A Brief History of Time

A Brief History of Time

Space-time Term Analysis

The three dimensions of space and the dimension of time come together under the general theory of relativity to create space-time. Events take place on a point in space-time.
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Space-time Term Timeline in A Brief History of Time

The timeline below shows where the term Space-time appears in A Brief History of Time. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 2
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
...by multiplying half the distance of the round trip by the speed of light. A space-time diagram, can be used by different observers moving at different speeds, and no measurement is... (full context)
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...accept that time is not independent of space, but rather combined in an idea called space-time. (full context)
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...coordinates: three in space, and the fourth in time. These can all be arbitrary. In space-time, there is no distinction between space and time coordinates, like there's no difference between space... (full context)
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...the surface of the earth, because any point can be determined by latitude and longitude. Space-time diagrams can show time increasing on one axis, and one dimension of space on the... (full context)
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The Danger of Stubbornness  Theme Icon
...that gravity is not like other forces. Rather, it is the result of the fact space-time is not flat. It is curved according to the mass and energy distributed across it.... (full context)
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In general relativity, objects take a straight route in curved, four-dimensional space-time, but seem to take curved routes in three-dimensional space. For example, an airplane flying straight... (full context)
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The sun's mass and resultant gravitational force curves space-time so that although the earth travels straight in four-dimensional space-time, it looks like it follows... (full context)
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...thinking has changed considerably. Space and time are affected by objects' movement and forces, and space-time in turn affects the movement of those forces and objects. Just as space and time... (full context)
Chapter 6
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The Danger of Stubbornness  Theme Icon
...in his day. Essentially, his work states that stars’ gravitational pull changes light’s path through space-time. Finally, the light is pulled so strongly, it cannot escape. As light moves faster than... (full context)
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...showed in the late 1960s that there must be a singularity of infinite density and space-time curvature at the center of a black hole. This is similar to the beginning of... (full context)
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General relativity states that moving objects give off gravitational waves, which bend space-time. These waves carry energy away from the object producing them. Slowly, these objects lose energy... (full context)
Chapter 8
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
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Einstein’s general relativity predicted that space-time began as a singularity in the big bang, and ends in the potential big crunch... (full context)
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...today? We find the universe is ordered, so that order should also apply to the space-time boundary. (full context)
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...imaginary numbers to represent time, which clears away any difference between space and time. Euclidean space-time (so-called after Euclid, the Ancient Greek who founded two-dimensional geometric studies) is four-dimensional, but really... (full context)
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
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...theory of quantum mechanics and general relativity is that gravity is represented in a curved space-time. Applying the sum over histories to Einstein’s ideas on gravity, the history of a particle... (full context)
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Each sum over histories history offers a comprehensive account of space-time and its contents. Again, the anthropic principle can explain why one history is right rather... (full context)
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The idea that space-time has a closed surface with no boundary seems to eliminate the role of God. People... (full context)
Chapter 10
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The Danger of Stubbornness  Theme Icon
Mathematician Kurt Gödel suggested a new model of space-time in 1949 under general relativity. He said the whole universe was rotating in the direction... (full context)
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Other space-times allowed by the rules of general relativity do allow for time travel, and fit what... (full context)
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In the Gödel solution and the cosmic string space-time, the universe was so distorted in the beginning that travel into the past was allowed.... (full context)
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...speed of light, however, and rockets cannot get enough power to achieve this speed. Perhaps space-time could be warped to allow a shortcut, allowing a wormhole between two regions; this would... (full context)
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...This is called the Casimir effect. Along with light bending during eclipses, these observations show space-time could be warped. (full context)
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
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...past. One explanation is called the consistent histories approach, which says everything that happens in space-time must be consistent according to the laws of physics. This means you would only travel... (full context)
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...contained, so the time traveler would have to travel back to his or her own space-time’s past. (full context)
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...purposefully prevent large-scale time travel. But this has not been proven. The idea goes, when space-time is warped enough to allow time travel, virtual particles moving in closed loops become real... (full context)
Chapter 11
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
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...technically infinite numbers of particles, which add infinite mass to the universe, and so curve space-time into an infinitely small size. (full context)
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...in one place at one time, and their histories are drawn as a line in space-time. Strings occupy lines in space-time at any one point. This gives it a two-dimensional history... (full context)
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The anthropic principle suggests life is only possible in space-times with the four flat dimensions we are used to. String theory allows some regions of... (full context)
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...the different dimensions. In 1994, scientists discovered dualities, which produce the same effects in four-dimensional space-time from various configurations. They also found p-branes, which take up two or more dimensions in... (full context)