The Shallows


Nicholas Carr

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Eric Kandel Character Analysis

Eric Kandel is a scientist most famous for his Aplysia experiments completed in the 1960’s in which he conducted research on the nervous system of the sea slug. Kandel demonstrated that “synapses change with experience,” an important revelation for study of the neural pathways. Kandel’s work shows how the nervous system learns from experiences and alters responses according to stimuli. The Aplysia experiments, as such, are used by Carr as evidence for neuroplasticity. Kandel is also the author of the 2006 memoir, In Search of Memory.
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Eric Kandel Character Timeline in The Shallows

The timeline below shows where the character Eric Kandel appears in The Shallows. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 2
Scientific Context Theme Icon advanced, the argument for plasticity slowly strengthened. Carr cites the work of biologist Eric Kandel, who performed a study on sea slugs in the early 1970s known as the Aplysia... (full context)
Chapter 9
Scientific Context Theme Icon
...attention to the process of how memories are made. He begins by recalling scientist Eric Kandel, who demonstrated in the 1970s with his Aplysia experiments that synapses are altered by experience.... (full context)
Scientific Context Theme Icon
...biological, requiring the synthesis of new proteins, whereas the creation of short-term memories is not. Kandel’s continued research on the sea slug, in which he traced the neuronal signals, not only... (full context)
Distraction and Focus Theme Icon
Scientific Context Theme Icon
...long-term memories is obstructed. Consolidation of long-term memory depends on our level of attentiveness. As Kandel writes: “For a memory to persist, the incoming information must be thoroughly and deeply processed.”... (full context)