severity and largely unchecked authoritarian rule of Soviet power, Buynovsky says that Soviet rule has decreed that the sun's peak now corresponds to one o'clock, and no longer noon. 

Buynovsky's comment satirizes the vast reach and extensiveness of Soviet power. That something seemingly so beyond the reaches of state power and intervention--the correspondence of the cycles of the natural world with the human clock--could become regulated and managed by Soviet rule seems absurd. Buynovsky has rather tellingly dramatized the seeming omnipotence of Soviet power for those living in the Gulag.

Even those serving three-year sentences were kept for another five. The law can be stood on its head. When your ten years are up they can say, “Here’s another ten for you.” Or exile you.

Page Number: 65
Explanation and Analysis:

Occurring shortly after the last passage, this quote appears after Kildigs remarks that Shukhov's prison sentence is nearly finished. 

The narrator exposes the haphazard, unprincipled disorder of Gulag law here. Gulag authorities, we learn, often do not apply the law consistently: "the law can be stood on its head." A completed ten-year sentence can be deemed inadequate on a whim, with another ten years instantly issued in its place.

Further, the surprisingly casual tone of "Here's another ten for you" highlights the zeks' ingrained awareness and anticipation of brutality and injustice from the Gulag system. Though Shukhov is excited by and hopeful for the prospect of being released from the camp, he still has doubts about whether or not the authorities will actually follow through with it.

Yes, you live with your feet in the mud and there’s no time to be thinking about how you got on or how you’re going to get out.

Page Number: 65
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs very shortly after the previous one. Kilgas has just remarked that Shukhov's sentence is nearing its end. 

The narrator, describing Shukhov's thoughts about the passing of his prison sentence, conveys here another instance of Shukhov's tendency to feel absorbed in the present moment. Shukhov thinks that, upon entering the camp, a prisoner has no time to think about how he was arrested or how he will escape. It's as if a zek's past life dies, for the past is no longer fruitful to mull over and contemplate; once a zek is arrested, his future becomes effectively predetermined for the next ten or even twenty-five years--and no memories from the past will be able to change this. The future similarly becomes almost non-existent and difficult to imagine for a zek, who lives repeating the same, seemingly omnipresent script day after day. It's as if the time-span that stretches from Shukhov's entrance to and exit from the camp constitutes one massive present moment.

Section 7 Quotes

[Buynovsky] was a newcomer. He was unused to the hard life of the Zeks. Though he didn't know it, moments like this were particularly important to him, for they were transforming him from an eager, confident naval officer with a ringing voice into an inert, though wary, Zek.

Related Characters: Buynovsky
Page Number: 77
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs during the dinner scene at the work site. Buynovsky is behaving obnoxiously; the narrator claims he's just yelled at several people to leave the work site canteen and is sitting somewhere in the way of the incoming squad.

The narrator hints here at the process by which Buynovsky's confidence and vivacity will be broken and torn from him by the challenges of prison life. But the narrator goes on to say that it is only through the process of becoming an "inert" zek that Buynovsky will be able to survive his twenty-five-year sentence. Only by succumbing to the harsh reality of prison life and putting aside his pride (and even his individuality) will Buynovsky acquire the personality and way of thinking required to meet the challenges of his new environment.

Section 8 Quotes

And now Shukhov was no longer seeing that distant view where the sun gleamed on snow…Shukhov was only seeing his wall…he worked with drive, but his thoughts were elsewhere.

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov
Page Number: 90
Explanation and Analysis:

Here, Shukhov is busy laying brick with Kilgids at the work site.

This passage reveals how important construction work and the craftsmanship it requires are to Shukhov. He's able to lose himself in his work--to focus solely on the wall--but in a way that also bolsters his sense of identity. By having a craft to which he can wholly dedicate himself, Shukhov can find an escape from the bleakness of imprisonment. The fact that Shukhov works with "drive" and lets his thoughts drift elsewhere conveys the pleasurably dissociating effects he derives from the labor. Further, Shukhov's work is a source of dignity and pride amidst a degrading, authoritarian climate of Soviet power. 

Section 10 Quotes

It isn't so terrible to unbutton your coat now. We’re going home.
That’s what everyone used to say: “going home.”
We never had time to think of any other home.

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov
Page Number: 122
Explanation and Analysis:

Following soon after the previous quote, this moment occurs while the zeks, having returned from the work site, are gathered outside the entrance to the main camp. The guards order them to unbutton their coats so that they can be frisked.

That the zeks refer to the prison as "home" suggests how incredibly central it's become to their identity. It's as if their memories of their former homes have been subsumed by the prison, and rendered obsolete and inaccessible. For, if the prospect of leaving the prison sometime in the future is never certain or guaranteed, then one's memories of the past--of the home to which one might return--gradually become less reliable in helping a zek to imagine and predict where he will return or go when he's released. Eventually, it must become harder and harder to envision a future beyond the prison at all. In this way, the prison camp not only takes time away from the prisoners in the sense of keeping them constantly busy with work--which would take time away from thinking about returning home--but also through totally reorienting a zek's thinking about time by changing his relationship to the future. By disrupting a zek's ability to imagine a future beyond their sentence, the prison takes away "time to think of any other home" at a fundamental, cognitive level.

That bowl of soup—it was dearer than freedom, dearer than life itself, past, present, and future.

Page Number: 126
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote appears after Shukhov has been inspected by the guards upon re-entering the main camp with the other zeks. The narrator describes a bowl of half-burnt cabbage soup which the zeks, freezing and starving, would welcome like "rain to the parched earth."

Here we see another way in which the prison reorients the zeks' sense of time. Underfed and freezing from a considerably long exposure to brutal cold, the zeks' thoughts are consumed by anything that might put an end to the pain they feel in their bodies. And so a simple bowl of cabbage soup--however unappetizing to the typical palate--comes to stand as the sole object of their desire, becoming "dearer than freedom" and "life itself, past, present, and future." 

Because they are constantly subjected to extreme and inhumane working conditions that inflict intense sensations of cold, hunger, and other debilitating effects upon them, the zeks are consistently put into positions where the desire for simple items (like cabbage soup) that will alleviate their pain takes precedent over all their other thought processes. Caught in a cycle going in and out of this extreme state of desire, day after day, zeks often barely have the energy to think about anything other than the present circumstances of their immediate environment. While there are exceptions, such as Tsezar Markovich, we must remember that he has the privilege of working indoors and the comforts afforded him by his luxurious parcels.

Section 11 Quotes

And now Shukhov complained about nothing: neither about the length of his stretch, nor about the length of the day, nor about their swiping another Sunday. This was all he thought about now: "We’ll survive. We’ll stick it out, God willing until it’s over.”

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov (speaker)
Page Number: 141
Explanation and Analysis:

Having just had a satisfying bowl of fish stew with his squad in the mess hall, Shukhov's vitality and perseverance to endure his sentence are restored.

The energy and comfort provided by the stew reboots Shukhov's mood, giving him just enough vigor to think about the possibility of his survival and future beyond the prison. Neither the eight years he's lost of his life, the long, tiring day, nor the fact that the zeks' day off has been replaced with another work day--none of this occupies his thought. With the long, physically and emotionally demanding day now coming to a close, this small sliver of hope--"We'll survive . . . God willing until its over"--is the only thought that Shukhov can muster about his future. Entirely at the mercy of the camp authorities, and constantly uncertain about his future, Shukhov suddenly is able to feel--with the burst of joy his soup provides--a sense of possibility.

The belly is a demon. It doesn't remember how well you treated it yesterday; it’ll cry out for more tomorrow.

Page Number: 142
Explanation and Analysis:

Having had a double-helping of stew at supper, Shukhov decides to save his bread for the next day. The narrator then articulates Shukhov's reasoning in this quote.

Shukhov demonstrates here how resource management and prudent self-discipline are essential to his daily life. It would probably be very satisfying for Shukhov to have his bread with his unusually large dinner, but he realizes that he would pay the price the next day, since his body would expect the same high quantity of food. The belly, like a "demon," has a will of its own, and must be strictly managed, especially considering Shukhov's limited supply of provisions. 

This is another instance emphasizing the force and pull of the present moment in time. The belly, having no memory about "how well you treated it yesterday," feels only the sensation of hunger as it's attached to the present moment; it does not feel the fullness it once possessed in the past. Therefore, in order to stave off hunger tomorrow, Shukhov must be economical with his resources and actively consider the needs of his body before the desires of his mind.

Section 12 Quotes

Even eight years as a convict hadn’t turned him into a jackal—and the longer he spent at the camp the stronger he made himself.

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov
Related Symbols: Bread, Tsezar’s Parcel
Page Number: 147
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs when Shukhov delivers Tsezar's bread ration. Shukhov, having stood in line to receive Tsezar's ration while he went to see if a parcel had arrived for himself, arrives at Tsezar's bunk and sees him surrounded by various foods. Having received a bountiful parcel, Tsezar tells Shukhov to keep his ration of bread.

Instead of directly asking Tsezar whether his parcel arrived or not--for this would give a hint that Shukhov held Tsezar's place in line in order to have rights to part of his parcel--he simply says: "Your bread, Tsezar Markovich." After Shukhov refrains from asking about the parcel directly, the narrator explains that "even eight years as a convict hadn't turned him into a jackal." 

Shukhov's ulterior motive for standing in line for Tsezar, however self-interested, is counterbalanced in this scene by Shukhov's dignity in respecting Tsezar's right to his own parcel. Shukhov doesn't pressure Tsezar into giving him anything; he doesn't behave like a desperate, starving "jackal" (a kind of small wild dog). Instead, he gladly accepts Tsezar's bread ration. Further, the narrator reveals that prison hasn't eroded Shukhov's principles of self-conduct--prison hasn't made him into a meaner, rougher, or more aggressive person. Rather, prison has been a place where Shukhov has strengthened his sense of self-control.

“Well,” [Shukhov] said conclusively, “however much you pray it doesn't shorten your stretch. You’ll sit it out from beginning to end anyhow.”
“Oh, you mustn’t pray for that either,” said Alyoshka, horrified. “Why do you want freedom? In freedom your last grain of faith will be choked with weeds. You should rejoice that you’re in prison. Here you have time to think about your soul.”

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov (speaker), Alyoshka (speaker)
Page Number: 163
Explanation and Analysis:

This exchange betwen Shukhov and Aloyshka occurs after Shukhov and most of his squad have gone to bed, and just before the guards call for a second count.

Here we witness two radically different views about prison life. For Aloyshka, prison is a religious opportunity where one is able to think about and develop a closer relationship with one's soul. Freedom, for Aloyshka, is something that could easily destroy one's faith; freedom exposes one to a multitude of options and possibilities in life that can turn one away from a religious path. In prison, however, this isn't the case--faith is strengthened by the lack of any worldly distractions. 

For Shukhov, this way of thinking seems twisted and idealistic. Regardless of Aloyshka's piety and devotion, Shukhov says he is doomed to live out his sentence the same as everyone else. He therefore sees no point in Aloyshka's devoutness. But getting out of prison, as we've seen, is not the goal of Aloyshka's faith. This clash showcases an interesting meeting between two minds with diametrically opposed views of their lives in prison.

Freedom meant one thing to him—home.
But they wouldn’t let [Shukhov] go home.

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov
Page Number: 164
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote occurs while Shukhov is in bed, just before the guards announce the second count.

Freedom, for Shukhov, has only one meaning, only one thing, object, or quality with which it's associated: home. Freedom doesn't mean a certain philosophy of the free will or a certain belief in a freedom granted through religious or spiritual practice, nor does it mean economic fairness or equal opportunity--it simply means "home." At the end of the day, for Shukhov, freedom is simply the thing that means the very opposite of the prison--and that thing is "home." Returning home would put an end to the prison, an end to that tragedy which has so far taken away eight years of his life. Home is the symbol of freedom resonating at the core of his mind.

Shukhov went to sleep fully content. He’d had many strokes of luck that day: They hadn’t put him in the cells; they hadn't sent his squad to the settlement; he’d swiped a bowl of kasha at dinner…He’d built a wall and enjoyed doing it…
A day without a dark cloud. Almost a happy one.
There were three thousand six hundred and fifty-three days like this in his stretch. From the first clang of the rail to the last clang of the rail.
Three thousand six hundred and fifty-three days.
Three extra days were for leap years.

Related Characters: Ivan Denisovich Shukhov
Page Number: 167
Explanation and Analysis:

The last and perhaps most profound paragraph of the entire novel, this quote ends our glimpse at one day in the life of Ivan Denisovich Shukhov.

Here, Shukhov recounts a day which many people might consider to be a living hell as "almost a happy one." Simply avoiding peril--such as being put in the cells or sent to the settlement--serves as a basic source of satisfaction. The mere evasion of danger or harm becomes something that Shukhov can tally as a source of pleasure in his day. And so his day is "almost a happy one" simply because it didn't have a "dark cloud." 

"Three thousand six hundred and fifty-three days"--made into a self-standing sentence--forces us to imagine an overwhelming repetition of the entire novel we've just read, of thousands of more versions of this one day where nearly every thought, with a few exceptions, is wracked with worry, uncertainty, bodily pain, and hopelessness. Multiplied by 3,653, this bundle of experience called "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" becomes especially alive: we, as readers, are invited to imagine the vast stretch of identity-erasing monotony, hardship, and flickering hope that still remains in store for Shukhov.