Romeo and Juliet

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Love Theme Analysis

Themes and Colors
Love Theme Icon
Fate Theme Icon
Individuals vs. Society Theme Icon
Language and Word Play Theme Icon
Servants Theme Icon
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Romeo and Juliet, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Love Theme Icon

Love in Romeo and Juliet is not some pretty, idealized emotion. Yes, the love Romeo and Juliet share is beautiful and passionate. It is pure, exhilarating, and transformative, and they are willing to give everything to it. But it is also chaotic and destructive, bringing death to friends, family, and to themselves. Over and over in the play, Romeo and Juliet's love is mentioned in connection with death and violence, and finds it's greatest expression in their suicide.

The theme of love in Romeo and Juliet also extends beyond the love that Romeo and Juliet feel for each other. All the characters in the play constantly talk about love. Mercutio thinks love is little more than an excuse to pursue sexual pleasure and that it makes a man weak and dumb. Lady Capulet thinks love is based on material things: Paris is handsome and wealthy; therefore Lady Capulet believes Juliet will love him. Lord Capulet sees love as obedience and duty. Friar Laurence knows that love may be passionate, but argues that it's also a responsibility. Paris seems to think that love is at his command, since he tells Juliet that she loves him. In short, love is everywhere in Romeo and Juliet, and everyone sees it differently.

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Love Quotes in Romeo and Juliet

Below you will find the important quotes in Romeo and Juliet related to the theme of Love.
Prologue Quotes
Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes,
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life;
Whose misadventured piteous overthrows,
Doth with their death bury their parents' strife.
The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love,
And the continuance of their parents' rage,
Which, but their children's end, nought could remove,
Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage;
The which if you with patient ears attend,
What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend.
Related Characters: The Chorus (speaker), Romeo, Juliet
Page Number: Prol.1-14
Explanation and Analysis:

The chorus which opens Romeo and Juliet echoes the chorus of ancient Greek tragedies, a troupe of masked performers who explained, summarized, or contextualized aspects of the play. In the case of Romeo and Juliet, the chorus first places the action in Verona at a particular time (after an “ancient grudge” and during a “new mutiny” between two noble families). In the next sentence, this chorus narrows its scope to the play’s protagonists – the “star-cross’d lovers” who will die because of the play’s events. Finally, it tells the audience that the play, the “two hours’ traffic of our stage,” focuses on these lovers’ deaths “and their parents’ rage,” which could only be quenched by the deaths of their children. By framing their summary this way, and placing their description of Romeo and Juliet in the middle of descriptions of their parents, the chorus emphasizes that Romeo and Juliet live within a social context that precedes and succeeds them. This Prologue also informs us that these “lovers” are “star-cross’d” and their “love” is “death-mark’d”; amorphous forces – fate, love, and death – will control the action as much as the characters and actors.

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Act 1, scene 1 Quotes
Why then, O brawling love! O loving hate!
O any thing, of nothing first created;
O heavy lightness! serious vanity!
Mis-shapen chaos of well-seeming forms!
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker)
Page Number: 1.1.181-184
Explanation and Analysis:

The first scene seems to obey the same order as the Prologue: first, a fight breaks out on the street between members of the rival households, and then we see our star-cross’d lover on the stage. Romeo's metaphors echo the contradictory language of the typical Petrarchan lover – a lover who echoes the paradoxical phrases of the Italian poet Francesco Petrarch. Romeo is not yet pining after Juliet, however; here, he longs for the woman Rosaline, whom he feels is the most beautiful woman in the world. Since Romeo begins the play so ardently in love with another woman, we will certainly see his entire love story with Juliet, as the Chorus promised us. Yet, Romeo’s professed love for Rosaline does incite a bit of doubt over the validity of his true feelings for Juliet later, discoloring what has entered popular culture as a famous story of true love—it's important to remember that the protagonists are only young teenagers, experiencing throes of passion that could easily change or disappear.

In this scene, as Romeo is expressing this passion, he shares it with his friend Benvolio—he can't seem to keep it to himself. This introduces the notion that love does not merely occur between two individuals; others can and will mediate the expressions and feelings of love.

Act 1, scene 5 Quotes
Oh, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope's ear,
Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear.
So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows
As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows.
The measure done, I'll watch her place of stand,
And, touching hers, make blessèd my rude hand.
Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight!
For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night.
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker), Juliet
Related Symbols: Light/Dark and Day/Night
Page Number: 1.5.51-60
Explanation and Analysis:

Before Romeo learns Juliet's name, he is amazed by her beauty and begins to use the analogy of light to describe her particular radiance. Juliet has immediately replaced Rosaline in Juliet's mind—a fact that Romeo alludes to directly and indirectly. Directly, he claims that Juliet surpasses all other women; she is a "snowy dove" in comparison to the "crows." Indirectly, he neglects to mention even Rosaline's name in referring to his past loves—indeed, he does not say Rosaline's name again until the Friar Laurence reminds him of it in a later scene (after which Romeo claims that he "forgot" that name and the emotions associated with it).

You kiss by th'book.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo
Page Number: 1.5.121
Explanation and Analysis:

At Lord Capulet’s feast, Romeo is drawn to Juliet’s beauty, and he professes that she is the most beautiful woman he has ever seen. Without knowing who she is, he comes to her and asks to kiss her. When he asks, he (somewhat sacrilegiously) uses religious lexicon – comparing her hand to a “holy shrine,” describing his lips as “two blushing pilgrims” – as he creates metaphors to describe the physical actions he is proposing (such as holding hands and kissing). Juliet parallels this, using such spiritual terminology as well. After they kiss twice, though, she tells Romeo that he kisses “by the book,” or by the rules. Here, she implies that Romeo kisses her just as he ought to, bringing their conversation down to worldly rules and away from the spiritual realm that Romeo was creating with his words.

My only love sprung from my only hate!
Too early seen unknown, and known too late!
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo
Page Number: 1.5.152-153
Explanation and Analysis:

As the guests are leaving her house’s feast, Juliet decides to find out who Romeo is. She first asks her nurse who two other gentlemen are and then finally asks her one of the most significant questions of the play, the question of Romeo’s identity. The notion of fate is at play even in Juliet’s question; right after she requests that her nurse ask for Romeo’s name, she says that, if Romeo is married, her “grave” will likely be her “wedding bed.” The nurse never mentions if Romeo is married, but his identity as a Montague, “the only son of your great enemy,” is evil enough, spurring Juliet to give this eloquent exclamation. With these lines, Juliet arrives at the emotional contradiction at the heart of the play: she loves a man whom her parents hate. This play will juxtapose such opposites, manifesting the tumultuous, contradictory feelings of the jilted Petrarchan lover.

Act 2, scene 2 Quotes
But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun!
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker), Juliet
Related Symbols: Light/Dark and Day/Night
Page Number: 2.2.1-2
Explanation and Analysis:

After the feast ends, Romeo does not journey away from the Capulet’s house along with his friends; instead he climbs and leaps down a wall, in order to seek out and rejoin Juliet. He exclaims that his “heart” is somewhere else now, with her. When he sees her, he is again struck by her beauty, as he declares that she is “the sun.” These lines are thematically significant as well as beautiful (and extremely famous), and they illustrate yet another contradiction at work. It is undoubtedly night at the moment when Romeo claims that the “light” through the “window” is the light of daybreak, which comes from the East. Romeo is not merely engaging in eloquent, fictitious language; he is also introducing another duality for the strength of their love to overturn. Juliet is so beautiful that she can transform the night into the day.

O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?
Deny thy father and refuse thy name;
Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,
And I'll no longer be a Capulet.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo, Montague
Page Number: 2.2.36-39
Explanation and Analysis:

It seems that Juliet cannot forget Romeo either; she begins to speak to herself about him, while he watches from below. As Juliet ponders aloud, she does not only ask why her love is a Montague, her family’s rival household; she asks why ("wherefore" means "why") he is “Romeo,” inviting us into a broader discussion about the power and purpose of naming and language in general. Can verbal expression truly rearrange bonds between individuals? Juliet claims that Romeo could “deny thy father and refuse thy name”; in other words, Romeo could genuinely separate himself from his family through spoken words and through refusing to own the name they gave him. Through marriage, Juliet could certainly do this; if she marries Romeo (and he is “sworn my love”), then she will legally as well as emotionally “no longer be a Capulet.” Juliet will continue to reflect on this theme as this scene, one of the most famous love scenes in all of drama, continues. This reminds us that much of love comes from words and wordplay.

'Tis but thy name that is my enemy; —
Thou art thyself though, not a Montague.
What's Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What's in a name? That which we call a rose,
By any other word would smell as sweet;
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes
Without that title: — Romeo, doff thy name;
And for thy name, which is no part of thee,
Take all myself.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo
Page Number: 2.2.41-52
Explanation and Analysis:

As Juliet continues to dwell upon this theme of love and language, the audience can realize the extent of her emotional upset. She presses further, even saying that Romeo “art thyself” and is “not a Montague.” Although Romeo may be embedded within the societal network of the Montague family, his physical body is his own; his identity as a Montague is not a “hand, nor foot, / Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part / Belonging to a man.” Juliet starts to repeat herself, again urging Romeo to refuse his name: “O, be some other name!”; “Retain that dear perfection … without that title”; “Romeo, doff thy name.” Such repetition must come from a tumultuous state of mind. Despite her emotional furor, through, Juliet inspires a larger conversation about naming, language, and societal identity in general with her famous “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose, / By any other word would smell as sweet” observation. (i.e. does language affect even our senses? Science suggests it actually does, but that's another question.) She closes this soliloquy by wholly giving herself to her lover: “Take all myself.”

I take thee at thy word:
Call me but love, and I'll be new baptis'd;
Henceforth I never will be Romeo.
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker), Juliet
Page Number: 2.2.53-55
Explanation and Analysis:

Romeo finally reveals his presence, after Juliet has declared her love for him on her balcony. His reply echoes the same themes which Juliet mentioned: love and language, individual and society. Romeo claims that he can “be new baptis’d,” if Juliet will “call me but love.” Of course, he cannot truly baptize himself, as this ceremony is performed by a social figure—a priest who is invested with authority by human society and by the Christian God, who himself expresses his love in covenants: solemn agreements which can be delivered through language. Romeo himself provides the first possible solution to the two lovers’ difficult situation; it is not surprising that, for “star-cross’d” individuals with “death-mark’d” love, such an idealized solution is an impossibility.

O, swear not by the moon, the inconstant moon,
That monthly changes in her circled orb,
Lest that thy love prove likewise variable.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker)
Related Symbols: Light/Dark and Day/Night
Page Number: 2.2.114-116
Explanation and Analysis:

Before Romeo and Juliet end their famous exchange of sweet nothings during the balcony scene, Juliet urges Romeo to not swear "by the moon," which has a varying shape that depends on the time of the month (and "monthly changes in her circles orb"). This is part of a larger series of Juliet romantically urging Romeo to "swear" or not "swear" -- not by the moon, by his name, and then not at all. It functions as a romantic saying, which has more meaning because it is said than because of its actual content, but it also suggests a thought which Juliet will explicitly say: she longs for a lasting love, not one that is so immediate and only fleeting.

Good-night, good-night! Parting is such sweet sorrow
That I shall say good-night till it be morrow.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo
Related Symbols: Light/Dark and Day/Night
Page Number: 2.2.199-201
Explanation and Analysis:

Another one of the play’s famous phrases (“Parting is such sweet sorrow”) is here delivered by Juliet as she and Romeo slowly end the "balcony scene." Juliet describes parting as an oxymoron, an event which is sweet (because it allows her to speak to her lover) and sorrowful (because it heralds a separation from him). To deal with this contradiction, Juliet puts in place another: she will continue to say “goodbye” (a word that, by definition, necessitates a subsequent parting and silence) until the night turns into day. Her actions will thus contradict her words. The day and night motif appears here as well, as Juliet acknowledges the separation between day and night, although later scenes in the play will further play with this binary.

Act 3, scene 1 Quotes
Romeo, the hate I bear thee can afford
No better term than this: thou art a villain.
Related Characters: Tybalt (speaker), Romeo
Page Number: 3.1.61-62
Explanation and Analysis:

When Tybalt, Juliet’s cousin, sees Romeo in a public place, he does not deny or weaken his feelings as he expresses his hatred. The strength of Tybalt’s declaration reminds us of Juliet’s words; Tybalt’s hatred impels him to name Romeo (as “a villain”), just as Juliet’s love drove her to name him (as her lover). Yet, Romeo next gives us a sense for how hatred and love can intertwine; he responds that he will refuse to acknowledge Tybalt’s hatred because he has reasons to love Tybalt. For Romeo in this scene, love overpowers hatred; this demonstrates that love and hatred are not merely opposing phenomenon in this play, but rather are engaged in interplay.

Romeo: Courage, man; the hurt cannot be much.
Mercutio: No, 'tis not so deep as a well, nor so wide as a church-door; but 'tis enough, 'twill serve: ask for me to-morrow, and you shall find me a grave man.
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker), Mercutio (speaker)
Page Number: 3.1.99-102
Explanation and Analysis:

Mercutio receives a wound from Tybalt during their fight, and it is indeed mortal, although Romeo claims it isn't as he attempts to inspire courage in his friend. Mercutio is under no such delusion; his dark pun that he will be a “grave man” tomorrow (a man who is somber or a man who is in a grave) demonstrates his acknowledgment of his true condition. Mercutio is ever the realist, about his own life and about others’ lives. Mercutio will die, and he will become a victim of the feud between the Capulets and Montagues, although he does not belong to either family. This indicates the extent to which these two households’ rivalry affects the larger society of Verona.

O, I am fortune's fool!
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker)
Page Number: 3.1.142
Explanation and Analysis:

Romeo exclaims that he is "fortune's fool" after two deaths occur -- the death of his friend Mercutio and the death of Juliet's cousin Tybalt. Of course, we know from the play's Prologue that Romeo is indeed "fortune's fool," as he is one of two "star-cross'd" lovers who will die because of the drama's events. Yet, Romeo ironically utters this statement after he himself kills Tybalt, with his own sword and hands, during a combat which he immediately incited because of his passion over Mercutio's death. This inspires a degree of uncertainty about whether Romeo is indeed "fortune's fool," or whether he cooperates with fortune of his own free will, thus partially causing his own death as well. 

Act 3, scene 2 Quotes
Come, gentle night, — come, loving black brow'd night,
Give me my Romeo; and when he shall die,
Take him and cut him out in little stars,
And he will make the face of Heaven so fine
That all the world will be in love with night,
And pay no worship to the garish sun.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo
Related Symbols: Light/Dark and Day/Night
Page Number: 3.2.21-27
Explanation and Analysis:

Before the Nurse enters and informs Juliet that Tybalt has died, Juliet speaks alone in the Capulets' courtyard about her desire for Romeo. She urges the night to "come" so that she can meet Romeo under the cover of darkness, as forbidden lovers do. As she passionately continues speaking, Juliet visually imagines Romeo's head existing in the night sky, illuminating the world with his fairness. Juliet's vision of Romeo serving as an image for the whole world to behold is imaginative, and it also suggests an inner longing to make their love less secretive. She dreams that night could become a force which allows the world to view her love, instead of the only time when it is safe enough to seek out her lover's company. 

Act 3, scene 5 Quotes
Wilt thou be gone? it is not yet near day.
It was the nightingale, and not the lark,
That pierc'd the fearful hollow of thine ear;
Nightly she sings on yond pomegranate tree.
Believe me love, it was the nightingale.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo
Related Symbols: Light/Dark and Day/Night
Page Number: 3.5.1-5
Explanation and Analysis:

The nightingale has a rich tradition as a symbol in medieval romances, and it is fitting that Juliet references this creature when she attempts to convince Romeo that it is not yet day and their night of love-making is not over. Although Juliet was earlier willing to acknowledge the separation between day and night (when she said she would say good-bye until night became day), here she conflates the two. It is now day, but Juliet situates herself and Romeo within a fictitious night. This indicates how the lovers’ situation has grown more desperate, which Juliet also suggests herself, with her description of “the fearful hollow of thine ear”—both lovers are afraid of the coming day, and what it may bring.

Is there no pity sitting in the clouds
That sees into the bottom of my grief?
O sweet my mother, cast me not away!
Delay this marriage for a month, a week,
Or if you do not, make the bridal bed
In that dim monument where Tybalt lies.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Lady Capulet, Tybalt
Page Number: 3.5.208-213
Explanation and Analysis:

Romeo finally leaves Juliet’s room when her Nurse warns her that Lady Capulet is coming. Lady Capulet arrives with “joyful tidings” that will hopefully ease the woe that Juliet (supposedly) feels for Tybalt’s death: Juliet is to marry County Paris next Thursday. Of course, to Juliet, this news is the opposite of joyful. She reveals her love for Romeo to her mother and father, who refuse to acknowledge her desire to marry him. Her father swiftly leaves, and Juliet here appeals to her mother. She begs her mother to not cast her away, although Juliet has already figuratively cast herself away from her household during conversations with Romeo. Juliet practically suggests that her mother might merely delay this marriage to County Paris, before more ardently and imaginatively asking her mother to make her bridal bed with County Paris a tomb—reflecting her earlier phrase, upon first seeing Romeo, that the grave should be her wedding-bed.

Act 4, scene 1 Quotes
Or bid me go into a new-made grave,
And hide me with a dead man in his shroud -
Things that, to hear them told, have made me tremble -
And I will do it without fear or doubt,
To live an unstain'd wife to my sweet love.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker), Romeo
Page Number: 4.1.85-90
Explanation and Analysis:

After Juliet suggests that her bridal bed with County Paris and her tomb should be conflated, she finds herself making a similar suggestion as she pleads with her ally the Friar Laurence for assistance. Shortly before she makes this exclamation, Juliet was forced to discuss her impending marriage with both Paris and Friar Laurence, and this encounter has likely added to her constant emotional tumult, to produce the desperation she describes here. Yet Juliet also expresses a sort of strength through her desperation; she will do what she must “without fear or doubt” because she fosters such a passionate regard for Romeo. It is moments such as these that have made Romeo and Juliet two of the most famous lovers in history, as they are so renowned for their ability to resist their surrounding society.

Act 5, scene 1 Quotes
Then I defy you, stars!
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker)
Page Number: 5.1.25
Explanation and Analysis:

Balthasar has brought word to Romeo that Juliet is dead and lies in the Capulet’s tomb vaults. Romeo’s immediate response is the question “Is it even so?,” a momentary refusal to recognize the death of Juliet, which only briefly precedes his exclamation “then I defy you, stars!” Here, we witness how these lovers are “star-cross’d”: fate causes Romeo to hear that Juliet is dead, which will soon lead to his own death and her actual death. We see our lovers strive against the more amorphous forces which oppose them. The stars do not only “defy” Romeo’s wishes; through his use of language, Romeo is able to “defy” them, as well.

Act 5, scene 3 Quotes
O true apothecary! Thy drugs are quick. — Thus with a kiss I die.
Related Characters: Romeo (speaker), Juliet, The Apothecary
Page Number: 5.3.119-120
Explanation and Analysis:

In Juliet’s tomb, Romeo believes that his lover is dead, along with Tybalt, and near to Paris, whom he has just killed and lays in this grave as well. Romeo delivers a lengthy soliloquy, beginning by describing Juliet’s beauty (her quality which first attracted his notice) and claiming that death has not slighted her appearance in any way. Romeo also makes peace with Tybalt; even his last declaration of love to Juliet is contextualized by others, and by the greater society in which they exist. Finally, Romeo drinks the poison, which swiftly begins to kill him, urging him to say that the apothecary was “true” in selling him an effective poison. The natural substances – which, as Friar Laurence earlier reminded us, can either work for good or for evil – here are fulfilling the purpose which Romeo hopes they will fulfill.

Yea, noise,then I'll be brief;
O, happy dagger!
This is thy sheath; there rest, and let me die.
Related Characters: Juliet (speaker)
Page Number: 5.3.174-175
Explanation and Analysis:

Romeo’s drugs were “quick” to kill him, and Juliet decides to make her last moments “brief” as well, because she hears “noise” from the broader society outside the tomb. She makes her own body the dagger’s “sheath” for the dagger, stabbing herself. Like Romeo, she kills herself because she believes that her lover is dead. However, here Romeo is truly dead; earlier, Romeo falsely believed that Juliet had died. This unfortunate accident of fate places a harsh dramatic irony over the tragedy. Morbidly, though, the two lovers’ similar deaths connects them for the audience. And they even share the same last word – “die” – which affirms the power of death to connect the two lovers.

For never was a story of more woe
Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.
Related Characters: Prince Escalus (speaker), Romeo, Juliet
Page Number: 5.3.320-321
Explanation and Analysis:

As Prince Escalus ends the play, another figure finally acknowledges the intimate association between the two lovers; he refers to Romeo as “her Romeo,” thus belonging to Juliet. Yet he also recapitulates their story as a story with the most woe, and thus language allows him to circumscribe the lovers’ narrative with his own words. The broader society of Verona, which is led and symbolized by Prince Escalus, is personified in the play both after and before Romeo and Juliet appear. This places the play’s love story within the sphere of broader forces – of human society, of spiritual dominion, of secular fate – that conspire to form the final outcome.