The Souls of Black Folk

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W.E.B. Du Bois Character Analysis

As well as being the author and narrator of the book, Du Bois also plays a prominent role as a character within his own narrative. Much of the book consists of first-person accounts of Du Bois’ own experiences, and particularly those experiences that helped develop his awareness of the issues of race and racism. Although Du Bois narrates his own story non-chronologically, overall the book provides a comprehensive account of his life from childhood onwards. Born to a fairly affluent free family in Massachusetts, Du Bois attended an integrated school and describes becoming aware of the Veil for the first time when children in his class exchanged greeting cards and a little white girl refused to accept his card. Rather than becoming embittered—as other figures such as Alexander Crummell and John Jones are tempted to do—Du Bois resolved to work hard academically in order to overcome the effects of racism. On some levels, this plan succeeded. Du Bois had an immensely successful academic career, becoming the first African-American to receive a PhD from Harvard and eventually taking a professorship at Atlanta University, where he wrote The Souls of Black Folk. However, Du Bois makes clear that his academic success and other fortunate experiences in his life, while positive, are still overwhelmed by the constant presence of the Veil. Like other intelligent, well-educated black figures in the book, Du Bois remains keenly aware of the plight of those less fortunate than him even as he achieves great personal success. Indeed, he uses his position of influence in order to try and help black people who do not have the same resources or power in society, focusing on those worst off—the rural poor in the South. Despite his professional success, however, Du Bois’ life was not untainted by personal tragedy. His first child, a son named Burghardt, died in infancy, an event he chronicles in the chapter entitled “Of the Passing of the First-Born.” In this chapter, Du Bois reveals his own vulnerabilities and expresses some of his more cynical thoughts about the nature of racial justice and progress. Although he claims it is possible that race relations may have improved over the course of his son’s lifetime, he also suggests that the only time African-Americans can achieve true freedom is in death.

W.E.B. Du Bois Quotes in The Souls of Black Folk

The The Souls of Black Folk quotes below are all either spoken by W.E.B. Du Bois or refer to W.E.B. Du Bois. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
). Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the Signet Classics edition of The Souls of Black Folk published in 2012.
The Forethought Quotes

The problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color line.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Related Symbols: The Color Line
Page Number: 5
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois opens the book with this statement, and emphasizes its importance by repeating it several times. Although it may appear simple and perhaps obvious, in reality it presents a challenge to much mainstream thought at the time Du Bois was writing. As he will show later on, many white people considered racial inequality and exclusion to be a fringe issue that did not directly affect them. Others held that race relations in the US were not currently a problem; slavery had ended, and some whites claimed black people had proved themselves inferior and “not worth saving” in the decades following Emancipation. Even whites who did not hold such overtly racist views tended to support segregation, even while they may have also advocated philanthropy and education dedicated to uplifting black communities.

In contrast to these views, Du Bois argues that race relations are the fundamental issue of the 20th century not just to black people, but for everyone. Considering The Souls of Black Folk was written in 1903, Du Bois not only claims that the color line is the most important issue at the time he is writing, but will continue to be far into the future. While this may seem cynical, Du Bois insists throughout the book that he is simply assessing the situation in a realistic, pragmatic way. Finally, Du Bois emphasizes that segregation itself—manifested in the concept of the “color line” dividing the races—is an inherently racist system standing in the way of justice and progress.

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Chapter 1 Quotes

It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness,––an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Related Symbols: Double Consciousness
Page Number: 9
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has described the moment during his childhood when he first became aware of the Veil, meaning the psychosocial force of racism that prevents black people from accessing the same chances, resources, treatment, and quality of life as white people. He argues that the Veil makes black people feel like outsiders in their own country, and even creates a painfully split subjectivity that he calls “double consciousness.” Although double consciousness was one of Du Bois’ most influential concepts, this is one of the only points in the book when he mentions it explicitly.

Du Bois explains that double consciousness is a painful burden because it creates a constant feeling of alienation, self-hatred, and doubt. He emphasizes that African-Americans are so torn apart by the warring identities and perspectives they are forced to inhabit that it can feel like existing as two opposing people, not one person. This is a major example of the psychological burden of racism, though Du Bois shows that double-consciousness does also have material effects, including causing black people to turn to hedonism and crime, or to too-readily compromise with whites on political matters.

The Nation has not yet found peace from its sins; the freedman has not yet found in freedom his promised land. Whatever of good may have come in these years of change, the shadow of a deep disappointment rests upon the Negro people.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 11
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has explained that slaves used to believe they would be saved by a divine intervention, and when Emancipation finally arrived there was a brief moment when it seemed like this sacred justice had prevailed. However, the years following Emancipation have proven such optimism premature, if not entirely delusional. Although technically no longer slaves, black people are not really free at all. This is most obviously true of the rural Southern poor, whose lives often still resemble slavery. However, it is also true of even the most privileged and successful black people, whose existence is restricted by the presence of the color line and the Veil. By referring to the unresolved “sins” of America, Du Bois suggests that black people will not be free until there has been some sort of restorative or compensatory justice for the damage caused by slavery.

Chapter 2 Quotes

There was scarcely a white man in the South who did not honestly regard Emancipation as a crime, and its practical nullification a duty.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 38
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has provided an account of the history of the Freedmen’s Bureau, which was established in order to assist and support newly free black people in the transition from slavery. He identifies many of the Bureau’s flaws, but also points to the insurmountable obstacles it faced—particularly racist opposition from white people. Du Bois’ discussion of white people’s racist attitudes is generally rather moderate and reserved, but on this occasion he provides a much harsher diagnosis. Not only do almost all white people in the South think Emancipation was a “crime,” but they take it upon themselves to actively reverse it.

While this may seem a rather extreme assessment, historical evidence demonstrates that there was indeed widespread opposition to Emancipation among white people in the South, opposition that was mobilized in the backlash against Reconstruction and the violence and oppression of the Jim Crow era that followed.

Chapter 3 Quotes

History is but the record of such group-leadership; and yet how infinitely changeful is its type and character!

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 44
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has detailed his assessment of the highly influential African-American leader Booker T. Washington, criticizing Washington’s popularity among white people and the silencing of his condemnation within the black community. He argues that it should not be the case that black people have their leaders chosen for them by whites, but that they should elect their leaders themselves. This is especially important because, as Du Bois points out in this quotation, the historical record tends to revolve around the leaders of groups, rather than ordinary citizens—and thus people are represented by their leaders not only in a present, political sense, but also in history. So it is unwise and unjust for leaders not to be chosen by the very people they aim to lead.

Chapter 4 Quotes

I have called my tiny community a world, and so its isolation made it; and yet there was among us but a half-awakened common consciousness, sprung from common joy and grief, at burial, birth, or wedding; from a common hardship in poverty, poor land, and low wages; and, above all, from the sight of the Veil that hung between us and Opportunity. All this caused us to think some thoughts together; but these, when ripe for speech, were spoken in various languages.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 62
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has described his happy memories of teaching in a rural school in Tennessee during his summers as a student at Fisk university. He suggests that the community’s isolation from the rest of the world created a sense of belonging; in addition to this, its inhabitants are also brought together by sharing major life events and suffering under the burden of racism. Du Bois thus emphasizes that exclusion can create belonging, even if it also does not erase (and perhaps even causes) differentiation within the excluded group.

He illustrates this idea by pointing out that the shared thoughts of people in the community were “spoken in various languages.” There are multiple ways to interpret this statement, but it is possible that Du Bois is referring to the differences between black people from the North and South, from different social classes, different religious denominations, or different levels of education. Du Bois thus reminds the reader of the limits of belonging, even within a community as tight-knit as the one in Tennessee.

Chapter 5 Quotes

For every social ill the panacea of Wealth has been urged––wealth to overthrow the remains of the slave feudalism; wealth to raise the "cracker" Third Estate; wealth to employ the black serfs, and the prospect of wealth to keep them working; wealth as the end and aim of politics, and as the legal tender for law and order; and, finally, instead of Truth, Beauty, and Goodness, wealth as the ideal of the Public School.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 71
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has argued that hard work and entrepreneurship will be vital to the economic development of the South. However, he warns that over the past decades, white Southerners have become obsessed with wealth to the point that money itself is seen as a solution to every social problem. Du Bois’ concerns in this passage echo themes that have been central to political debates in the US throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Du Bois claims that although wealth is useful and can be a powerful tool in bringing about social progress, wealth alone will not lead to meaningful change. This is partly because racism is as much a psychological as an economic issue, and thus even if black people were in a better position financially, they would still suffer the effects of racist ideology.

Additionally, Du Bois is suspicious of the pursuit of wealth as an end in itself, as he perceives this to be a corrupting influence on society. Critical of capitalism, Du Bois believed that too much focus on profit corrodes moral values, and that people should instead be guided by knowledge and reason. This belief represents a major distinction between Du Bois and Booker T. Washington, who focused on entrepreneurship—rather than education—as the proper vehicle for African-American advancement.

Chapter 6 Quotes

Above all, we daily hear that an education that encourages aspiration, that sets the loftiest of ideals and seeks as an end culture and character rather than breadwinning, is the privilege of white men and the danger and delusion of black.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 84
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has been laying out his passionate argument in favor of education as the key to progress for the African-American community and for eliminating racism. He emphasizes that the current preference for founding industrial schools for black people is not sufficient; although industrial schools are useful and appropriate for many black people, others have the capacity to benefit from classical higher education. In this quotation, Du Bois summarizes a widely-held racist attitude that empowerment through education is “the privilege of white men,” from which black men ought to be excluded.

Note that Du Bois specifies that the justification for this racist exclusion is not that black people are necessarily unintelligent, but that they do not have a right to education and that knowledge that inspires “aspiration” is dangerous for black people. This echoes moments in the novel in which white people—such as the townspeople and white judge in the story of John Jones, or the clergy who refuse to allow Alexander Crummell to train as a minister—object to black people receiving an education that might empower them. To these white people, it is important that African-Americans remain in a subordinate position; as such, they worry that education might cause black people to agitate against racial injustice and seek power and influence for themselves and their communities. Indeed, it is precisely this link between education and empowerment that Du Bois identifies as the reason why providing higher educational opportunities for black people is so important.

The teachers in these institutions came not to keep the Negroes in their place, but to raise them out of the defilement of the places where slavery had wallowed them. The colleges they founded were social settlements; homes where the best of the sons of the freedmen came in close and sympathetic touch with the best traditions of New England. They lived and ate together, studied and worked, hoped and harkened in the dawning light.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 89
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has explained that at the time he is writing, despite the protests of white people who claim that educating African-Americans is a waste of time and resources, many black people have graduated from Teachers’ Institutes, black colleges, and from the top universities in the country. Du Bois points out that this last category of student proves that black people are capable of excelling in the most challenging courses, and in this passage describes their experiences at these elite institutions. Du Bois paints a rather idyllic picture of the traditional university experience, conjuring an image of a progressive, inclusive, and supportive environment free of racism.

While the image of university Du Bois invokes is perhaps a little romanticized, it works to persuade the reader that allowing black students to receive a classical education at highly competitive institutions is a positive thing, rather than being risky or absurd. Du Bois’ emphasis on the harmoniousness of student life at New England universities is a stark contrast to the backlash against integration that would come in the later decades of the 20th century.

O Southern Gentlemen! If you deplore their presence here, they ask, Who brought us? When you cry Deliver us from the vision of intermarriage, they answer that legal marriage is infinitely better than systematic concubinage and prostitution. And if in just fury you accuse their vagabonds of violating women, they also in fury quite as just may reply: The rape which your gentlemen have done against helpless black women in defiance of your own laws is written on the foreheads of two millions of mulattoes.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 93
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has argued that black people are perfectly capable of excelling at university, and if there is to be any racial, social, and economic progress in the South there will need to exist colleges to educate the black population. In this passage, he shifts from discussing education specifically to focusing on the general problem of racism, and particularly what he identifies as white hypocrisy. Du Bois’ tone in these lines is more directly accusatory than in other parts of the book, when he seems careful to maintain a more reserved, forgiving stance. Here he points out that even the concept of “black crime” arbitrarily singles out African-Americans as criminal when the evidence of white criminal activity against black people is arguably far greater.

However, it is probably Du Bois’ initial rhetorical question in this passage that is the most powerful. He laments the hypocrisy of white Southerners who exclude black people and resent their presence within society, while conveniently forgetting the fact that it was whites who brought black people there against their will in the first place. This paradox directly relates to Du Bois’ exploration of the unresolved duality of African-American existence, which forces black people to feel like strangers to themselves.

Chapter 7 Quotes

If you wish to ride with me you must come into the "Jim Crow Car." There will be no objection,––already four other white men, and a little white girl with her nurse, are in there. Usually the races are mixed in there; but the white coach is all white.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 99
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois opens the chapter in rural Georgia, and in this passage switches to the second person to address the reader directly. His words confirm the notion that the presumed audience of The Souls of Black Folk is white; they must go into the “Jim Crow Car” because Du Bois is black, but—as he points out—there are other white people in the carriage. The presence of these other white people emphasizes the fact that segregation is an asymmetrical system. While white people are allowed in the Jim Crow car, black people are strictly forbidden from riding in the white car. Thus segregation is arguably less about separating the races, and more about maintaining white control.

Note the detail about the little white girl and her nurse, which provides further important information about the reality of segregation. As Du Bois mentions, black people were intimately involved in the personal lives of white Southerners, particularly black women who were employed as nannies, cooks, and cleaners in white people’s homes. The most private of spaces, therefore, were not segregated at all; however, there were strict conditions placed on these black workers. The master-slave dynamic did not die with slavery, and black people were expected to behave with extreme obedience, humility, and subservience around their white employers, as well as white people in general.

Yet even then the hard ruthless rape of the land began to tell. The red-clay sub-soil already had begun to peer above the loam. The harder the slaves were driven the more careless and fatal was their farming.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 109
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has described the landscape of the rural South, emphasizing its desolate, “forsaken” quality. He notes that in the poorest areas, only black people remain, as they are too impoverished to move. In this passage, he describes how the land was exploited during slavery, and in doing so draws a connection between the terrorizing treatment of the slaves and the ruthless treatment of the land. Both the slaves and the natural landscape suffered under violence and tyranny, and have been left worn down and desolate as a result. This parallel further suggests that it will take many years of support, nourishment, and careful planning in order to restore the land to full fertility again, just as such care is needed for poor black communities to thrive in the aftermath of slavery.

Chapter 9 Quotes

War, murder, slavery, extermination, and debauchery––this has again and again been the result of carrying civilization and the blessed gospel to the isles of the sea and the heathen without the law.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 140
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois opens the chapter by stating that his age is characterized by the effects of colonialism, which white people have justified because it brought “civilization” and Christianity to groups of people they deemed uncivilized. In this brutally ironic passage, he points out that the reality of colonialism was violence and tyranny, and emphasizes the hypocrisy of the fact that this was carried out in the name of Christianity. Many people in favor of colonialism argued that it was unfortunate that colonization often involved violence, but that this was a regrettable side effect of what was an essentially noble cause. Du Bois rejects this view by emphasizing that “again and again” colonialism took the form of deliberately tyrannical programs (such as systematic genocide and chattel slavery).

In any land, in any country under modern free competition, to lay any class of weak and despised people, be they white, black, or blue, at the political mercy of their stronger, richer, and more resourceful fellows, is a temptation which human nature seldom has withstood and seldom will withstand.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 151
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has argued for the importance of suffrage as a tool for progress. He explains that during the French revolution, the prospect of universal suffrage seemed possible, but that this promise has disintegrated. In this passage, Du Bois argues that history has shown that it never works to have one stronger group of people governing on behalf of a weaker group. This is not just true of particular places and periods in time, but of “human nature” in general. By making this argument, Du Bois uses classical philosophical reasoning to suggest that black people in the US are treated unfairly.

Depending on the reader’s individual interpretation, this passage could appear more or less conventional. It may be the case that Du Bois is simply arguing for democracy. Having just invoked the French Revolution, perhaps he is claiming that the basic liberal values on which America was founded should be enacted properly by giving African-Americans the right to vote. On the other hand, it is possible to interpret this statement in a more radical way. Surely, in any capitalist country (note that Du Bois invokes capitalism with the phrase “modern free competition”) those who are in government will inevitably be “stronger, richer, and more resourceful” than those over which they rule. Is it possible that Du Bois is arguing that capitalism is incompatible with true political justice?

Chapter 10 Quotes

One can see in the Negro church today, reproduced in microcosm, all the great world from which the Negro is cut off by color-prejudice and social condition.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 165
Explanation and Analysis:

Chapter 10 focuses on the African-American church, and after introducing the topic Du Bois makes a persuasive case for why it is an important object of study. In this quotation, he argues that the black church “reproduces” the world from which black people are excluded, implying that studying the black church allows us to see the world as African-Americans create it for themselves. Du Bois’ words emphasize the theme of exclusion as a productive force, as well as a violent and painful one. Because black people are unfairly excluded from the wider country in which they live, they turn to one another and create a new world within the boundaries of their own community. Although this does not excuse segregation and exclusion, it demonstrates the creative strength and resilience of black Americans.

It is no idle regret with which the white South mourns the loss of the old-time Negro,––the frank, honest, simple old servant who stood for the earlier religious age of submission and humility. With all his laziness and lack of many elements of true manhood, he was at least open-hearted, faithful, and sincere.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 173
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has argued that at the time he is writing, black people are forced to live in a state of duplicity, with half turning to “radicalism” and the other half to “hypocritical compromise.” In this passage, he claims that white Southerners look back nostalgically at “the old-time Negro,” a figure who was perceived to be meek, obedient, and honest. Through his description of this stereotype, Du Bois subtly shows how it was constructed through a racist white point of view. The reason why white people preferred “the old-time Negro” was because he was totally submissive to them and didn’t agitate against his subservient role.

However, throughout the book Du Bois disproves the idea that black people are happy to be subservient to white people, arguing instead that black people should be considered full people in their own right, with rich, strong, and complex “souls.” The death of old black stereotypes is thus a good thing, as it indicates that black people are moving closer to their true selves instead of performing falsely in order to appease white people.

Chapter 11 Quotes

Why was his hair tinted with gold? An evil omen was golden hair in my life. Why had not the brown of his eyes crushed out and killed the blue? –For brown were his father's eyes, and his father's father's. And thus in the Land of the Color-line I saw, as it fell across my baby, the shadow of the Veil.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker), Burghardt Du Bois
Related Symbols: The Color Line, The Veil
Page Number: 177
Explanation and Analysis:

Switching to a highly personal mode, Du Bois has told the joyful story of the birth of his first son, Burghardt. Seeing his wife’s love for the baby, Du Bois came to adore him, but could not help but be disturbed by Burghardt’s complexion. For Du Bois, Burghardt’s blond hair and blue eyes are a reminder of the sexual violence of slavery—the mass rape of slave women by white men, and the mixed-race children born as a result. Although both Burghardt’s parents are black, his features are evidence of the white genes that are inevitably mixed into his parents’ lineage.

Du Bois laments this both as a reminder of the violence in black people’s past and as an ominous indication of the tragedy in his ill-fated son’s future. Note that this is a deliberate reversal of the symbolic meaning of blond hair and blue eyes in the white European tradition, which denotes ideas of innocence and purity. To Du Bois and other descendants of slaves, whiteness represents a violation of purity through oppression and sexual violence.

Chapter 12 Quotes

The nineteenth was the first century of human sympathy,––the age when half wonderingly we began to descry in others that transfigured spark of divinity which we call Myself; when clodhoppers and peasants, and tramps and thieves and millionaires and––sometimes––Negroes became throbbing souls whose warm pulsing life touched us so nearly that we half gasped with surprise, crying, "Thou too! Hast Thou seen Sorrow and the dull waters of Hopelessness? Hast Thou known Life?"

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker)
Page Number: 185
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has introduced the life of Alexander Crummell, who was born into a free black family in New York in 1819. He explains that, learning about racism as a child, Crummell became resentful of the world. In this passage, Du Bois suggests that the 19th century was the first age during which people began to look at marginalized people in society and sympathized with them as people—in other words, recognized their shared humanity. By arguing that “Negroes became throbbing souls,” Du Bois is not referring to a transformation within black people themselves, but in the way they were perceived by whites.

Du Bois’ claim that the 19th century was the first point at which this happened on a large scale is certainly contentious. On the one hand, many would argue that—particularly among non-colonizing groups and during the pre-colonial era—people were not racially categorized in the same way, such that some people were considered more “human” than others. On the other hand, almost all human societies have deemed some within their society as social outcasts, and many have claimed that certain groups—particularly women and foreign tribes—were less human.

Du Bois’ choice of the 19th century as an era defined by human sympathy is thus likely to be less a definitive statement about the whole of history, and more a specific statement on the growth and eventual success of the abolition movement during this period. He suggests that it was only when white people started viewing slaves as people with deep and complex souls that any progress toward racial equality took place.

Of all the three temptations, this one struck the deepest. Hate? He had out- grown so childish a thing. Despair? He had steeled his right arm against it, and fought it with the vigor of determination. But to doubt the worth of his life-work,––to doubt the destiny and capability of the race his soul loved because it was his… this, this seemed more than man could bear.

Related Characters: W.E.B. Du Bois (speaker), Alexander Crummell
Page Number: 188
Explanation and Analysis:

Du Bois has told the story of Alexander Crummell’s early life, indicating that as a young man he was tested by three “temptations”––Hate, Despair, and Doubt. This passage describes Doubt, the final temptation, as the worst of all. While it is comparably easy to overcome hate and despair, the urge to doubt himself and his very race is something from which Crummell almost does not recover. All three temptations are brought about by racist incidents, but only doubt makes Crummell resent black people in particular, rather than the world and its racist nature. Du Bois uses this tale—which in many ways resembles a Biblical or mythic story—in order to warn the reader against falling into doubt, while simultaneously showing how easy it is for this to happen.

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W.E.B. Du Bois Character Timeline in The Souls of Black Folk

The timeline below shows where the character W.E.B. Du Bois appears in The Souls of Black Folk. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
The Forethought
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
Du Bois introduces the book, explaining that it contains reflections on the meaning of being black in... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Leadership Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
Du Bois briefly summarizes the book’s contents. Two chapters deal with the legacy of Emancipation. One examines... (full context)
Chapter 1: Of Our Spiritual Strivings
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
The chapter begins with Arthur Symons’ poem “The Crying of Water.” Du Bois explains that people in “the other world”—the world of white people—seem perpetually curious about what... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Leadership Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
Du Bois didn’t immediately feel the need to destroy the veil, but instead dedicated himself to working... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
Du Bois characterizes black people as “a sort of seventh son,” cursed to live behind the veil.... (full context)
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Leadership Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
...American history has been shaped by the struggle to overcome the state of double consciousness. Du Bois emphasizes that this does not mean eradicating either the African or American side of black... (full context)
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Leadership Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
Du Bois examines how this “contradiction” manifests itself in the lives of different African American figures—the craftsman,... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
...but all the prejudice and hardship they were forced to endure. However, at the time Du Bois is writing—forty years after Emancipation—it is clear that this has not been the case. America... (full context)
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
Du Bois describes black peoples’ struggle to access education as unimaginably difficult, and notes that the goal... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Leadership Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
...of Emancipation—freedom, political power, and education—have failed to be realized, even though at the time Du Bois is writing they are needed more than ever. Du Bois argues that African Americans also... (full context)
Chapter 2: Of the Dawn of Freedom
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
After a opening with a poem by James Russell Lowell, Du Bois begins this chapter by repeating the statement that “the problem of the Twentieth Century is... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Leadership Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
...fuel. This made each newly freed black person the “ward of the Nation,” a relationship Du Bois portrays as especially tense given the power dynamic present during slavery. The first Commissioner of... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Education Theme Icon
Leadership Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
...a court of law when necessary, and helping freedmen draw up contracts with their employers. Du Bois identifies two major challenges the Bureau faced: firstly, the distribution of land to freedmen required... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
Material vs. Psychological Racism Theme Icon
Exclusion vs. Belonging Theme Icon
The climate of the South at the time was tumultuous; Du Bois describes it as akin to “waking from some wild dream to poverty and social revolution.”... (full context)
Slavery vs. Freedom Theme Icon
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...the dream of “forty acres and a mule” for every freed slave was not realized. Du Bois argues that the Bureau’s greatest success was in the area of education. Although there was... (full context)
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...people sought their own violent “revenge” on black people through beatings, rape, and lynching. However, Du Bois argues that although it is easy from a contemporary perspective to criticize the Bureau, at... (full context)
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Du Bois summarizes the work of the Bureau, arguing that it successfully put to use over $15... (full context)
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...particular matters so much as to the fact that it existed in the first place. Du Bois argues that had the Bureau not faced such widespread opposition from Southern whites, it could... (full context)
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Du Bois compares the premature death of the Bureau to that of a young person, and emphatically... (full context)
Chapter 3: Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others
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...the phrase: “Know ye not / who would be free themselves must strike the blow?”. Du Bois then opens by claiming that the rise of Booker T. Washington is “the most striking... (full context)
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...Overall, Washington’s “singleness of vision and oneness with his age” made him highly successful, and Du Bois describes his widespread fame as akin to a “cult.” (full context)
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Du Bois admits that it is tempting not to criticize Washington, both because he achieved so much... (full context)
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Du Bois examines the history of African-American leadership, beginning with those who led slave uprisings and revolts... (full context)
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Du Bois criticizes Washington for withdrawing pressure for African-American civil rights at exactly the point when this... (full context)
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Du Bois criticizes this group of highly-educated black people for not vocalizing their oppositiontoWashington. He argues that... (full context)
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Du Bois presents his own modifications of Washington’s arguments. He claims that “slavery and race-prejudice are potent... (full context)
Chapter 4: Of the Meaning of Progress
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The chapter begins with a verse by the German writer Friedrich Schiller. Du Bois opens with the phrase “Once upon a time,” and goes on to recall a time... (full context)
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Du Bois found a school through Josie, “a thin, homely girl of twenty,” whom he met while... (full context)
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Du Bois describes the school where he chose to teach as run-down and poorly furnished. Josie attended... (full context)
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Du Bois recalls that on Friday nights he would stay with a farmer called Doc Burke and... (full context)
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Du Bois spent two summers teaching at the school and living “in this little world.” He describes... (full context)
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Ten years later, Du Bois returned to Tennessee to find that Josie was dead. This was only one of many... (full context)
Chapter 5: Of the Wings of Atlanta
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...Greenleaf Whittier, which includes the lines: “All are rising— / the black and white together.” Du Bois describes the city of Atlanta, lying “gray and still on the crimson soil of Georgia.”... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that hard work and prosperity are the correct path to a better future for... (full context)
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Du Bois draws a parallel between the “death” of two figures: the honest, deferential slave, and the... (full context)
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Du Bois describes a cluster of beautiful, stately buildings: Atlanta University. This is where he lives, and... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that the biggest mistake made by the founders of Atlanta University was thinking that... (full context)
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Du Bois claims that the South is especially in need of universities at the moment, as the... (full context)
Chapter 6: Of the Training of Black Men
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...chapter begins with a quotation from the medieval Persian mathematician, philosopher, and poet Omar Khayyam. Du Bois states that since the first slaves arrived in the US, there have been three “streams... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that the racism of the South must be addressed seriously; it cannot be “laughed... (full context)
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Education in the South must provide a way forward for “two backward peoples.” Du Bois examines the history of Southern education since the civil war. In the first years following... (full context)
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Du Bois identifies a problem with industrial schools—that they can treat people as no more than workers,... (full context)
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...the “sneers of critics,” Teachers’ Institutes were founded and quickly trained 30,000 much-needed black teachers. Du Bois quotes an article from a white Southern newspaper arguing that providing classical education to young... (full context)
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Du Bois admits that fifty years ago it would have been difficult to prove that black people... (full context)
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Du Bois says that if white and black people are to live alongside each other in a... (full context)
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Du Bois makes an impassioned argument that if white Southerners object to black people’s presence among them,... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that black colleges have three functions: to “maintain the standards of popular education,” help... (full context)
Chapter 7: Of the Black Belt
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The chapter begins with a quotation from the Biblical Song of Solomon. Du Bois describes arriving by train at a place south-west of Atlanta, “the centre of the Negro... (full context)
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The train stops in Albany, “the heart of the Black Belt.” Du Bois describes the bitter battle to seize the land from the Native Americans, and describes Albany... (full context)
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Moving his attention across the state, Du Bois compares the contemporary landscape to what existed in the past, pointing out that the plantations... (full context)
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Du Bois writes that the Black Belt is rich with history, but that its story is rarely... (full context)
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Du Bois describes a young black man of 22, who before the fall of cotton was successfully... (full context)
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Du Bois moves on to a neighboring area, where more white people live as well as African... (full context)
Chapter 8: Of the Quest of the Golden Fleece
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The chapter begins with a passage by William Vaughn Moody. Du Bois asks the reader if they have ever seen a cotton field “white with the harvest,”... (full context)
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In 1890, 10,000 black people live in the Black Belt, along with 2,000 whites. Du Bois notes that “the country is rich, but the people are poor,” and that debt dominates... (full context)
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...are smaller in size than they used to be, and few young people are married. Du Bois notes that it is common for couples to separate, and laments the “easy marriage and... (full context)
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Du Bois explains that all but about 10% of the black population of Dougherty Country is very... (full context)
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Having said this, Du Bois then returns to portraying the black community of Dougherty County in broad, statistical terms. He... (full context)
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Du Bois also describes the aggressive harassment and violence black people are forced to face in the... (full context)
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Du Bois explains that white employers refuse to improve the working conditions of black people, claiming that... (full context)
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Du Bois explains the different socioeconomic classes that exist among black people at the time he is... (full context)
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Du Bois notes that tax records suggest that there are no black landholders in Dougherty County, but... (full context)
Chapter 9: Of the Sons of Master and Man
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...Browning describing the way that people conduct their lives in intense proximity to each other. Du Bois describes this as a “world old phenomenon,” specifying that different races have always lived in... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that in the future, people ought to protect “the good, the beautiful, and the... (full context)
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Although Du Bois often speaks of the color line, it is usually impossible to draw an actual geographical... (full context)
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...South areaffected by the legacy of black people’s training as slaves, not as modern workers. Du Bois argues that, following Emancipation, it was the duty of someone (who exactly this should be... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that suffrage is one of the most important tools for working toward economic justice.... (full context)
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Du Bois claims that the question of suffrage is intimately tied with the problem of crime within... (full context)
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...As a result, the two groups are highly estranged from and intolerant of one another. Du Bois argues that this total separation of the races has been disastrous, as the problem of... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that although most Southern white people are deeply Christian, their behavior toward black people... (full context)
Chapter 10: Of the Faith of the Fathers
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...by the Victorian Scottish writer William Sharp, writing under the pen name of Fiona Macleod. Du Bois then returns to his days as a rural schoolteacher, describing one Sunday night far from... (full context)
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Du Bois claims that studying African-American religious practices is the only way to understand how those people... (full context)
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Du Bois describes the black church as the center of African-American social life. He explains how churches... (full context)
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Du Bois turns to the history of the black church, describing how African slaves initially practiced “nature-worship,”... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that Christianity was a uniquely appropriate faith for black slaves, who had been subjugated... (full context)
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In order to understand the contemporary black church, Du Bois says, it is important to remember that African-Americans live a “double life” inherently colored by... (full context)
Chapter 11: Of the Passing of the First-Born
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The chapter begins with a verse by Algernon Charles Swinburne. Du Bois writes in the first person, recalling the extraordinary moment when his son (Burghardt) was born.... (full context)
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In the wake of the baby’s death, Du Bois is desperate to work, even as he feels despair at the cruelty of death in... (full context)
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Du Bois notes that his son’s “otherworldly look” perhaps hinted that he would die before experiencing the... (full context)
Chapter 12: Of Alexander Crummell
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The quote that begins this chapter is by Alfred Lord Tennyson. Du Bois then announces: “This is the story of a human heart,” and introduces a black boy... (full context)
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Du Bois remarks on Crummell’s remarkable pilgrimage, and suggests that if the reader finds the riddle of... (full context)
Chapter 13: Of the Coming of John
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This chapter begins with another passage by Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Du Bois describes the streets surrounding Wells Institute and the black students who attend it. He points... (full context)
Chapter 14: Of the Sorrow Songs
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The chapter begins with a verse from a Negro spiritual. Du Bois writes that as he has been writing this book, the Sorrow Songs sung by slaves... (full context)
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Du Bois tells of a man born in New York who served in the Freedmen’s Bureau, founding... (full context)
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Du Bois argues that the spiritual is the “articulate message of the slave to the world.” He... (full context)
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Du Bois names the songs with which he begins each chapter of the book, claiming that the... (full context)
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...a belief that justice will come, if not in this life then in the next. Du Bois wonders if this hope is justified. He notes that in the era in which he... (full context)
The Afterthought
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...that they hear his cry and that the book will not fall into the “wilderness.” Du Bois hopes that “the ears of a guilty people [will] tingle with truth,” and that human... (full context)