The Birthmark

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Themes and Colors
Science, Nature, and Religion Theme Icon
Perfection Theme Icon
Fatal Pride Theme Icon
Submission and Sacrifice Theme Icon
Mortality Theme Icon
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Aylmer exhibits the trait known as hubris, a pride that results in his own downfall. The idea of hubris originates with Greek stage tragedies such as Oedipus Rex, but many characters since ancient times have similarly suffered from their own sense of superiority. Aylmer, for one, has complete confidence in his own scientific methods, despite the failures he has experienced in the past. Even though he has never made an elixir of life, for example, he tells Georgiana that he definitely could if he wanted to.

Furthermore, Aylmer has married one of the most beautiful and good women in the world, whom many other men would have liked to marry. But he isn’t content to have the best woman; instead he must have a perfect woman. In his pride, Aylmer thinks he can correct what he sees as the mistakes of nature, and thus, Hawthorne implies, of God. Such an idea requires that Aylmer assume himself superior to these entities. He essentially tries to play God by means of his scientific skills. Characters invariably come to bad ends when they step on God’s toes, and Aylmer is no exception.

Aylmer’s hubris seems particularly extreme in contrast to the humble natures of the other two characters. Although Georgiana is admired by all men who see her, she never shows any vanity. Instead, she comes to hate her own appearance because of Aylmer’s influence. Similarly, Aminadab accepts Aylmer’s view of him as a dumb machine, and never tries to convince Aylmer that he understands the birthmark better than Aylmer does, even though his perspective on it turns out to be the correct one.

Aylmer is blind to his own mortal shortcomings, and so he believes that he can make right what nature has made, in his eyes, wrong. Instead his hubris ends, as hubris always does, with tragedy.

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Fatal Pride Quotes in The Birthmark

Below you will find the important quotes in The Birthmark related to the theme of Fatal Pride.
The Birthmark Quotes

I have already given this matter the deepest thought—thought which might almost have enlightened me to create a being less perfect than yourself. Georgiana, you have led me deeper than ever into the heart of science. I feel myself fully competent to render this dear cheek as faultless as its fellow; and then, most beloved, what will be my triumph when I shall have corrected what Nature left imperfect in her fairest work! Even Pygmalion, when his sculptured woman assumed life, felt not greater ecstasy than mine will be.

Related Characters: Aylmer (speaker), Georgiana
Related Symbols: The Birthmark
Page Number: 181
Explanation and Analysis:

In this passage, Aylmer attempts to reassure Georgiana that he can definitely remove the birthmark as she has suggested he do. At the beginning of the story, the narrator remarked that Aylmer’s love of Georgiana could only match his love of science if the two loves were somehow joined together. Here, Aylmer expresses his delight that the two will, in fact, be joined as he uses his scientific wisdom to make his wife into a creature he can admire without reserve.

Aylmer also exhibits the first suggestions of his dangerous pride here. He suggests that he’s come close to achieving the knowledge necessary to creating a human being by means of science, the ultimate goal for a scientist seeking to understand and recreate everything that nature—and thus God—can do. Furthermore, Aylmer has no doubt that he can correct what he sees as nature’s mistake, and he’s already imagining how triumphant he’ll feel once he’s done so.

Aylmer compares himself to Pygmalion, a Greek mythological figure who sculpted a statue of a woman so beautiful that he fell in love with her. To Pygmalion’s joy, the goddess Aphrodite brought the statue to life. Aylmer sees himself as similar to Pygmalion because he hopes to, if not create a woman from scratch, create a more perfect Georgiana. Pygmalion can also be seen as a prideful figure, however, since he scorned all other women and only fell in love with his own art, so the comparison adds to the sense of Aylmer’s arrogance.


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Here, too, at an earlier period, he had studied the wonders of the human frame, and attempted to fathom the very process by which Nature assimilates all her precious influences from earth and air, and from the spiritual world, to create and foster man, her masterpiece. The latter pursuit, however, Aylmer had long laid aside in unwilling recognition of the truth—against which all seekers sooner or later stumble—that our great creative Mother, while she amuses us with apparently working in the broadest sunshine, is yet severely careful to keep her own secrets, and, in spite of her pretended openness, shows us nothing but results. She permits us, indeed, to mar, but seldom to mend, and, like a jealous patentee, on no account to make.

Related Characters: Aylmer (speaker)
Page Number: 182
Explanation and Analysis:

In this passage, the narrator relates one of Aylmer’s past endeavors in his laboratory—to create a human being. This attempt is reminiscent of Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, published about thirty years before “The Birthmark,” in which Dr. Frankenstein creates a destructive monster in his attempt to create a human. The failures of both scientists to complete their experiments—and the fatal pride involved in attempting such experiments—link them together.

Trying to create life is the ultimate mark of a pride that puts Aylmer dangerously close to trying to imitate God. Aylmer has eventually had to admit failure in this area and bow to nature’s greater ability. However, he says at multiple points that he is using the knowledge he gained from his attempt in the process of removing the birthmark, which perhaps should be cause for alarm. The narrator heightens the sense of foreboding by remarking that it’s easy to ruin nature’s creations, but it’s very difficult to fix them. Again and again, the birthmark is labeled a sign of nature, so it’s very risky to try fixing it.

Aylmer bade her cast her eyes upon a vessel containing a quantity of earth. She did so, with little interest at first; but was soon startled to perceive the germ of a plant shooting upward from the soil. Then came the slender stalk; the leaves gradually unfolded themselves; and amid them was a perfect and lovely flower.
"It is magical!" cried Georgiana. "I dare not touch it."
"Nay, pluck it," answered Aylmer,—"pluck it, and inhale its brief perfume while you may. The flower will wither in a few moments and leave nothing save its brown seed vessels; but thence may be perpetuated a race as ephemeral as itself."
But Georgiana had no sooner touched the flower than the whole plant suffered a blight, its leaves turning coal-black as if by the agency of fire.

Related Characters: Aylmer (speaker), Georgiana (speaker)
Related Symbols: Plants
Page Number: 184
Explanation and Analysis:

While Aylmer is preparing to remove the birthmark, he shows Georgiana wonders that he produces by his scientific abilities. He means to impress her with this demonstration of his scientific power over a plant, one of nature’s creations, but it fails. The miracle of the plant exists in its condensed life cycle—it sprouts, flowers, and dies in a matter of moments. This process draws attention to the mortality of nature’s creations, a fact that irritates Aylmer when it’s represented by Georgiana’s birthmark. The plant dies even sooner than it should when Georgiana touches it, further emphasizing the association between Georgiana and the inevitability of death.

One of Aylmer’s ambitions, even if he says he won’t act on it, is to create life. Aylmer tells Georgiana that the plant’s seeds will continue the existence of its species, reminding the reader that Aylmer, too, could create life through natural means—after all, he’s married to a beautiful woman, so he could just try to have a baby with her. But perhaps Aylmer is bothered by the fact that the plant’s descendants will be “ephemeral,” or short-lived. His natural descendants, too, would be only normal humans with mortal lifespans, and he grasps at something more than this, at escaping nature’s cycle of life and death.

He gave a history of the long dynasty of the alchemists, who spent so many ages in quest of the universal solvent by which the golden principle might be elicited from all things vile and base. Aylmer appeared to believe that, by the plainest scientific logic, it was altogether within the limits of possibility to discover this long-sought medium; "but," he added, "a philosopher who should go deep enough to acquire the power would attain too lofty a wisdom to stoop to the exercise of it." Not less singular were his opinions in regard to the elixir vitae. He more than intimated that it was at his option to concoct a liquid that should prolong life for years, perhaps interminably; but that it would produce a discord in Nature which all the world, and chiefly the quaffer of the immortal nostrum, would find cause to curse.

Related Characters: Aylmer (speaker), Georgiana
Page Number: 185
Explanation and Analysis:

During one of his breaks from preparing the materials necessary to remove the birthmark, Aylmer gives this account of scientific history to Georgiana. He seems to have firm opinions on the morality of certain long-sought scientific goals, specifically the ability to make gold out of other materials and the creation of a drink that would cause immortality. Aylmer believes that both of these goals are possible to attain, but that the use of either alchemy or an elixir of life would degrade the user and disturb the balance of nature, so scientists should not pursue them.

Aylmer again exhibits his pride here, particularly when he implies that he could mix an elixir of life if he wanted to. Additionally, he seems blind to how his current experiment with the birthmark might relate to either of these pursuits that he sees as immoral and prideful. He’s concerned about “discord in Nature,” but he never thinks that his own attempt to alter nature’s creation might have similarly negative consequences.

"And what is this?" asked Georgiana, pointing to a small crystal globe containing a gold-colored liquid. "It is so beautiful to the eye that I could imagine it the elixir of life."
"In one sense it is," replied Aylmer; "or, rather, the elixir of immortality. It is the most precious poison that ever was concocted in this world. By its aid I could apportion the lifetime of any mortal at whom you might point your finger. The strength of the dose would determine whether he were to linger out years, or drop dead in the midst of a breath. No king on his guarded throne could keep his life if I, in my private station, should deem that the welfare of millions justified me in depriving him of it.”

Related Characters: Aylmer (speaker), Georgiana (speaker)
Page Number: 185-86
Explanation and Analysis:

Aylmer is showing Georgiana his collection of scientific wonders when she asks about the golden liquid. This exchange shows the potentially dangerous power of science, since Aylmer claims for himself the ability to kill a king, an action that would upend old ideas of the supposedly natural order of the world, in which subjects must act in deference to their king. Furthermore, many people believed that kings were granted their power by God, so Aylmer’s ability to take this power away again suggests his attempt to act in God’s place.

Interestingly, Georgiana finds the poison very pleasing to the eye. On one level, this fact could prove that appearances, which are important in this story, do not always translate to some truth about moral worth. However, it could also imply that only death allows perfection; the perfect liquid causes death, and when Georgiana becomes perfect with the disappearance of the birthmark, she dies.

Much as he had accomplished, she could not but observe that his most splendid successes were almost invariably failures, if compared with the ideal at which he aimed. His brightest diamonds were the merest pebbles, and felt to be so by himself, in comparison with the inestimable gems which lay hidden beyond his reach. The volume, rich with achievements that had won renown for its author, was yet as melancholy a record as ever mortal hand had penned. It was the sad confession and continual exemplification of the shortcomings of the composite man, the spirit burdened with clay and working in matter, and of the despair that assails the higher nature at finding itself so miserably thwarted by the earthly part.

Related Characters: Aylmer, Georgiana
Page Number: 187
Explanation and Analysis:

In perusing Aylmer’s bookshelf, Georgiana comes across a journal of all his experiments, and she discovers that Aylmer himself is far from perfect. Although Georgiana feels only increased reverence for her husband because of this, the revelation also makes Aylmer seem quite hypocritical. He demands absolute perfection from his already almost-perfect wife, when he himself has hardly met any of the scientific goals he has set for himself. This passage also casts further doubt on Aylmer’s ability to remove the birthmark safely; if he has rarely done exactly what he meant to do in his experiments, why will this one be any different?

Additionally, Aylmer’s failures may give some insight into his dislike of everything mortal and earthly. The narrator interprets his failures as the result of Aylmer’s faulty human abilities falling short of the divine ideals that populate his imagination. If he feels weighed down by the mortal shortcomings that nature has given him, it makes sense that he would do all he could to triumph over the mark of earthliness in his wife.

After his departure Georgiana became rapt in musings. She considered the character of Aylmer, and did it completer justice than at any previous moment. Her heart exulted, while it trembled, at his honorable love—so pure and lofty that it would accept nothing less than perfection nor miserably make itself contented with an earthlier nature than he had dreamed of. She felt how much more precious was such a sentiment than that meaner kind which would have borne with the imperfection for her sake, and have been guilty of treason to holy love by degrading its perfect idea to the level of the actual; and with her whole spirit she prayed that, for a single moment, she might satisfy his highest and deepest conception. Longer than one moment she well knew it could not be; for his spirit was ever on the march, ever ascending, and each instant required something that was beyond the scope of the instant before.

Related Characters: Aylmer, Georgiana
Page Number: 190
Explanation and Analysis:

After Aylmer admits to Georgiana that the removal of the birthmark is a dangerous task, she returns to the outer room of the laboratory and thinks about her husband’s character. Far from feeling irritated by the fact that Aylmer dwells so much on her single fault, Georgiana, in her role as the perfect wife, feels thankful that she has a husband who will not be satisfied with anything less than what he truly wants. She sees this characteristic as a mark of true love. Again living up to the nineteenth-century ideal of a woman, she strives for nothing more than to be able to please Aylmer entirely for just one moment, thus putting him before all considerations that might be deemed selfish.

However, Georgiana also realizes that Aylmer will never be satisfied with anything for more than a moment, because he constantly strives for improvement. This demonstrates his pride, since he can never be satisfied even with perfection, and will keep pushing himself and his wife into realms of impossibility.

The fatal hand had grappled with the mystery of life, and was the bond by which an angelic spirit kept itself in union with a mortal frame. As the last crimson tint of the birthmark—that sole token of human imperfection—faded from her cheek, the parting breath of the now perfect woman passed into the atmosphere, and her soul, lingering a moment near her husband, took its heavenward flight. Then a hoarse, chuckling laugh was heard again! Thus ever does the gross fatality of earth exult in its invariable triumph over the immortal essence which, in this dim sphere of half development, demands the completeness of a higher state.

Related Characters: Aylmer, Georgiana, Aminadab
Related Symbols: The Birthmark
Page Number: 193
Explanation and Analysis:

This passage occurs at the very end of the story, as the birthmark disappears and Georgiana dies. It finally becomes clear that the birthmark existed for a reason that Aylmer could not perceive. He has ignored the importance of Georgiana’s single flaw,which kept her living on the earthly plane, and now that the flaw no longer exists his wife cannot remain with him, a flawed man, but must ascend to the higher heavenly plane.

Aminadab, however, does not seem surprised, and he even laughs at the scene. In fact, he might have known all along that this would be the result. The narrator suggests that earth has triumphed over heaven, presumably by thwarting Aylmer’s attempt to create a perfect being on the earthly plane. Essentially, Aylmer now pays the price for ignoring the fact that nature demands imperfection, and instead striving to do something that goes against the laws of nature. Ironically, Aylmer has achieved his ultimate goal of removing the birthmark; however, the results are not what he expected.