North and South

North and South


Elizabeth Gaskell

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Smoke, Fog, and Gray

Particularly in the early chapters of North and South, smoke, fog, and the associated color gray symbolize industry’s overwhelming presence in the North, as well as the adverse impact industry can have on…

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Nature and the Countryside

Though most of North and South takes place in an industrial city, nature and country life symbolize refreshment and are often associated with Margaret Hale herself. When Margaret first returns to Helstone from London, she…

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