The Refugees

by

Viet Thanh Nguyen

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Liver

In “The Transplant,” Arthur’s liver transplant represents the opportunity for a better life. Before Arthur’s liver starts to fail, Arthur loses his house, his wife Norma, and his part of his father’s business because…

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Photos

In “Fatherland,” photos become symbols of Mr. Ly’s love for Vivien, as well as Phuong’s tie to her sister. Before Vivien arrives in Vietnam, the only connection that Phuong has to her…

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Lingerie

In “Fatherland,” lingerie comes to stand in for American culture and Phuong’s desire for adventure. She receives the lingerie from Vivien, who encourages her to meet boys and to do what she wants—that…

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