The goddess of wisdom, justice, and courage. She takes a particular liking to Odysseus, and by extension Telemachus – perhaps because Odysseus's suffering is greater than his crimes, perhaps because he embodies the values she champions. Secretively and light-handedly, she guides Telemachus and helps Odysseus when she can. She usually appears to mortals disguised as another mortal or as a bird; it might be that she is naturally reticent (as Zeus is naturally dramatic and ostentatious), or it might be that she takes pains to allow her heroes freedom of choice. Her partiality to Odysseus sometimes conflicts with Zeus and Poseidon's resentments, so she must act indirectly.