Arc of Justice

Arc of Justice

by

Kevin Boyle

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Arthur Garfield Hays Character Analysis

Arthur Garfield Hays is lawyer and friend of Clarence Darrow. Having formerly joined Darrow in the infamous Scopes trial, Hays signs on to help defend Ossian, Gladys, Otis, and Henry Sweet, John Latting, William Davis, Joe Mack, Norris Murray, Hewitt Watson, Charles Washington, and Leonard Morse in the first Sweet trial. On the defense, he balances Darrow’s attention to the human character of the trials with a careful attention to legal detail and precedent. Another case prevents Hays from participating in the second Sweet trial, and Thomas Chalke takes his place. But, following the Sweet trials, Hays continued to focus on protecting the marginalized and the vulnerable, including representing striking union members, Puerto Rican nationalists protesting colonial authorities, and Harlem residents suffering from police brutality.

Arthur Garfield Hays Quotes in Arc of Justice

The Arc of Justice quotes below are all either spoken by Arthur Garfield Hays or refer to Arthur Garfield Hays. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
).
Chapter 9 Quotes

Ossian didn’t have to testify. No one could have objected to his refusing, so great was the responsibility: if he said the wrong word, put the wrong inflection in his voice, sat in a way that struck the jurors as too casual or too confident, grew rattled under cross-examination, succumbed to a single flash of anger, whatever sympathy Darrow and Hays had won for the defendants could be lost, the entire defense destroyed. But Ossian didn’t refuse. Undoubtedly he agreed out of pride—the intoxicating sense that in the past few weeks he had become the representative of his race and the champion of its rights—and, as always, out of obligation. He would do what his lawyers wanted him to do, what his wife and brothers and friends needed him to do, what his colleagues surely expected him to do. He had no choice, really, but to take the stand.

Page Number: 288
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 10 Quotes

“Why deny that the greatest asset that the State has in this case is prejudice and the greatest handicap that we have on this side of the table is prejudice […] I thought this case was fraught with nothing but disastrous things, and apart from the testimony, when I viewed here the sinister figure of prejudice, sitting before you twelve men in a dispensary of justice, but as I sat here this morning, and I saw an attempt made to arouse that prejudice, in order to becloud the issue here, so that you twelve men would not decide this case upon the testimony…I was amazed to think that a public prosecutor should go to the burial place of Leon Breiner and drag his helpless body before you in order that you might send Henry Sweet to jail because Leon Breiner is dead and Henry Sweet is black instead of white.”

Related Characters: Thomas Chawke (speaker), Henry Sweet, Arthur Garfield Hays, Leon Breiner
Related Symbols: Houses
Page Number: 329
Explanation and Analysis:
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Arc of Justice PDF

Arthur Garfield Hays Character Timeline in Arc of Justice

The timeline below shows where the character Arthur Garfield Hays appears in Arc of Justice. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 8: The Prodigal Son
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
The American Dream Theme Icon
...the famous lawyer is in New York City, visiting his friend, fellow attorney Arthur Garfield Hays. Johnson and his associates secure an appointment with Darrow the same afternoon. The NAACP contingent... (full context)
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Progress and Social Change Theme Icon
...(ACLU) with a test case to challenge the law. The ACLU’s star attorney, Arthur Garfield Hays, leads the defense. But after massively famous politician and speechmaker William Jennings Bryan joins the... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
While Johnson tries to wrangle the necessary funding money to hire Darrow and Hays from the NAACP’s executive board, White travels to Detroit, where he smooths over relations with... (full context)
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Self-Defense, Race, and Ownership Theme Icon
...and Mahoney explain the context of the Mathies, Bristol, Fletcher, and Turner cases. Arthur Garfield Hays and his legal team plan the defense’s legal strategy, which will focus on the issue... (full context)
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Self-Defense, Race, and Ownership Theme Icon
Hays’s team builds their case around an 1860 precedent which holds that belief in a mob’s... (full context)
Chapter 9: Prejudice
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
...theatrics that might provoke Darrow to attack him or his legal approach. When Arthur Garfield Hays demands that the prosecution begin by presenting its bill of particulars—forcing it to precisely define... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Hays interrupts the momentum of Toms’ presentation with technical legal objections, while Darrow cross-examines his witnesses.... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Progress and Social Change Theme Icon
...argue that the fatal shots came from a policeman’s gun instead of the house. Instead, Hays opens with a motion to dismiss the charges. White doesn’t like this idea, feeling that... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
The American Dream Theme Icon
In his opening argument, Hays focuses on Ossian, presenting his rise from poverty through years of education and hard work... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
In the final four days of the trial, Ossian fends off Toms’ aggressive cross-examination. Hays fails to prevent Henry’s admission on the night of the shooting to firing a weapon... (full context)
Chapter 10: Judgement Day
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Clarence Darrow and Arthur Garfield Hays ask for their clients to be released on bail and inform Frank Murphy they want... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Progress and Social Change Theme Icon
...racking coughs, and the local defense team—Cecil Rowlette, Julian Perry, and Charles Mahoney—express frustration with Hays’s and Darrow’s defense. They think it would be safer to defend all 11 together rather... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Progress and Social Change Theme Icon
In early March, Arthur Garfield Hays becomes involved in a high-profile case that prevents him from rejoining the defense. Darrow insists... (full context)
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Progress and Social Change Theme Icon
...He taps into Detroit’s recent racial and political conflicts much more directly than Darrow and Hays dared in the first trial. Thus, he reminds Detroiters who, like the Irish American Chawke... (full context)
Epilogue: Requiescam
Prejudice, Segregation, and Society Theme Icon
Justice and Civil Rights Theme Icon
Progress and Social Change Theme Icon
...Sweet case do move America “away from the brutal intolerance of the 1920s.” Arthur Garfield Hays spends a legal career defending the rights of men and women from marginalized groups. Reinhold... (full context)