The Great Gatsby

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Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the Scribner edition of The Great Gatsby published in 2004.
Chapter 1 Quotes
In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that I've been turning over in my mind ever since.
"Whenever you feel like criticizing any one," he told me, "just remember that all the people in this world haven't had the advantages that you've had."
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker)
Page Number: 1
Explanation and Analysis:

In the novel’s opening lines, Nick Caraway recounts this important piece of counsel from his father. He presents himself as a character who is simultaneously privileged and empathetic.

This statement establishes, first, the high socioeconomic status enjoyed by most of the protagonists in the novel. Though Nick is far from the wealthiest character, his ties to old money and academic pedigree as a Yale graduate bring him into contact with the élite of both West and East Egg. Yet this line also immediately creates a level of distance from those élite: Nick is aware of his position and actively seeks to treat those from all walks of life with respect. He thus establishes himself as not only an accepting character, but also a relatively impartial narrator.

Fitzgerald gives us, then, a character who is both inside and outside of this privileged social sphere. At times he is fully enamored by the culture, while at others he points out the flaws in its decadence. The implication here, after all, is that many others with similar “advantages” as Nick are far more critical of those who hail from different social backgrounds. The more accommodating perspective that will pervade the novel, this line implies, comes from an early piece of “advice” from Nick's father—indicating that his views are shaped by key developmental experiences.

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"And I hope she'll be a fool — that's the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool."
Related Characters: Daisy Buchanan (speaker), Pammy Buchanan
Page Number: 17
Explanation and Analysis:

Daisy reflects while Nick visits her on her relatively despondent state of mind. As an example, she tells the story of her daughter’s birth, during which she exclaimed this disconcerting wish for the child.

This passage gives excellent insight into Daisy’s character and relationship with Tom. Her desperation at the moment of her daughter's birth was partly caused by his absence—which is characteristic of his generally selfish and neglectful nature. Yet Daisy’s hope for her daughter is, intriguingly, not that she has a supportive husband or can take care of herself. Rather, she wishes her to be a “fool”: someone who is too simple or ignorant to correctly perceive what is happening around them. The implication, here, is that Daisy wishes she herself could be a fool, for it would allow her to enjoy the luxuries of Tom’s life without being aware of his unfaithful behavior or the hollowness behind the extravagance.

Fitzgerald thus presents Daisy as not only confined by Tom but also by her own conceptions of what it means to be a woman and a wife. She is, rather ironically, herself a fool for not having realized how narrowly she defines a good female identity. The passage shows how Fitzgerald perceived gender roles to have functioned in the American twenties: men, in his account, saw themselves as bread-winners expected to be chasing the American Dream, while women like Daisy and her daughter were told to be no more than “a beautiful little fool.”

He stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way, and, far as I was from him, I could have sworn he was trembling. Involuntarily I glanced seaward – and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been the end of a dock.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Jay Gatsby
Related Symbols: The Green Light and the Color Green
Page Number: 20
Explanation and Analysis:

Nick observes, for the first time, Gatsby’s odd nighttime ritual: He looks out at a green light across the water.

The “green light” is undoubtably the most famous symbol from Fitzgerald’s novel, and it has been interpreted in a vast number of ways—from an indication of his love for Daisy to a model for the roaring-twenties aspirations of Americans. Part of that ambiguity comes from the writing itself: Nick describes the action as “curious” and dilutes its certainty with the phrase “could have sworn”—as opposed to simply saying “he was trembling.” The phrase “that might have been” to describe the location of the light plays a similar mystifying role. Thus the text places several layers of uncertainty between the reader and Gatsby, which mirrors Nick’s experience in the moment.

Despite these uncertainties, however, it is evident that the “green light” represents some kind of aspiration for Gatsby. That it is “single” stresses the directness of the goal, for Gatsby is not gazing at a general area but rather at a fixed and unique point. As it lies “seaward” and at the “end of a dock,” we can infer already that water symbolically separates Gatsby from the goal—and that crossing that water will allow him to access it.

Chapter 2 Quotes
This is a Valley of Ashes—a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens; where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and, finally, with a transcendent effort, of men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air. Occasionally a line of gray cars crawls along an invisible track, gives out a ghastly creak, and comes to rest, and immediately the ash-gray men swarm up with leaden spades and stir up an impenetrable cloud, which screens their obscure operations from your sight.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker)
Related Symbols: The Valley of Ashes
Page Number: 23
Explanation and Analysis:

Nick begins the second chapter by ruminating on the Valley of Ashes between West Egg and New York City. Though his descriptions are evocative, they refer to a relatively decrepit and downtrodden region.

Fitzgerald accomplishes this effect by using a set of semi-sarcastic words and uncanny images. The nouns in the area “farm,” “ridges,” “hills,” “gardens,” “houses,” and “chimneys” all would seem to describe a normal rural environment—yet all these characteristic signs of civilization are composed of dust instead of actual materials. This Valley, then is “fantastic” only in that the dust has entirely replaced the physical environment. That the “ashes grow like wheat” indicates that debris has replaced actual agricultural production, while the constitution of the men as themselves in the form of ashes dehumanizes them and makes them the mere result of the smog.

The imagery speaks to both the squalor caused by the roaring twenties culture and the relative blindness of many Americans to those effects: the dust in the valley is the direct result of New York industry—and of the wish to outsource unsightly waste. The “impenetrable cloud” and “obscure operations” stresses how that outsourcing has allowed those with money to entirely ignore the effects of their exploits. This passages is thus a condemnation of the social and economic practices in the novel. Fitzgerald implies that people may travel through the Valley between West Egg and New York City, but they relate to its environment only as various combinations of undifferentiated dust.

Chapter 3 Quotes
He smiled understandingly—much more than understandingly. It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It faced—or seemed to face—the whole external world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor. It understood you just as far as you wanted to be understood, believed in you as you would like to believe in yourself, and assured you that it had precisely the impression of you that, at your best, you hoped to convey.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Jay Gatsby
Page Number: 48
Explanation and Analysis:

When Nick meets Gatsby for the first time, he observes the psychological power of the man’s smile. Instead of describing its physical characteristics, he focuses on how effectively it brings confidence to those who perceive it.

Nick begins the account with a cliché—“smiled understandingly”—but then quickly modifies it to more precisely articulate the effect. The implication is that ordinary phrases are insufficient to describe Gatsby’s magnetic effect, and thus a more precise commentary must be provided. His smile is able to provide “eternal reassurance” because it addresses a context beyond the person to which it is directed. That it has already examined “the whole external world” implies that Gatsby’s smile is elevated by his extensive travels, connections, and reflections. The viewer feels “irresistible prejudice” because he has been selected above that “external world” to receive validation and “reassurance.”

Yet this effect, Nick subtly implies, is not the result of Gatsby actually confiding great confidence in his interlocutor, but rather comes from a precise performance. This doubt comes, first, from how Nick corrects “faced” with “seemed to face,” and second from the series of qualifying clauses on understanding, belief, and assurance. Each of these takes an unusual form, in which the smile does not convey the thoughts or emotions of Gatsby but rather conforms to the desires of the viewer—of which Gatsby would presumably not be aware. Fitzgerald indicates that Gatsby has perfected a way to respond to others that makes them feel entirely known and meaningful. Thus both Gatsby and those he smiles at become fundamentally empty: Gatsby for putting on a performance, but others for so desperately wanting to be understood, believed in, and assured.

Chapter 5 Quotes
"It makes me sad because I've never seen such — such beautiful shirts before."
Related Characters: Daisy Buchanan (speaker), Jay Gatsby
Related Symbols: Gatsby's Mansion
Page Number: 92
Explanation and Analysis:

On her tour of Gatsby’s home, Daisy becomes distraught. Though the nature of her response is not entirely clear, it is induced by observing the extent of his new wealth.

The comment speaks first and foremost to Daisy’s superficiality. Her emotional response is not triggered by anything personally significant but rather by “beautiful shirts.” Yet these shirts also represent her newfound ability to be with Gatsby, for his current wealth would have made him acceptable to her overbearing family. Thus Daisy must accept that her choice to be with Tom was not necessary as she had thought it to be—and that she could have had both Gatsby and economic security. The text poses the question, however, of how aware Daisy is of her own attraction to money. Perhaps the breakdown, in fact, represents a personal crisis, in which Daisy confronts her own superficiality: She would become, then, neither a staid example of old money, nor a new money aspirant—but rather someone who reckons with the emptiness of both pursuits.

Fitzgerald’s ambiguous presentation of her character speaks to the difficulty of understanding, at this time, how Americans were relating to their roaring twenties culture. Though readers may have a good sense of our protagonist Nick’s shifting perspectives, the other characters are often inscrutable both to readers and to each other. Fitzgerald, then, not only describes an ambivalence toward the culture that many may have felt but been unable to articulate, but also recreates the effect through his narrative construction.

Chapter 6 Quotes
The truth was that Jay Gatsby, of West Egg, Long Island, sprang from his Platonic conception of himself. He was a son of God—a phrase which, if it means anything, means just that—and he must be about His Father's business, the service of a vast, vulgar, and meretricious beauty. So he invented just the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen year old boy would be likely to invent, and to this conception he was faithful to the end.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Jay Gatsby
Page Number: 98
Explanation and Analysis:

As Nick recounts Gatsby’s backstory, he offers both factual information and this more abstract description. He notes how artificially Gatsby has created his personality and identity, but also seems to respect the commitment he shows to that artifice.

To better articulate the fraudulence of Gatsby’s identity, Nick employs several sets of symbols. First he describes him as a “Platonic conception of himself,” implying that Gatsby projected an ideal (“Platonic”) way his life could exist and then avidly pursued that end. Next, Nick swaps in monotheistic religion for Plato’s Greek philosophy, likening Gatsby to a self-imagined Jesus pursuing a holy end (going about "His Father's business"). Recall that Gatsby seeks a green light that lies across the water, implying that he must walk over that water like Jesus to achieve his goal. Yet for all this spiritual talk the goal is still a “vast, vulgar, and meretricious beauty”: it may be meaningful, enormous, and even aesthetically pleasing, but it is fundamentally empty.

These descriptions might seem to belittle Gatsby for entirely lacking substance, but the weight of references to Plato and God also grant him a sense of import. Nick’s tone simultaneously chastises Gatsby for conforming to the childish inventions of a “seventeen year old boy” and respects him for being “faithful to the end.” In contrast to other characters who seem to change from moment-to-moment, there is something worthy in Gatsby’s single-minded pursuit of perfecting an identity. Fitzgerald thus offers both a critical and a sympathetic eye toward the social-climbing and avarice seen in Gatsby and his twenties society. He simultaneously praises commitment and mocks cheap deception.

"I wouldn't ask too much of her," I ventured. "You can't repeat the past."
"Can't repeat the past?" he cried incredulously. "Why of course you can!"
He looked around him wildly, as if the past were lurking here in the shadow of his house, just out of reach of his hand.
Related Characters: Jay Gatsby (speaker), Nick Carraway (speaker), Daisy Buchanan
Related Symbols: Gatsby's Mansion
Page Number: 110
Explanation and Analysis:

Nick and Gatsby have this conversation after a failed party in which Gatsby tries to recreate his romance with Daisy. They disagree, pivotally, on whether it will be possible for Gatsby and Daisy to reignite their relationship.

On a literal level, Nick is simply saying that Gatsby cannot “repeat” his liaisons with Daisy, whereas Gatsby claims that he will in fact be able to do so. Yet their divergent viewpoints speak far more broadly to two ideological positions held by Americans at the time. Gatsby is fundamentally future-oriented as a “new money” person: he believes that anything can be accomplished through an act of will, as in the way he became rich. Whereas Nick, as a representative of “old money,” is more focused on the limits of the past and more sensitive to the flaws in Gatsby’s "nouveau riche" thinking.

We can see this more critical position in his description of Gatsby’s look: it is “wild” and falsely equates time with space—assuming that he can discover “the past” in the physical richness of “his house.” Gatsby thus represents a more narrow-minded viewpoint that energy and money will be able to turn back time and manifest any desire. While Nick has certainly lauded that personal drive, he disagrees here on the feasibility of the project.

Chapter 7 Quotes
"Her voice is full of money," he said suddenly.
That was it. I'd never understood before. It was full of money—that was the inexhaustible charm that rose and fell in it, the jingle of it, the cymbals' song of it.
Related Characters: Jay Gatsby (speaker), Nick Carraway (speaker), Daisy Buchanan
Page Number: 120
Explanation and Analysis:

As they prepare to leave for New York City, Nick and Gatsby talk briefly about Daisy’s behavior. Gatsby unexpectedly produces this perceptive comment, which calls into question his unconditional admiration for Daisy.

Both Nick and Gatsby point out that it is possible to discern Daisy’s social class simply from the quality of her voice. They tie this to its musical quality with the terms “jingle” and “cymbals’ song,” indicating that it is a learned affectation—something she has been brought up to perform in order to give off “inexhaustible charm.” Nick’s surprise at the realization indicates how difficult it can be to perceive such characteristics, for they take a studious examination—but also how apparent they are when finally spoken. Fitzgerald uses this line to show how Daisy’s old money has been assimilated even into her physical being.

The comment also reveals a surprising attention on Gatsby’s part to Daisy’s wealth. Indeed, the fact that her voice—something with which he would have always been accustomed—reveals her wealth calls into question even the validity of their older relationship. Recall, however, that Daisy earlier made a similar statement when Gatsby’s shirts moved her to tears. The text indicates that both characters, then, may be interested in each other partially for their money—either for the actual financial resources equated with Gatsby’s new money or for the prestige that would be associated with Daisy’s old money. And, with the image of the voice, it points out the difficulty of disentangling such superficial attractions from other relations of character and identity. 

Chapter 8 Quotes
"They're a rotten crowd," I shouted across the lawn. "You're worth the whole damn bunch put together."
I've always been glad I said that. It was the only compliment I ever gave him, because I disapproved of him from beginning to end. First he nodded politely, and then his face broke into that radiant and understanding smile, as if we'd been in ecstatic cahoots on that fact all the time.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Jay Gatsby
Page Number: 154
Explanation and Analysis:

As Nick leaves Gatsby’s house in what will be their last interaction, he yells back this redeeming comment. Though the amount of sincerity from both characters remains unclear, they do establish at least an apparent connection.

Nick’s reflection on the nature of the compliment reiterates his ambivalence toward Gatsby. He entirely disapproves of the man’s actions, finding them superficial, decadent, and morally questionable. Yet he also sees in them something that raises Gatsby above the “rotten crowd,” likely due to the way he has intensely pursued his narrative of self-creation, and thus in a way remained true to himself. Nick notably does not consider the comment to have been a flippant one, but rather observes how it has stood the test of time. A level of skepticism should be reserved, however, when Gatsby’s smile is taken into account, for we were told explicitly before how the smile creates the semblance of “ecstatic cahoots” as opposed to an actual connection. The hypothetical “as if we’d been” corroborates that interpretation and leaves Nick’s perception of Gatsby unclear until the end.

Still, Nick’s comment on the “rotten crowd” has broken with his earlier promise to be empathetic toward all. He is not judgmental, here, of those without advantages, but rather those with advantages. Indeed, he is the most empathetic to those without means, secondly empathetic to Gatsby’s new money, and least empathetic to Tom and his old money crowd. Fitzgerald thus shows how Nick’s sensibilities have developed from the novel’s opening pages—no longer seeking to treat all men equally but rather judging those who have behaved poorly given their social circumstances.

Chapter 9 Quotes
They were careless people, Tom and Daisy—they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness, or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Daisy Buchanan, Tom Buchanan
Page Number: 179
Explanation and Analysis:

After Daisy and Tom disappear, Nick gives this harsh assessment of their characters. He points out how their lifestyle and social position allowed them to wreak havoc without any significant personal consequences.

Nick’s condemnation focuses on the couple’s treatment of other people. That he uses the term “creatures” to refer to those people and parallels the smashing of those “creatures” with “things” stresses the way Daisy and Tom tend to objectify and belittle others. The term “people,” on the other hand, is used to refer to those who “clean up the mess,” once more displaying Nick’s humanizing sensitivity to the less wealthy classes who would be responsible for dealing with their carelessness.

Whereas before both Nick and the reader might have maintained a level of sympathy for the events that befell the couple, here he makes evident that such sympathy is unnecessary, for the two are able to easily escape from any mayhem they have caused. Intriguingly, he does not give “money” as the sole motivation of this behavior, instead offering “vast carelessness”—a tautological formation (one whose truth is based in itself) in which they carelessly retreat into carelessness—and the enigmatic “whatever it was” as potential sources of retreat. Nick thus reiterates the inability to make sense of characters’ actions that has pervaded the text thus far. We can presume it to be an economic factor or perhaps a personality deficit, but ultimately there is no way to be certain of what has motivated their selfish behavior.

That's my Middle West . . . the street lamps and sleigh bells in the frosty dark. . . . I see now that this has been a story of the West, after all—Tom and Gatsby, Daisy and Jordan and I, were all Westerners, and perhaps we possessed some deficiency in common which made us subtly unadaptable to Eastern life.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Jay Gatsby, Daisy Buchanan, Tom Buchanan, Jordan Baker
Related Symbols: East and West
Page Number: 176
Explanation and Analysis:

After Gatsby’s funeral, Nick adopts this broader perspective on the events that have transpired in the novel. He observes that all of the characters were coastal transplants who hoped and failed to pursue an American Dream on the East Coast.

Nick offers, here, an interesting case of re-narrativizing his life: with this added realization of the characters’ common heritage, he can reinterpret the tale as “a story of the West.” Thus their actions and flaws become less characteristic of individual choices and more of the social types they represent. That they “possessed some deficiency” renders the plot of the novel fatalistic and pre-determined based on social constraints, while the “common” oddly binds together these Westerners even as the novel’s plot has tended to highlight their differences.

The passage also speaks to a sociological shift taking place in the twenties: Whereas before the West was seen as a frontier of opportunity, at this time, a financial boom caused migration patterns to shift back eastward. Yet if the the western American Dream brought one into regions of relatively greater freedom and opportunity, those who moved east were confronting the rigid social systems epitomized by East Egg. Thus Fitzgerald has used these characters as a way to make sense of a broader pattern of movement, in which even those who were seen as wildly successful in the roaring twenties could not conform their identities fully to the nature of the older East Coast.

And as the moon rose higher the inessential houses began to melt away until gradually I became aware of the old island here that flowered once for Dutch sailors' eyes—a fresh, green breast of the new world.... And as I sat there, brooding on the old, unknown world, I thought of Gatsby's wonder when he first picked out Daisy's light at the end of his dock. He had come such a long way to this blue lawn, and his dream must have seemed so close he could hardly fail to grasp it. But what he did not know was that it was already behind him, somewhere in the vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Jay Gatsby, Daisy Buchanan
Related Symbols: The Green Light and the Color Green
Page Number: 180
Explanation and Analysis:

In the novel’s closing passage, Nick reflects on how Gatsby’s dogged pursuit of Daisy is similar to the dreams of early settlers landing on the American continent. He uses the comparison to both elevate and belittle Gatsby’s character.

To introduce this idea, Nick first describes dissociating from the immediate surroundings: “the inessential houses began to melt away,” distancing him from the environment of wealth and commodities. This is a startling narrative technique, considering how Nick had earlier denied to Gatsby the potential of returning to the past: here he seems to do just that, indicating that storytelling and reflection may achieve this end far more effectively than Gatsby’s purchase of a mansion on West Egg. Next, he uses this trick of time to equate the “green breast of the new world” seen by settlers in America to “Daisy’s light” seen by Gatsby. In different ways, they represent an almost-reached, yet still-differed goal.

This parallel elevates Gatsby’s dreams to an epic stature—for they are deemed equal in aspiration to those who have "discovered" this very land. Yet the passage also renders Gatsby less unique by pointing out how traditional and ancient his aspirations are. Nick stresses this second perspective when he observes that Gatsby’s dream was “already behind him,” indicating that the destination has already been reached. This “behind” could refer to Gatsby’s previous relationship with Daisy, or his hometown to the West—but also the symbolic “behind” of those Dutch sailors. Fitzgerald seems to imply that America as “the republic” already holds the aspiration that Gatsby so desperately seeks—and that his attempts to search for fulfillment in new domains is pointless.

Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that's no matter—tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther.... And then one fine morning—So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.
Related Characters: Nick Carraway (speaker), Jay Gatsby
Related Symbols: The Green Light and the Color Green
Page Number: 180
Explanation and Analysis:

In these last lines of the novel, Nick continues to offer an equivocal set of comments on his perception of Gatsby. Once more, he points out the flaws in his characteristic commitment, while simultaneously praising the way he so doggedly pursues an ideal.

To articulate this ambiguity, Nick once more summons the symbol of the “green light”—here defining it as something that can fundamentally never be obtained. Its vital quality is not actually the “orgastic future” but rather the perception of such a future that “recedes” and is “eluded.” Indeed, this is how it has symbolically functioned in the novel: never allowing the reader to pin down a singular meaning, promising to unlock the text but actually standing for a variety of conflicting allegorical ideas.

Yet it is in that very process of deferral that Nick locates the light’s significance. The light is significant because it motivates those who perceive it to “run faster, stretch out our arms farther”—whether that means to perform well at one’s job, or to more closely examine the symbolism of a green light. It is telling that the phrase “then one fine morning” does not end in an actual action, for it represents another of those "orgastic futures" that recedes rather than being caught. For Nick, this pursuit ends in the odd (but extremely famous) image of a set of boats futilely beating on against the current: a symbol which reiterates the wish to cross a body of water and reach the green light.

For although the boats “beat on,” they actually move “ceaselessly into the past,” indicating not only stagnancy but also a gravitational pull toward personal, social, and cultural history. Fitzgerald thus ends the novel by reversing Nick’s earlier claim that one does not repeat the past, instead asserting that though the pursuit of new dreams may indeed be worthwhile, these efforts are essentially minute compared to the natural inertia that the characters in the novel (as well as the United States itself) would experience as the roaring twenties came to a close.

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