King Leopold’s Ghost

Nzinga Mbemba Affonso (Affonso I) Character Analysis

15th century king who ruled near the Congo River. Affonso I was popular among the early Portuguese colonialists who visited the Congo River because he wanted to modernize his kingdom with European technology and religion and he supported a slave trade. However, Affonso I became more opposed to European colonization and slave trading toward the end of his life, by which time Portugal had already strengthened its position in the Congo.
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Nzinga Mbemba Affonso (Affonso I) Character Timeline in King Leopold’s Ghost

The timeline below shows where the character Nzinga Mbemba Affonso (Affonso I) appears in King Leopold’s Ghost. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Prologue
Imperialism Theme Icon
Publicity and Mass Communication Theme Icon
...who greeted the Portuguese warmly. It has been suggested that the king at the time, Nzinga Mbemba Affonso , welcomed Cào’s expedition because he wanted Cào to help him subdue a rebellion in... (full context)
Imperialism Theme Icon
Affonso I , as the Congolese king came to be known, played a decisive role in the... (full context)
Imperialism Theme Icon
Publicity and Mass Communication Theme Icon
Affonso I was a slave-owner, but he seemed not to have realized how profoundly the European slave... (full context)
Imperialism Theme Icon
Racism and Human Rights Theme Icon
After Affonso I ’s death, the Congolese state quickly lost its power. Other European powers, such as Britain,... (full context)
Imperialism Theme Icon
Racism and Human Rights Theme Icon
Indifference and Activism Theme Icon
Affonso I ’s letters and speeches are some of the only surviving writings about early Congolese slavery... (full context)