The bow and arrow are a traditional symbol of female empowerment (dating all the way back to the ancient Greeks, who worshipped Artemis, the bow and arrow-toting goddess of the hunt). Thus, it’s appropriate that Leah Price gets a bow and arrow around the same time that she’s also learning to distance himself from her overbearing father, and to become her own independent self.
The timeline below shows where the symbol The Bow and Arrow appears in The Poisonwood Bible. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Book 3, Chapter 40
...also teaches Anatole’s students in the mornings. As a show of thanks, Anatole gives Leah a bow and quiver of arrows . Adah feels alienated from Leah, especially because Anatole is “breaking rules for her.” Oblivious... (full context)
Book 4, Chapter 51
...change from her old behavior. One day, Leah declares that she’ll go hunting with her bow and arrow . She’s going to join Tata Ndu, who’s organizing a village-wide hunt to stave off... (full context)