A Brief History of Time

A Brief History of Time

by

Stephen Hawking

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Electromagnetic force Term Analysis

One of the four main types of forces in the universe, electromagnetism draws electrically charged particles toward or away from one another according to their charge. There are positive, neutral, and negatives charges. The electromagnetic force is much stronger than gravity, but not as strong as the strong nuclear force. The electromagnetic force causes the negatively charged electrons in an atom to orbit the positively charged protons.
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Electromagnetic force Term Timeline in A Brief History of Time

The timeline below shows where the term Electromagnetic force appears in A Brief History of Time. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 2
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
...that has been used to understand electricity and magnetism. He said wavelike disturbances in the electromagnetic field would travel at constant speeds, just like ripples in ponds. The different wavelengths (the... (full context)
Chapter 5
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
Another class is the electromagnetic force. This affects only electrically-charged particles like electrons, but not gravitons. It is much stronger... (full context)
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
...and Steven Weinberg both put forward ideas on this force that linked it with the electromagnetic force in 1967. They said three types of particle called massive vector bosons carried this... (full context)
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
...is that at some high energy, the strong nuclear force would be weakened, and the electromagnetic and weak nuclear force would strengthen, so that all three would be equal. In this... (full context)
Chapter 8
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
Once the temperature of the universe dropped to a certain point, the electromagnetic force would be stronger than particles’ energy to escape it, drawing more particles together to... (full context)
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
...while expanding rapidly, particles had enough energy for the strong and weak nuclear forces and electromagnetic force to be unified in a single force. As the universe cooled, these forces broke... (full context)
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
...the symmetry eventually break between the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and the electromagnetic force. This would bring the universe back to the slower rate of expansion and cooling... (full context)