The Other Wes Moore

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Themes and Colors
Luck vs. Choice Theme Icon
Friendship, Family, and Brotherhood Theme Icon
Inclusion vs. Exclusion Theme Icon
Race, Inequality, and Injustice Theme Icon
Discipline and Violence  Theme Icon
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Other Wes Moore, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Inclusion vs. Exclusion Theme Icon

Both Wes Moores experience powerful moments of inclusion and exclusion during their lives, and these experiences have a significant impact on the choices each of them makes. Born into loving—if shattered—families, the Wes Moores begin life with a strong connection to their relatives. Both boys also experience a sense of community through their participation in sports; Wes feels a sense of belonging when he puts on his Northwood Rams football jersey, and Moore describes the group of kids who he plays basketball with in the Bronx as a “brotherhood.” As Moore moves through life, he is inducted into a series of new communities—first at military school, then Johns Hopkins, then as a Rhodes Scholar—each of which supports him and pushes him to become even more successful.

This is a distinct contrast to Wes’ experience. Unlike Moore, Wes does not remain in sporting and academic communities, and the importance of these communities only becomes clear to him after they are gone. At the Jobs Corps campus, for example, Wes is stunned by the chance to live and work on what looks like a college campus; however, this too is taken away once Wes graduates from the Jobs Corps and is forced to return to the real world. Meanwhile, even Wes’s experience as a boyfriend and father is marred by his infidelity to Alicia and Cheryl’s drug addiction. Similarly, his relationship with Mary is strained due to his lying and criminal activity. It is not until he is in prison and converts to Islam that he experiences a sense of inclusion again. Yet although his religious community supports him as he serves his time, it cannot undo the fact that Wes is permanently excluded from the outside world and cut off from his family. In many ways, prison is the ultimate exclusionary force in the book.

Moore also traces how he and Wes are subject to larger forces of inclusion and exclusion that govern the world around them. As African Americans, both are excluded and marginalized within American society. Because he remains in a majority-black neighborhood, this large-scale exclusion is less immediately apparent to Wes. Moore, on the other hand, is strongly affected by exclusion based on race and class, particularly when he attends Riverdale. Describing his time at the school, he notes: “I was becoming too ‘rich’ for the kids from the neighborhood and too ‘poor’ for the kids at school.” He encounters a similar dilemma when he first considers applying to Johns Hopkins; despite growing up minutes away from the Johns Hopkins campus, Moore doesn’t believe that there are any students there like him. Although Moore overcomes his concerns about applying to Johns Hopkins and goes on to find great success there, the book highlights the tension between the worlds Moore ends up living between. Although he secures a prosperous future for himself in both an academic and professional context, he remains tied to the poor, excluded community into which both he and Wes were born.

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Inclusion vs. Exclusion ThemeTracker

The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of Inclusion vs. Exclusion appears in each Chapter of The Other Wes Moore. Click or tap on any chapter to read its Summary & Analysis.
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Inclusion vs. Exclusion Quotes in The Other Wes Moore

Below you will find the important quotes in The Other Wes Moore related to the theme of Inclusion vs. Exclusion.
Introduction Quotes

We definitely have our disagreements––and Wes, it should never be forgotten, is in prison for his participation in a heinous crime. But even the worst decisions we make don't necessarily remove us from the circle of humanity. Wes's desire to participate in this book as a way to help others learn from his story and choose a different way is proof of that.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), The Other Wes Moore (Wes)
Related Symbols: Prison
Page Number: xiii
Explanation and Analysis:

After Moore discovers Wes’s existence, he writes a letter that sparks a long correspondence between the two men. Moore is astonished to find that telling their stories to one another really does bring the men close and makes Wes’s world seem less alien than it first appeared. In this passage, Moore underlines the sense of common humanity that stretches to Wes despite the fact that Wes has committed a “heinous crime.” Although he doesn’t wish to excuse Wes, Moore is a firm believer in respecting every person as a human being. His words in this passage foreshadow the conversation he has with Mama at the end of the book, in which she explains that she follows the lead of Nelson Mandela in forgiving the crimes of apartheid.


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Chapter 1 Quotes

Johns Hopkins University was only five miles from where Mary grew up, but it might as well have been a world away. To many in Baltimore, Johns Hopkins was the beautiful campus you could walk past but not through. It played the same role that Columbia University did for the Harlem residents who surrounded it, or the University of Chicago did for the Southside. It was a school largely for people from out of town, preppies who observed the surrounding neighborhood with a voyeuristic curiosity when they weren't hatching myths about it to scare freshmen. This city wasn't their home. But after completing her community college requirements, Mary attempted the short but improbable journey from the neighborhood to the campus. Her heart

jumped when she received her acceptance letter. It was a golden ticket to another world.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), Mary
Related Symbols: Johns Hopkins University
Page Number: 17
Explanation and Analysis:

Moore has introduced Wes’ mother, Mary, who is the first in her family to enroll in college. After earning her associate’s degree from the Community College in Baltimore, she moves on to fulfill her “longtime” dream of earning a bachelor’s. In this passage, Moore describes the tense relationship between Johns Hopkins University—a prestigious institution located in Baltimore—and the city that surrounds it. It is not proximity that separates Mary’s world from the world of Johns Hopkins, but rather race, poverty, and other forms of social inequality. Although there is no physical barrier telling Mary that she doesn’t “belong” on the Johns Hopkins campus, other, more subtle signs indicate that it is a world for white “preppies” and not single, black teenage mothers from West Baltimore.

Mary’s miraculous acceptance in spite of this barrier indicates that such barriers can be overcome, and foreshadows Moore’s acceptance to Johns Hopkins later in the book. However, although Moore describes Mary’s admission as “a golden ticket” in this passage, the reality turns out not to be so magical. The forces dividing the elite world of Johns Hopkins and the impoverished reality of West Baltimore turn out to be more stubborn than Mary anticipates.

Chapter 2 Quotes

The walls and floors were coated with filth and graffiti. Flickering fluorescent tubes (the ones that weren't completely broken) dimly lit the cinder-block hallways. The constantly broken-down elevators forced residents to climb claustrophobic, urine-scented stairways. And the drug game was everywhere, with a gun handle protruding from the top of every tenth teenager's waistline. People who lived in Murphy Homes felt like prisoners, kept in check by roving bands of gun-strapped kids and a nightmare army of drug fiends. This was where Tony chose to spend his days.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), Tony
Related Symbols: The Murphy Homes Projects
Page Number: 27
Explanation and Analysis:

Moore has explained that Tony, who is six years older than Wes, is the closest thing that Wes has to a father figure. However, Tony isn’t around all the time because he lives with his father and grandparents in the Murphy Homes, a notorious housing project nicknamed the “Murder homes.” Moore’s description of the Murphy Homes brings to mind a warzone more than a residential community. It emphasizes the extent to which West Baltimore is a neglected, forgotten community forced to deal with living conditions that would horrify many affluent and white Americans.

Although many in the Murphy Homes Projects would undoubtedly rather live elsewhere, Moore emphasizes that the Homes are “where Tony chose to spend his days.” This comment illustrates the way in which luck and choice intermingle in the cruel environment of West Baltimore. While Tony likely doesn’t enjoy spending time in “urine-scented stairways,” he has made the decision to participate in the drug trade. The consequences of his role as a drug dealer can never be blamed on either choice or luck alone, but rather a combination of the two.

'Wes searched around his room for his football jersey. He played defensive end for the Northwood Rams, one of the best rec football teams in the nation. Wes loved football, and his athletic frame made him a natural. Even if he was just going out to play in the streets with Woody and some other friends, he wore that jersey like a badge of honor. The crimson "Northwood" that blazed across his white jersey gave him a sense of pride, a sense of belonging.”

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), The Other Wes Moore (Wes)
Page Number: 29
Explanation and Analysis:

Mary and Wes have moved to Northwood, a safer neighborhood populated by members of the black professional class. Mary is thrilled about the move, and in this passage Moore describes Wes’s increased feelings of belonging as a result of playing football for the Northwood Rams. Thanks to his innate talent, Wes is able to secure a place on the team; however, the prestige of the team means less to him than the simple fact of feeling like he belongs to a community. This moment of hope becomes tragic in light of Wes’s broader trajectory. What would have happened if he had had more opportunities to develop his skills and feel like a valued member of a team?

When my grandparents moved to the United States, their first priority was to save enough money to buy this house on Paulding Avenue. To them a house meant much more than shelter; it was a stake in their new country. America allowed them to create a life they couldn't have dreamed of in their home countries of Jamaica and Cuba.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), Rev. Dr. James Thomas , Winell Thomas
Page Number: 39
Explanation and Analysis:

Following Westley’s death, Joy has decided to take the kids and move in with her parents in the Bronx. As they drive through the neighborhood, the family is alarmed by the palpable toll that drugs and crime have taken. In this passage, Moore explains that his grandparents started saving to buy their house from the moment they arrived in America. They wanted to have a “stake” not only in their new community, but in their new country. In many ways, James and Winell’s story is the classic immigrant narrative; they leave everything back home in order to have a chance of prosperity, social mobility, and a slice of the “American dream.”

While this is a slightly oversimplified and romanticized version of Moore’s grandparents’ reality, it nonetheless highlights an important distinction between Moore’s family and Wes’s. Whereas James and Winell earnestly believe in the possibility of creating a better life for themselves in the United States, the relationship between African Americans and their country is decidedly more complicated. The oppression and marginalization that began during slavery has, for people like Wes, not disappeared but simply transformed into new forms, manifesting itself in the destructive reality of poverty, discrimination, and the drug trade. It is simply not possible for Wes to view America from the same perspective as James and Winell.

We were all enclosed by the same fence, bumping into one another, fighting, celebrating. Showing one another our best and worst, revealing ourselves––even our cruelty and crimes––as if that fence had created a circle of trust. A brotherhood.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker)
Page Number: 45
Explanation and Analysis:

For the first time, Moore has joined a basketball game in his new neighborhood in the Bronx. He has described the diverse range of characters brought together on the court, from drug dealers to straight-A students. He notes that within the court’s chain-link fence, the boys put aside their differences and embrace one another in “a circle of trust.” His comments recall the sense of belonging that Wes feels when donning his Northwood Rams jersey. While the neighborhoods in which both boys live are often driven apart by petty disputes and dangerous conflict, in this moment the feeling of belonging is powerful. By referring to the group of boys as a “brotherhood,” Moore emphasizes the importance of feeling supported by a family group, whether one created by blood or by chance.

Chapter 3 Quotes

My mother saw Riverdale as a haven, a place where I could escape my neighborhood and open my horizons. But for me, it was where I got lost.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), Joy
Page Number: 48
Explanation and Analysis:

Moore has explained that his mother was nervous about the prospect of sending him to public school in the Bronx, and thus opted to enroll him at the prestigious Riverdale County Day School, an institution with a “lush” college-like campus and a decidedly affluent student population. However, in this passage Moore indicates that his mother was mistaken in her excitement about the opportunities Riverdale presented. Moore finds himself “lost” at the school because he feels alienated from the other students—who are almost all wealthy and white. It is impossible to reconcile the “horizons” presented by Riverdale and the reality of his life in the Bronx. Without feeling like he is a welcome and valuable member of the Riverdale community, Moore is unable to take advantage of the potential opportunities presented to him there.

I was becoming too "rich" for the kids from the neighborhood and too "poor" for the kids at school. I had forgotten how to act naturally, thinking way too much in each situation and getting tangled in the contradictions between my two worlds. My confidence took a hit. Unlike Justin, whose maturity helped him handle this transition much better than I did, I began to let my grades slip.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), Justin
Page Number: 53-54
Explanation and Analysis:

Moore has been struggling to hide his family’s lack of wealth from the kids at Riverdale; meanwhile, the neighborhood boys in the Bronx tease him about attending a “white school.” Increasingly caught between these two worlds, Moore struggles to cope. This passage illustrates the ways in which Moore’s academic performance is inherently tied to his social status and confidence. While Moore’s concerns might seem childish and frivolous (especially compared to the more driven and mature Justin), they are in fact caused by the very serious issues of racism and inequality. It is easy to dismiss Moore’s neglect of his schoolwork as irresponsible; yet the reason why Moore and many children like him fail to succeed is because they are suffering from the effects of social inequality and exclusion.

Later in life I learned that the way many governors projected the numbers of beds they'd need for prison facilities was by examining the reading scores of third graders. Elected officials deduced that a strong percentage of kids reading below their grade level by third grade would be needing a secure place to stay when they got older. Considering my performance in the classroom thus far, I was well on my way to needing state-sponsored accommodations.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker)
Related Symbols: Prison
Page Number: 54
Explanation and Analysis:

Due to his feelings of social inadequacy, Moore starts to perform badly in school. His grades slip to Cs and Ds, and in third grade he is reading at a second-grade level. Moore notes that third grade reading scores are in fact often used to determine the amount of prison space that will be needed in the following generation.

Immediately, Moore’s casual anecdote of his slipping grades becomes much more sinister. If third grade reading levels can be used to accurately gauge the number of prison beds needed, what does this say about the possibility of second chances, personal improvement, and social mobility in American society? While it is true that Moore does not end up incarcerated, this passage emphasizes the extent to which he truly is the exception to the norm. His observation proves that many children’s fates are sealed by the time they are 10 years old.

Chapter 4 Quotes

I found in hip-hop the sound of my generation talking to itself, working through the fears and anxieties and inchoate dreams—of wealth or power or revolution or success—we all shared. It broadcast an exaggerated version of our complicated interior lives to the world, made us feel less alone in the madness of the era, less marginal. Of course, all that didn't matter to my mother. All she knew was that I could effortlessly recite hip-hop lyrics while struggling with my English class.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), Joy
Page Number: 76
Explanation and Analysis:

Moore has been performing badly in school, a fact that is causing Joy to be increasingly concerned. One day while Moore and Joy are in the car together, a hip hop song comes on the radio and Moore starts rapping along enthusiastically. Joy is furious; while Moore’s teachers at Riverdale have suggested he might have a learning disability, Moore’s mastery of the lyrics indicates to Joy that he has simply been focusing his energies in the wrong direction. In this passage, Moore explains that—rather than being a frivolous diversion—hip hope gives him a sense of meaning and community, particularly in the context of the pressures he experiences as a young boy growing up in the crack epidemic-era Bronx.

Chapter 5 Quotes

Wes, you are not going anywhere until you give this place a try. I am so proud of you, and your father is proud of you, and we just want you to give this a shot. Too many people have sacrificed in order for you to be there.

Related Characters: Joy (speaker), Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) , Westley
Page Number: 95
Explanation and Analysis:

After four attempts to run away from Valley Forge, Moore is brought to the office of Colonel Battagliogli, who allows him to make a five-minute phone call. When Joy answers the phone, Moore immediately begins begging to be allowed to come home; however, Joy cuts him off and tells him that he has no choice but to stay. This passage demonstrates Joy’s particular mix of strictness and support, the combination of which ultimately enables her son to flourish. Although Moore is miserable at military school, it is clear that he needs the discipline and boundaries of the institution in order to make a positive change in his life. Joy’s mention of the sacrifices made to facilitate Moore’s attendance then emphasizes the fact that Moore’s journey is not being taken alone, but rather with a whole community supporting him.

Chapter 6 Quotes

Wes had his entire operation organized with the precision of a military unit or a division of a Fortune 500 company. The drug game had its own rules, its own structure. He was a lieutenant, the leader of his small crew. Everyone in the crew had a specific job with carefully delineated responsibilities.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker), The Other Wes Moore (Wes)
Page Number: 110-111
Explanation and Analysis:

After Wes is released from juvenile detention, he moves in with Aunt Nicey. A high school dropout with a criminal record, Wes finds it difficult to get a legal job, and thus returns to the drug trade. In this passage, Moore describes the skill with which Wes runs his drug operation. Moore’s references to the military “the precision of a military unit… he was a lieutenant” explicitly relates Wes’s experiences in the drug game to Moore’s time at Valley Forge. However, where Moore is learning skills that will allow him to assume a valued and respected role in society—that of an Army officer—Wes’s (similar) skills only serve to further malign him in the eyes of society. This discrepancy emphasizes the notion of Wes’s wasted potential and of the injustice of his circumstances.

Chapter 7 Quotes

As I started to think seriously about how I could become the person I wanted to be, I looked around at some of the people who'd had the biggest impact on my life. Aside from family and friends, the men I most trusted all had something in common: they all wore the uniform of the United States of America.

Related Characters: Wes Moore (Moore/The Author) (speaker)
Page Number: 132
Explanation and Analysis:

Moore has explained that over the course of the time he has spent at military school, he has begun to excel at academic work and genuinely enjoy reading. One of the books he most enjoys is Colin Powell’s My American Journey, which describes Powell’s relationship to the United States and to the military. This book particularly resonates with Moore because of his own experiences as a cadet at Valley Forge. Military school has given him a new sense of perspective and direction, and inspired him to devote his life to the kind of disciplined public service encouraged by his teachers and mentors there.

Moore’s words also highlight the importance of the sense of belonging provided by the military. His comment about the “uniform of the United States of America” emphasizes that the military creates a feeling of united community as much as it does an individual sense of purpose and responsibility. It is Moore’s membership in this community that ultimately facilitates his success in life, both within and beyond the Army itself.

"Fuck God," he said, drawing in a lungful of smoke. "If He does exist, He sure doesn't spend any time in West Baltimore."

Related Characters: The Other Wes Moore (Wes) (speaker)
Page Number: 140
Explanation and Analysis:

Wes and his friends have gone to get tattoos together. When it is Wes’s turn to decide which design to get, he opts for a black devil’s head. Although Wes attended church services occasionally when he was younger, he now no longer believes in God—or at least, doesn’t believe that God is present in his own community. As a young man, Wes does not often vocally express his feelings and beliefs and thus this is one of the only points in the book in which he provides any insight into his personal view of the world. Where most of the time Wes projects a kind of tough apathy, in this passage it is clear that beneath that apathy is a deeper and more painful form of anger and resentment.

It is difficult to blame Wes for having such a bleak view of the world and of God. Throughout his life, he has been surrounded by injustice, poverty, violence, crime, and suffering. Even people who try desperately to improve themselves—such as Wes’s mother Mary—rarely succeed. Rather than channeling his anger at this injustice in a constructive way, Wes becomes increasingly cynical and indifferent to his own fate. Yet can we really blame him, considering how powerless life in West Baltimore makes him feel?