Richard II

Pdf fan
Tap here to download this LitChart! (PDF)

Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV Character Analysis

While Richard II is the story of Richard’s downfall, it is also the story of Henry Bolingbroke’s rise to the throne as Henry IV. Henry is Richard’s cousin, and the son of John of Gaunt. From the very start of the play, Henry makes it clear that he is willing to die for his honor. As opposed to Richard, who is an eloquent speaker, Henry is a man of action, and throughout the play he suggests that subjects have the power to make demands on their rulers if the rulers are not properly serving the people and the nation. Henry is extremely popular with the common people, and his transition into power goes very smoothly (though the effects of usurping the king will bedevil his own reign later on, as captured in Henry IV Part 1 and Henry IV Part 2). Once crowned, Henry shows mercy, pardoning a few men who stood against him because of their honor, but he also hints to a servant that Richard should be executed. We also learn briefly in this play that Henry is disappointed with his eldest son, Hal; this father/son relationship will be further explored in Henry IV Part 1 and Henry IV Part 2.

Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV Quotes in Richard II

The Richard II quotes below are all either spoken by Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV or refer to Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
The Throne Theme Icon
). Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the Simon & Schuster edition of Richard II published in 2005.
Act 1, Scene 1 Quotes

What I speak
My body shall make good upon this earth
Or my divine soul answer it in heaven.
Thou art a traitor and a miscreant.

Related Characters: Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV (speaker), King Richard II, Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
Page Number: 1.1.37-40
Explanation and Analysis:

These are among Henry Bolingbroke’s first lines of the play. They are spoken in front of King Richard II, and they precede Henry’s formal accusation of Thomas Mowbray, whom Henry believes is a traitor and a murderer. Here, Henry stresses that what he says with language, he will make true with action (with his body). If he is wrong, he says, then he will suffer the consequences of divine judgment. The dispute is essentially one of honor, and both Henry and Mowbray are willing to fight and die to prove themselves honorable. We can note that for Henry, who is not a king, speech in and of itself is not an action or all-powerful. Henry’s speech as a citizen must be reinforced by actions.

A+

Unlock explanations and citation info for this and every other Richard II quote.

Plus so much more...

Get LitCharts A+
Already a LitCharts A+ member? Sign in!

Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be ruled by me.
Let's purge this choler without letting blood.
This we prescribe, though no physician.
Deep malice makes too deep incision.
Forget, forgive; conclude and be agreed,
Our doctors say this is no month to bleed.—
Good uncle, let this end where it begun;
We'll calm the Duke of Norfolk, you your son.

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV, Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
Related Symbols: Blood, The Crown
Page Number: 1.1.156-163
Explanation and Analysis:

After Henry and Mowbray have made their accusations, argued, and offered to fight one another, King Richard intercedes in an attempt to placate both men and resolve the matter without violence. He tells them to “be ruled by [him],” emphasizing that at this point his position on the throne is still secure. He hopes to end the situation without blood being spilled. The symbol of blood is used most basically here with a literal meaning; violence causes blood to spill.

But Richard also evokes bloodletting, an early medicinal practice of letting someone bleed in order to heal them. Richard, we see, rules with language, and favors figurative imagery to make his points. We can also note the sage advice in “deep malice makes too deep incision,” which suggests that hatred often plunges too deep. Richard advises the men to forgive and forget the matter, and if they had listened to him, Richard’s downfall might have been prevented.

Act 1, Scene 3 Quotes

How long a time lies in one little word!
Four lagging winters and four wanton springs
End in a word; such is the breath of kings.

Related Characters: Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV (speaker), King Richard II
Page Number: 1.3.218-220
Explanation and Analysis:

Henry speaks these lines after Richard banishes him for ten years and then reduces his sentence to six years. Like Mowbray’s response, the lines indicate the power and importance of language in the play. However, rather than saying that language is important to Henry, who is more action oriented than speech oriented, these lines refer to the specific power of a king’s speech, which can be understood as a speech act.

Again characterizing speech as breath, Henry notes that one word from Richard’s mouth can change the course of his life. By uttering one sentence, Richard takes four long years off of Henry’s banishment. Richard’s speech can be understood as an act because when a king speaks a (punitive) sentence, it is immediately law. Just saying the words “you are banished for six years” enacts the banishment.

Shorten my days thou canst with sullen sorrow,
And pluck nights from me, but not lend a morrow.
Thou canst help time to furrow me with age,
But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage,
Thy word is current with him for my death,
But dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath.

Related Characters: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (speaker), King Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Page Number: 1.3.233-238
Explanation and Analysis:

Gaunt speaks these lines in anguish after his son’s sentencing. He says that he only supported the idea of banishing Henry to appear impartial, and that he (Gaunt) will most likely die before Henry returns to England. Richard attempts to comfort Gaunt and tell him that he’s mistaken, but here Gaunt makes an important distinction about the limitations of a king’s speech.

Richard’s speech has the power of action; with one word he could sentence Gaunt to death, basically killing him with words. But Gaunt notes that Richard is powerless to grant him life, to undo or slow time. Like time, Richard can use his word to kill Gaunt, but once Gaunt is dead, no royal words, nor the entire kingdom of England can be used to bring him back to death. This power to give life is one reserved only for God, an important limitation to the speech powers of a king who is understood as God’s substitute on earth.

Act 3, Scene 2 Quotes

That power that made you king
Hath power to keep you king in spite of all.

Related Characters: Bishop of Carlisle (speaker), King Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Page Number: 3.2.27-28
Explanation and Analysis:

Carlisle speaks these lines after Richard delivers a speech addressed to the land of England itself, urging it to fight against Henry. Carlisle says this quote to remind Richard of the supposed source of his power as king: God. Here he suggests that the power that made Richard king (i.e. God, since Richard rules by divine right) has the power to keep Richard king no matter what the odds against him (since God is omnipotent). Carlisle’s reasoning reflects Richard’s own belief in the source of his status as monarch, as well as the thinking of many in the play, including Gaunt (at first) and York, but the notion that God will keep Richard king ultimately falls flat and fails to keep Richard’s confidence up for long. We can also note that Carlisle here gives the more medieval, opposite perspective of Henry (and his supporters), who would argue the more modern notion that subjects can hold their king accountable for his actions on the throne.

Not all the water in the rough rude sea
Can wash the balm off from an anointed king.
The breath of worldly men cannot depose
The deputy elected by the Lord.
For every man that Bolingbroke hath pressed
To lift shrewd steel against our golden crown,
God for His Richard hath in heavenly pay
A glorious angel.

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV, Duke of Aumerle, Bishop of Carlisle
Related Symbols: The Crown
Page Number: 3.2.55-62
Explanation and Analysis:

Richard speaks these lines in self-reassurance after being reminded by Carlisle (and Aumerle) that he is king by divine right. Despite the fact that his chances against Henry look bad, they say, God is on his side. Employing his heavily figurative language, Richard says that not all of the water in the sea can wash away his kingliness, nor can all the breath (speech) of every human depose a king who has been chosen by God. Humans and nature, he argues, simply do not have the power to dethrone God’s appointed substitute. For every soldier that Henry has gathered to fight against the crown (representing the throne and position of king), Richard says that God has an angel who will fight on his side.

I had forgot myself. Am I not king?
Awake, thou coward majesty, thou sleepest!
Is not the King's name twenty thousand names?
Arm, arm, my name! A puny subject strikes
At thy great glory. Look not to the ground,
You favorites of a king. Are we not high?
High be our thoughts.

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Page Number: 3.2.84-90
Explanation and Analysis:

For a moment, Richard attempts to swing his emotions back upward, saying that in his despair he forgot himself. He asks himself rhetorically, “Am I not king?” He then proceeds to call out his own majesty for being asleep, and says that his name is worth twenty thousand regular names (the number of soldiers he’s just lost). He characterizes Henry as a “puny subject” compared to his own great glory, and consciously uses the imagery of low to high that has been used to characterize his fall and Henry’s rise. Richard tells himself not to look at the ground, since he himself is high (though he uses the royal “we” here to emphasize his greatness). He needs to think high to keep his high political position on the throne. However, he will soon be emotionally deflated, and ultimately he will fall and lose his crown.

Act 3, Scene 3 Quotes

He is come to open
The purple testament of bleeding war;
But ere the crown he looks for live in peace,
Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothers' sons
Shall ill become the flower of England's face,
Change the complexion of her maid-pale peace
To scarlet indignation, and bedew
Her pastures' grass with faithful English blood.

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Related Symbols: Blood, The Crown
Page Number: 3.3.95-102
Explanation and Analysis:

Richard says these lines to Henry in a proud speech. In it, he demands that his subjects treat him with the respect a king deserves, and he reminds these subjects that he is ruler by divine right. Here, he addresses Henry directly to say that he will fight to keep the throne. Richard says that Henry is causing a bloody war, and that before he can take the crown he wants in peace, ten thousand bloody crowns (heads) of mother’s sons will stain the face of England, which is figured both as a maiden and as a garden. Richard plays on the two meanings of crown here, and he returns to the image of the blood of thousands of men and the face of England. Though instead of the blood rushing from his own face as above, in Act 3 Scene 2, here the blood will be spilled and will stain the pale face of the body politic.

Act 4, Scene 1 Quotes

What subject can give sentence on his king?
And who sits here that is not Richard's subject?

Related Characters: Bishop of Carlisle (speaker), King Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Page Number: 4.1.127-128
Explanation and Analysis:

Carlisle speaks these lines in protest after Henry is all but officially crowned king Henry IV. Carlisle again offers the more medieval perspective that a king rules solely by divine right, and that subjects of the king, no matter how dissatisfied with the monarch’s rule, do not have the power to pass sentence on a king or depose a king. And everyone but the king, he says, is a subject. The logic of these lines is what frustrated Gaunt at the beginning of the play, and is essentially the same as Richard’s logic when he said that not all the waters of the oceans could wash away his kingliness; only God or a king can dethrone or pass sentence on a king.

If you crown him, let me prophesy
The blood of English shall manure the ground
And future ages groan for this foul act,
Peace shall go sleep with Turks and infidels,
And in this seat of peace tumultuous wars
Shall kin with kin and kind with kind confound.
Disorder, horror, fear, and mutiny
Shall here inhabit, and this land be called
The field of Golgotha and dead men's skulls.
O, if you raise this house against this house,
It will the woefullest division prove
That ever fell upon this curséd earth!

Related Characters: Bishop of Carlisle (speaker), King Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Related Symbols: Blood, The Crown
Page Number: 4.1.142-153
Explanation and Analysis:

After saying that technically, Henry cannot be crowned or pass sentence on Richard, Carlisle here offers his prophesy as to what will happen if Henry somehow is crowned. He says that the blood of the English will spill onto the ground, and that future generations will despise the foul deed of crowning Henry. Other lands will find peace while England becomes home to wars, where the family fights itself and people slaughter each other. Chaos and horror, he says, will rule England, if one house (family) rises against another. Dramatically, Carlisle says that it will be the worst split to ever occur on earth. This vivid, intense prophesy, audiences would know, will ultimately come true in later plays in the extremely blood Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York. We can note that part of the horror of this war is that it is a war between two sides of one family. Here the family drama is elevated to a royal scale, and to deadly effect.

Yet I well remember
The favors of these men. Were they not mine?
Did they not sometime cry "All hail" to me?
So Judas did to Christ, but He in twelve
Found truth in all but one; I, in twelve thousand, none.

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Page Number: 4.1.175-179
Explanation and Analysis:

Richard says these lines just before officially turning his crown over to Henry. He laments that all of those who used to be his subjects and used to praise him are now supporting Henry as king. Richard likens this betrayal and the frustration of their shallow loyalty to Judas’s betrayal of Christ. But, as always, Richard expands the example to a kingly scale, saying that he has been betrayed by thousands, as opposed to only one (Judas) who betrayed Jesus. And what’s more, Judas was only one out of twelve apostles who betrayed, whereas Richard claims that none of his thousands were truthful to him. This final point though, is a little over the top, as only moments before these lines are spoken Carlisle has been arrested for treason against Henry for supporting Richard.

Here, cousin, seize the crown.
Here, cousin.
On this side my hand, on that side thine.
Now is this golden crown like a deep well
That owes two buckets, filling one another,
The emptier ever dancing in the air,
The other down, unseen, and full of water.
That bucket down and full of tears am I,
Drinking my grief, whilst you mount up on high.

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Related Symbols: The Crown
Page Number: 4.1.190-198
Explanation and Analysis:

In this climactic moment, the transition of power from Richard to Henry is made through the physical object of the crown, which symbolizes power and the throne itself. Both men hold either side of the crown, while Richard characterizes it as a deep well with two buckets alternately rising (when empty) and falling (when full of water). While Richard passes his power to Henry, he envisions Henry as a higher bucket pouring sorrows, grief, and tears down to a lower bucket that is Richard. It is fitting that as his fall is enacted and Henry’s rise to power is made official, Richard uses more low and high imagery with himself occupying the lowly figure.

With mine own tears I wash away my balm,
With mine own hands I give away my crown,
With mine own tongue deny my sacred state,
With mine own breath release all duteous oaths.
All pomp and majesty I do forswear.
My manors, rents, revenues I forgo;
My acts, decrees, and statutes I deny.
God pardon all oaths that are broke to me.
God keep all vows unbroke are made to thee.

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Related Symbols: The Crown
Page Number: 4.1.216-224
Explanation and Analysis:

In these powerful lines, which utilize anaphora, the literary device in which multiple lines begin with the same word or words (here, “with my own”), Richard officially transfers his powers as king over to Henry. These lines are significant because, while it seems that Henry’s perspective on the ability of subjects to pass sentence on kings has won, the notion that only a king can dethrone a king is not disproven. Rather, it is reinforced, as Henry’s coronation cannot be made official until Richard himself transfers the power. Thus it is crucial that Richard washes the “balm” (his anointment) with his own tears, gives the crown with his own hands, speaks the transfer with his own mouth, and makes Henry king with his own breath. It is also tragic, however, that his last speech act as king is to uncrown himself through the coronation of his foe.

Alack the heavy day,
That I have worn so many winters out
And know not now what name to call myself.
O, that I were a mockery king of snow
Standing before the sun of Bolingbroke,
To melt myself away in water drops.—

Related Characters: King Richard II (speaker), Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV
Page Number: 4.1.268-273
Explanation and Analysis:

Richard speaks these lines as a subject, having transferred away his kingly power to Henry IV. This excerpt speaks to the loss of identity that Richard feels upon losing the throne. After so many years alive, he doesn’t know what to call himself, since he has only been king thus far. After using “winters” for years, Richard uses another winter image and reverses the imagery that he has previously used to describe himself as king. Throughout the play, Richard characterizes himself as the sun, but here he wishes that he were a fake king made of snow standing before the sun that is Henry, so that he could be melted away into water. This image at once clarifies the reversal of power roles and shows Richard’s deep despair and wish to melt away into water drops, reminiscent of Hamlet’s desire to “melt into dew.”

Act 5, Scene 3 Quotes

Can no man tell me of my unthrifty son?
'Tis full three months since I did see him last.
If any plague hang over us, 'tis he.
I would to God, my lords, he might be found.
Inquire at London, 'mongst the taverns there,
For there, they say, he daily doth frequent
With unrestrainéd loose companions,

Yet through both
I see some sparks of better hope, which elder years
May happily bring forth.

Related Characters: Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV (speaker)
Page Number: 5.1.1-22
Explanation and Analysis:

Henry speaks these lines to Henry Percy and some other nobles at the beginning of a scene. He has officially been crowned king by this point in the play. The excerpt is the first (and only mention) of Henry’s own son during the play, which partly focused at the beginning on Henry’s relationship with his father, Gaunt. Henry describes his son Hal (though unnamed here) as “unthrifty,” and notes that he hasn’t seen him in three months. If anything can threaten his crown, he says, right now it’s this prodigal son, who can be found, most likely, at a tavern in London with wild companions that sometimes even commit robberies.

This depiction of Hal is proved exactly accurate in the following play, Henry IV Part 1, which focuses in part on the father-son relationship between Henry and Hal. It’s fitting that Henry has this conversation with Percy, since in the next play Henry will even say that he wishes Percy were his son instead of Hal.

It’s also fitting, though, that Henry concludes the discussion of his son by saying that he sees sparks of hope in the boy, and that he might grow up and become a son of whom he can be proud. Henry’s prediction is also proved true by the rest of the tetralogy. In fact, Henry IV Part 1 and Part 2 and Henry V can even be seen as three plays telling the story of Hal’s transition from miscreant prince to the successful King Henry V.

Act 5, Scene 6 Quotes

They love not poison that do poison need,
Nor do I thee. Though I did wish him dead,
I hate the murderer, love him murdered.
The guilt of conscience take thou for thy labor,
But neither my good word nor princely favor.

I’ll make a voyage to the Holy Land
To wash this blood off from my guilty hand.

Related Characters: Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV (speaker), King Richard II, Sir Pierce of Exton
Related Symbols: Blood
Page Number: 5.6.38-42
Explanation and Analysis:

These lines are exerpted from the final speech in the play, delivered by Henry, which is traditional, since often the most powerful figures receive the last word in Shakespeare’s plays. Henry speaks these lines after finding out that Exton has murdered Richard. While Exton claims that he did so under order from Henry, the new king tries to make it clear that he never ordered such a killing. He says that no one loves poison that needs it, and that he doesn’t love Exton. By this he means that though he desired the death of Richard, he would never order or enact it, and though Exton performed a difficult, needed service, he did so without the support of the king. Essentially, this is a paradox. Henry loves that Richard was murdered, but hates the murderer. He must take this position to ensure the legitimacy of his crown. He doesn’t want to get himself into the same position that Richard was at the start of the play, where everyone knew that he was implicated in the death of Gloucester.

At the same time, though, Henry does admit some guilt, saying that he needs to make a pilgrimage or crusade to the Holy Land in order to wash the blood from his guilty hands (even though a “crusade” typically means spilling more blood). Though Henry didn’t literally kill Richard, the situation is enough to put figurative blood on his hands, representing his guilt. Ultimately, though, he will not end up making this journey in the following plays.

Get the entire Richard II LitChart as a printable PDF.
Richard ii.pdf.medium

Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV Character Timeline in Richard II

The timeline below shows where the character Henry Bolingbroke / King Henry IV appears in Richard II. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Act 1, Scene 1
The Throne Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...and other nobles entering the stage. Richard asks Gaunt if he has brought his son Henry, who is making an accusation against Thomas Mowbray. Gaunt responds that he has indeed brought... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
Both Henry and Mowbray praise Richard before beginning to accuse one another. Henry, who is prepared to... (full context)
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
Again, Henry says that he is willing to prove his truth in battle. At Richard’s request, he... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
Mowbray then attempts to make his own case, noting that Richard and Henry are cousins. Richard, though, says that he is ever impartial, and vows that Henry will... (full context)
Act 1, Scene 2
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
...earth, and going against him would therefore be blasphemy. The Duchess says she hopes that Henry is successful in the fight, thereby punishing Mowbray for her husband’s murder, and as she... (full context)
Act 1, Scene 3
The Throne Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
...the lists, a small enclosed space for tournaments and fights like that between Mowbray and Henry. After a long ceremony in which the two men are introduced, armed, and given the... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...in a cradle. Thus, in the name of keeping the peace, Richard decides to banish Henry for ten years and to banish Mowbray for life. (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...sees how sad Gaunt is to lose his son to banishment, so the king reduces Henry’s exile from ten to six years. Here Henry remarks that the speech of kings is... (full context)
Family Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
After the king’s exit, Gaunt tries to comfort Henry, who is distraught that he must leave his native land. Every step away from home... (full context)
Act 1, Scene 4
The Throne Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
This scene takes place in Richard’s court. It begins with Richard asking Aumerle about Henry’s exit and if tears were shed. Richard then notes how popular Henry is with the... (full context)
Act 2, Scene 1
The Throne Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...saying that though he has remained patient through the death of Gloucester, the banishment of Henry, and all of the bad things happening in England, he feels Richard is “bloody with... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...king is not acting like himself and that they disagree with the decision to disinherit Henry. Northumberland notes that Richard has spent more money during peace times than other kings have... (full context)
Act 2, Scene 2
The Throne Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...discussion on grief ends, Green enters looking for Richard. Green hopes to tell Richard that Henry has returned and grouped with Northumberland, Ross, and Willoughby. After Richard’s Queen says this must... (full context)
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
...the Duchess of Gloucester has died. York says that though he is related to both Henry and Richard, and he acknowledges that Richard wronged Henry, he will still side with the... (full context)
Act 2, Scene 3
The Throne Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Henry and Northumberland enter to begin this scene, heading for Berkeley Castle even though they don’t... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...moment Ross and Willoughby enter, and after them comes Berkeley, who carries a message for Henry, who in turn states that he is in England to stake a claim to his... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
York then enters and begins scolding Henry for violating Richard’s decree of banishment by stepping again on English soil. He says that... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Henry’s clever response is that he was banished under a different title and has simply come... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Northumberland and the other nobles agree that Henry has been mistreated, and even York agrees that Richard has been unfair and a subpar... (full context)
Act 3, Scene 1
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Act three begins with kinglike Henry calling forth Bushy and Green, and then proceeding to deliver a long speech in which... (full context)
Act 3, Scene 2
The Throne Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...now filled with rebels. He urges the earth of England itself to be hostile to Henry and those who would usurp Richard’s crown. After this speech, Carlisle reassures the king, saying... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...traitors are shown for what they truly are. Thus, he says, he need not fear Henry. (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
...sea can wash the royal “balm” from a king appointed by God. For every soldier Henry has, Richard says, God has an angel that will defend him. (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...for the worst possible news (his own death) when Scroop enters. Scroop says that as Henry marches through the country, people both old and young have been flocking to his cause... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...begin preparing their wills, and that their lands and lives and everything are all now Henry’s. The only thing that they possess for themselves now is death and their skin. He... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...die, he says, then to simply die afraid. Richard agrees and decides he will fight Henry, but almost immediately again he is broken with the bad news that York has joined... (full context)
Act 3, Scene 3
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
The scene begins with Henry recapping the information learned in the previous scene: Richard’s armies have dispersed, and he has... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
...then enters and says that Richard is in Flint Castle along with his remaining supporters. Henry instructs Percy to enter the castle and declare that Henry pledges his love and allegiance... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Just when Henry completes the message that he wants Percy to send, Richard appears. Henry compares the king... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...him, they have brought the wrath of God upon their children. He concludes by addressing Henry directly: Richard says that every step on English land taken by Henry is treason, and... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Northumberland responds to this speech in an attempt to placate Richard, assuring him that Henry is bending his knee and only back in England to reclaim what is rightfully his.... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
When the two men finally stand in front of one another again, Henry kneels before Richard, but Richard accuses Henry of making an attempt to gain the crown.... (full context)
Act 3, Scene 4
The Throne Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...England’s bad state, Richard, and all of his men, have been captured or killed by Henry Bolingbroke. The gardener is certain that Richard will soon be deposed. (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
...he would say that Richard is deposed. The gardener responds that everyone has sided with Henry, making it all but certain that he will overpower and depose the king. The Queen... (full context)
Act 4, Scene 1
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
This scene begins with Henry continuing his investigation into the murder of Gloucester. He begins by calling forward Bagot, who... (full context)
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Though Henry stops Bagot from picking up the gage, Fitzwater steps up and throws his own gage,... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...a snarky comment from Carlisle, York enters and says that Richard has agreed to make Henry his heir and descend from the throne. York then announces Henry as king Henry IV,... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
But since Henry has been crowned, Carlisle’s speech is figured as treason, and so he is arrested. Henry... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Richard then takes the crown and tells Henry to seize it. They both hold on to either end of the crown, which Richard... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...speech, Richard asks to be taken away, just so that he doesn’t have to see Henry anymore; the old king is then taken to the tower, and most everyone exits. (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...the Abbot tells Aumerle to follow him home, where they’ll discuss a plot to assassinate Henry. (full context)
Act 5, Scene 1
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
To this the Queen asks if Henry has deposed Richard’s intellect along with his crown, questioning why he is surrendering and submitting... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
At this point Northumberland enters and says that Henry has decided Richard will be taken to Pomfret instead of the Tower. To him, Richard... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
Richard also laments that he has been doubly divorced, since Henry has split him up from his crown and from his wife. Though they request to... (full context)
Act 5, Scene 2
The Throne Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...wife the Duchess of York. The Duke has been telling his wife the story of Henry’s rise to power, and says that the common people cheered for the new king. Richard,... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...and reads, he cries out ‘treason!’—apparently having discovered Aumerle’s involvement in the plot to assassinate Henry. York immediately takes off to inform Henry of the plot, which he says he would... (full context)
Act 5, Scene 3
The Throne Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
King Henry begins this scene by wondering where his son is. He reflects that he hasn’t seen... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
...what it is, he wants to lock the door to the room for privacy, and Henry consents, though York soon begins knocking and crying out that Henry should beware. Alerted to... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
York then gives Henry the writing that revealed the plot. While Henry cries out about the conspiracy and remarks... (full context)
Act 5, Scene 5
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
...but in none of them is he happy, for he has always been “unkinged” by Henry. (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
...man that was once his king. The groom explains that he dressed the horse that Henry rode on recently, and Richard asks if the horse bore Henry proudly, hoping that it... (full context)
Act 5, Scene 6
The Throne Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
King Henry reports to York that he still awaits news on the rebels. Northumberland then enters and... (full context)
The Throne Theme Icon
Language Theme Icon
Family Theme Icon
Honor and Appearance Theme Icon
England Theme Icon
After the pardon is delivered, Exton enters with Richard’s coffin. Henry is careful not to thank Exton, and says that he never ordered this. Though he... (full context)