A Different Mirror

A Different Mirror


Ronald Takaki

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A Different Mirror Symbols


Strikes represented a key way in which ethnic workers in the United States made the country their own, taking matters into their own hands and shaping the nation’s future. Performing labor—and particularly labor that was…

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Harvard University

As the oldest university in the US, Harvard has played an important role in the building of the nation. Takaki’s mentions of Harvard in A Different Mirror is less focused on the university’s role…

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The Railroad

The railroad is one of the most key pieces of industrial infrastructure in American history. Built by ethnic groups including African Americans, Mexicans, and the Chinese, the railroad symbolizes how the labor of people of…

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