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Richard III

Richard III Translation Act 4, Scene 4

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Enter old QUEEN MARGARET

QUEEN MARGARET

So now prosperity begins to mellow And drop into the rotten mouth of death. Here in these confines slyly have I lurked To watch the waning of mine enemies. A dire induction am I witness to, And will to France, hoping the consequence Will prove as bitter, black, and tragical. Withdraw thee, wretched Margaret. Who comes here?

QUEEN MARGARET

So now the Yorks' prosperity has ripened and rotted, falling into the mouth of death. I've been lurking in the shadows here to watch my enemies come to ruin, and it's a terrible scene I've witnessed—an ominous prologue to what I hope will be a bitter, dark, and tragic conclusion. I'll head to France. But hide now, wretched Margaret. Who's coming?

She steps aside

Enter QUEEN ELIZABETH and the DUCHESS of York

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Ah, my poor princes! Ah, my tender babes, My unblown flowers, new-appearing sweets, If yet your gentle souls fly in the air And be not fixed in doom perpetual, Hover about me with your airy wings And hear your mother’s lamentation.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Ah, my poor princes! Ah, my tender babes—my flowers who didn't have a chance to bloom! If your gentle souls are still flying about in the air and haven't yet landed in their final resting place, then hover about me now with your airy wings, and hear your mother's cries of mourning.

QUEEN MARGARET

[aside] Hover about her; say that right for rightHath dimmed your infant morn to agèd night.

QUEEN MARGARET

[To herself] Hover about her, spirits, and say that she got what she deserved, since you were also killed before your time.

DUCHESS

So many miseries have crazed my voiceThat my woe-wearied tongue is still and mute.Edward Plantagenet, why art thou dead?

DUCHESS

So many miseries have cracked my voice that my tongue is weary of wailing and has gone silent. Edward Plantagenet, why are you dead?

QUEEN MARGARET

[aside] Plantagenet doth quit Plantagenet;Edward for Edward pays a dying debt.

QUEEN MARGARET

[To herself] One Plantagenet makes up for another. Edward dies to pay the debt for another Edward's death.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Wilt thou, O God, fly from such gentle lambsAnd throw them in the entrails of the wolf?When didst thou sleep when such a deed was done?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Oh God, will you abandon such gentle lambs, and throw them to the wolf? How could you sleep when such a deed was done?

QUEEN MARGARET

[aside] When holy Harry died, and my sweet son.

QUEEN MARGARET

[To herself] God slept when my holy husband Henry died, and my sweet son Edward.

DUCHESS

[sitting down] Dead life, blind sight, poor mortal living ghost, Woe’s scene, world’s shame, grave’s due by life usurped, Brief abstract and record of tedious days, Rest thy unrest on England’s lawful earth, Unlawfully made drunk with innocent blood.

DUCHESS

[Sitting down] My life has died. My sight has gone blind. I'm like a ghost that's still alive. I am the bearer of misfortune; the shame of the world; a soul that rightfully belongs to the grave. As a summary and brief record of my unbearable life, I will rest my restless bones on England's lawful earth, which is now covered with innocent blood, against the laws of man and nature.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

[sitting down beside her] Ah, that thou wouldst as soon afford a grave As thou canst yield a melancholy seat, Then would I hide my bones, not rest them here. O, who hath any cause to mourn but we?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

[Sitting down beside her] Ah, if only the earth could provide me with a grave instead of just a sad seat, then I would bury my bones, instead of simply resting them here. Oh, who has any right to mourn except for us?

QUEEN MARGARET

[joining them] If ancient sorrow be most reverend, Give mine the benefit of seigniory, And let my griefs frown on the upper hand. If sorrow can admit society, Tell o'er your woes again by viewing mine. I had an Edward till a Richard killed him; I had a husband till a Richard killed him. Thou hadst an Edward till a Richard killed him; Thou hadst a Richard till a Richard killed him.

QUEEN MARGARET

[Joining them and sitting] If the oldest sorrow is the most revered, then give mine the privilege of seniority, and let my grief have the upper hand. If you can accept company in your sadness, then consider your losses again by looking at mine. I had an Edward until a Richard killed him. And I had a husband, Henry, until a Richard killed him. You had an Edward until a Richard killed him, and you had a Richard, young York, until a Richard killed him.

DUCHESS

I had a Richard too, and thou did’st kill him; I had a Rutland too; thou holp’st to kill him.

DUCHESS

I had a Richard too, my husband, and you killed him. I had a Rutland too, and you helped to kill him.

QUEEN MARGARET

Thou hadst a Clarence too, and Richard killed him Then forth the kennel of thy womb hath crept A hellhound that doth hunt us all to death— That dog, that had his teeth before his eyes, To worry lambs and lap their gentle blood; That excellent grand tyrant of the earth, That reigns in gallèd eyes of weeping souls; That foul defacer of God’s handiwork Thy womb let loose to chase us to our graves. O upright, just, and true-disposing God, How do I thank thee that this carnal cur Preys on the issue of his mother’s body And makes her pew-fellow with others' moan!

QUEEN MARGARET

You had a Clarence too, and Richard killed him. The kennel of your womb has let loose a hellhound that hunts us all to death—a dog that had teeth before it had eyes. His teeth attack lambs and lap up their gentle blood. He is the greatest tyrant of the earth, and thrives among the tears of those he has injured. That foul creature who defaces God's handiwork came forth from your womb to chase us to our graves. Oh, upright, just, and generous God, how can I thank you enough that this deadly mutt preys on his mother's offspring and makes her a companion to others' sorrow?

DUCHESS

O Harry’s wife, triumph not in my woes! God witness with me, I have wept for thine.

DUCHESS

Oh, Henry's wife, do not triumph in my woes! As God is my witness, I have wept for yours.

QUEEN MARGARET

Bear with me, I am hungry for revenge, And now I cloy me with beholding it. Thy Edward he is dead, that killed my Edward, Thy other Edward dead, to quit my Edward; Young York, he is but boot, because both they Matched not the high perfection of my loss. Thy Clarence he is dead that stabbed my Edward, And the beholders of this frantic play, Th' adulterate Hastings, Rivers, Vaughan, Grey, Untimely smothered in their dusky graves. Richard yet lives, hell’s black intelligencer, Only reserved their factor to buy souls And send them thither. But at hand, at hand Ensues his piteous and unpitied end. Earth gapes, hell burns, fiends roar, saints pray, To have him suddenly conveyed from hence. Cancel his bond of life, dear God I pray, That I may live to say, “The dog is dead.”

QUEEN MARGARET

Bear with me. I am hungry for revenge, and now I'm almost sick from gorging myself upon it. Your son Edward—who killed my son Edward—is dead. Your grandson Edward is also dead, with young York thrown in as an extra, because both your grandsons didn't equal my lost son. Your Clarence—who stabbed my son Edward—is dead. And the audience to this frantic play—the adulterer Hastings, Rivers, Vaughan, and Grey—have all been smothered in early graves. Richard still lives as hell's dark spy, only allowed to remain long enough to buy souls and send them down below. But soon, soon his pitiful and well-deserved end will come. The earth gapes open, hell burns, devils roar, and saints pray that he might be quickly sent from this earth. Dear God, end his life soon, so that I may live to say, "The dog is dead!"

QUEEN ELIZABETH

O, thou didst prophesy the time would come That I should wish for thee to help me curseThat bottled spider, that foul bunch-backed toad!

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Oh, you once did prophesy that the time would come when I would want your help in cursing that swollen spider, that foul hunchbacked toad!

QUEEN MARGARET

I called thee then “vain flourish of my fortune.” I called thee then poor shadow, “painted queen,” The presentation of but what I was, The flattering index of a direful pageant, One heaved a-high, to be hurled down below, A mother only mocked with two fair babes, A dream of what thou wast, a garish flag To be the aim of every dangerous shot, A sign of dignity, a breath, a bubble, A queen in jest, only to fill the scene. Where is thy husband now? Where be thy brothers? Where are thy two sons? Wherein dost thou joy? Who sues and kneels and says “God save the queen?” Where be the bending peers that flattered thee? Where be the thronging troops that followed thee? Decline all this, and see what now thou art: For happy wife, a most distressèd widow; For joyful mother, one that wails the name; For queen, a very caitiff crowned with care; For one being sued to, one that humbly sues; For she that scorned at me, now scorned of me; For she being feared of all, now fearing one; For she commanding all, obeyed of none. Thus hath the course of justice whirled about And left thee but a very prey to time, Having no more but thought of what thou wast To torture thee the more, being what thou art. Thou didst usurp my place, and dost thou not Usurp the just proportion of my sorrow? Now thy proud neck bears half my burdened yoke, From which even here I slip my weary head And leave the burthen of it all on thee. Farewell, York’s wife, and queen of sad mischance. These English woes will make me smile in France.

QUEEN MARGARET

And then I called you a "poor imitation of a queen" and a "meaningless decoration on my throne"—the image of what I was in reality—the pretty prologue to an ominous tragedy; a woman lifted high only to be hurled down below; a mother mocked with the gifts of two dear babies, only to lose them. You were a shadow of a queen; a gaudy banner that enemies could target; an empty symbol of dignity; a breath; a bubble; a mockery of a queen; a stand-in only there to fill the role. And where is your husband now? Where are your brothers? Where are your two sons? Where do you find your joy? Who kneels before you and makes requests and says, "God save the queen?" Where are the bowing noblemen who flattered you? Where are the crowds that followed you? Without all this, see what you are: instead of a happy wife, a grieving widow; instead of a joyful mother, a woman who wails over her children; instead of a queen, a poor wretch crowned only with worries; instead of one granting favors, one humbly begging for favors. She who mocked me is now mocked by me, and she who commanded everyone is now obeyed by no one. See how the wheel of justice has turned, leaving you the victim of time. All you have left are the memories of your former glory, which torture you even more when you consider what you've become. You usurped my position, and now see how you usurp my sorrow. Your proud neck bears half of my heavy burden, but now let me give it all to you. Farewell, York's wife, queen of sad misfortune. These English woes will make me smile in France.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

O, thou well-skilled in curses, stay awhile,And teach me how to curse mine enemies.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Oh, you who are so skilled in curses, stay a while and teach me how to curse my enemies.

QUEEN MARGARET

Forbear to sleep the nights, and fast the days; Compare dead happiness with living woe; Think that thy babes were sweeter than they were, And he that slew them fouler than he is. Bettering thy loss makes the bad causer worse.Revolving this will teach thee how to curse.

QUEEN MARGARET

Don't sleep at night, and don't eat during the day. Compare lost happiness with current suffering. Remember your children as being sweeter than they were, and think of the one that killed them as fouler than he is. Magnifying your grief makes the person who caused it even worse. Doing all this will teach you how to curse.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

My words are dull. O, quicken them with thine!

QUEEN ELIZABETH

My words are dull. Oh, give them life with yours!

QUEEN MARGARET

Thy woes will make them sharp and pierce like mine.

QUEEN MARGARET

Your suffering will make them sharp, so they can pierce like mine.

Exit

DUCHESS

Why should calamity be full of words?

DUCHESS

Why should this catastrophe be accompanied by so many words?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Windy attorneys to their clients' woes, Airy succeeders of intestate joys, Poor breathing orators of miseries, Let them have scope, though what they will impart Help nothing else, yet do they ease the heart.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Words are useless breath, like lawyers pleading on their sad clients' behalf; like the children of joys who inherit nothing; like poor speech-makers going on about misery. Even so, let them have a chance. Though they won't help in any other way, they still help ease the heart.

DUCHESS

If so, then be not tongue-tied. Go with me,And in the breath of bitter words let’s smotherMy damnèd son that thy two sweet sons smothered.

DUCHESS

If that's so, then don't be tongue-tied. Come with me, and with our bitter words let's smother my damned son Richard who smothered your two sons.

A trumpet sounds

The trumpet sounds. Be copious in exclaims.

The trumpet sounds—he's coming. Don't restrain yourself.

They rise

Enter King RICHARD and his train, including CATESBY

RICHARD

Who intercepts my expedition?

RICHARD

Who's blocking my path?

DUCHESS

O, she that might have intercepted thee,By strangling thee in her accursèd womb,From all the slaughters, wretch, that thou hast done.

DUCHESS

Oh, you wretch! It is she who could have blocked you from all the murders you've committed—by strangling you in her cursed womb.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Hid’st thou that forehead with a golden crown Where should be branded, if that right were right, The slaughter of the prince that owed that crown And the dire death of my poor sons and brothers? Tell me, thou villain-slave, where are my children?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Are you hiding that forehead with a golden crown, when, if the world was just, it would be branded with the mark of your crimes—the slaughter of the prince who rightfully possessed that crown, and the monstrous deaths of my poor sons and brothers? Tell me, you low-born criminal, where are my children?

DUCHESS

Thou toad, thou toad, where is thy brother Clarence?And little Ned Plantagenet his son?

DUCHESS

You toad, you toad, where is your brother Clarence? And little Ned Plantagenet, his son.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Where is gentle Rivers, Vaughan, Grey?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Where is noble Rivers, and Vaughan, and Grey?

DUCHESS

Where is kind Hastings?

DUCHESS

Where is kind Hastings?

RICHARD

A flourish, trumpets! Strike alarum, drums! Let not the heavens hear these telltale womenRail on the Lord’s anointed. Strike, I say!

RICHARD

Trumpets, play! Drums, a call to arms! Don't let the heavens hear these tattle-tale women abuse the Lord's anointed king. Play, I say!

Flourish. Alarums

Either be patient and entreat me fair,Or with the clamorous report of warThus will I drown your exclamations.

Either be patient and treat me with courtesy or I'll drown you out with the noisy music of war.

DUCHESS

Art thou my son?

DUCHESS

Are you my son?

RICHARD

Ay, I thank God, my father, and yourself.

RICHARD

Yes, and for that I thank God, my father, and yourself.

DUCHESS

Then patiently hear my impatience.

DUCHESS

Then patiently listen to my impatience.

RICHARD

Madam, I have a touch of your condition,Which cannot brook the accent of reproof.

RICHARD

Madam, I have some of your temperament, in that I can't tolerate the language of disapproval.

DUCHESS

O, let me speak!

DUCHESS

Oh, let me speak!

RICHARD

Do then, but I’ll not hear.

RICHARD

Speak then, but I won't listen.

DUCHESS

I will be mild and gentle in my words.

DUCHESS

I will be mild and gentle in my words.

RICHARD

And brief, good mother, for I am in haste.

RICHARD

And be brief too, good mother, for I'm in a hurry.

DUCHESS

Art thou so hasty? I have stayed for thee,God knows, in torment and in agony.

DUCHESS

Are you so impatient? God knows I waited for you, in torment and in agony, when I was giving birth to you.

RICHARD

And came I not at last to comfort you?

RICHARD

And didn't I come at last to comfort you?

DUCHESS

No, by the Holy Rood, thou know’st it well. Thou cam’st on earth to make the earth my hell. A grievous burden was thy birth to me; Tetchy and wayward was thy infancy; Thy school days frightful, desp'rate, wild, and furious; Thy prime of manhood daring, bold, and venturous; Thy age confirmed, proud, subtle, sly, and bloody, More mild, but yet more harmful, kind in hatred. What comfortable hour canst thou name, That ever graced me in thy company?

DUCHESS

No, by the Holy Cross, and you know it well. You came to earth to make the earth my hell. Your birth was a painful burden to me. You were fussy and willful as a baby. Your school days were frightening, wild, and angry. As a young man, you were daring, bold, and adventurous. And in your maturity you've grown proud, cunning, sly, and bloody—less wild but more dangerous, flattering in your hatred. Can you name a comfortable hour I've ever had in your company?

RICHARD

Faith, none but Humfrey Hower, that called your Grace To breakfast once, forth of my company. If I be so disgracious in your eye, Let me march on and not offend you, madam.— Strike up the drum.

RICHARD

Well, none but Humphrey Hour, who once invited you to have breakfast without my company. If I'm so displeasing to look at, then let me march on and not offend you, madam.

[To attendants] Strike up the drum.

DUCHESS

I prithee, hear me speak.

DUCHESS

Please, listen to me speak.

RICHARD

You speak too bitterly.

RICHARD

You speak too bitterly.

DUCHESS

Hear me a word,For I shall never speak to thee again.

DUCHESS

Just listen a moment, and then I'll never speak to you again.

RICHARD

So.

RICHARD

Then do it.

DUCHESS

Either thou wilt die by God’s just ordinance Ere from this war thou turn a conqueror, Or I with grief and extreme age shall perish And nevermore behold thy face again. Therefore take with thee my most grievous curse, Which in the day of battle tire thee more Than all the complete armor that thou wear’st. My prayers on the adverse party fight, And there the little souls of Edward’s children Whisper the spirits of thine enemies And promise them success and victory. Bloody thou art; bloody will be thy end. Shame serves thy life and doth thy death attend.

DUCHESS

Either you'll die—as God's just punishment—before you can return victorious from this war, or else I will die from grief and old age. At any rate, I'll never see your face again. So take with you my most terrible curse, and may it weigh you down in battle more than your suit of armor. My prayers will fight on your enemies' side. And the little souls of Edward's children will encourage your enemies, promising them success and victory. You have lived in violence, and now you will die with violence. Your life has been shameful, so let your death be as well.

Exit

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Though far more cause, yet much less spirit to curseAbides in me. I say amen to her.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Though I have far more reason to curse you, I don't have her energy. I'll just say "amen" to everything she said.

RICHARD

Stay, madam. I must talk a word with you.

RICHARD

Wait, madam. I must speak with you.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

I have no more sons of the royal blood For thee to slaughter. For my daughters, Richard, They shall be praying nuns, not weeping queens, And therefore level not to hit their lives.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

I have no more sons of royal blood for you to murder. And as for my daughters, Richard, they'll become praying nuns, not weeping queens. So don't aim to destroy their lives.

RICHARD

You have a daughter called Elizabeth, Virtuous and fair, royal and gracious.

RICHARD

You have a daughter called Elizabeth, who is virtuous and beautiful, royal and gracious.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

And must she die for this? O, let her live, And I’ll corrupt her manners, stain her beauty, Slander myself as false to Edward’s bed, Throw over her the veil of infamy. So she may live unscarred of bleeding slaughter, I will confess she was not Edward’s daughter.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

And must she die for this? Oh, let her live, and I'll ruin her manner, mar her beauty, lie and say she is illegitimate, and destroy her reputation. So that she might escape being murdered, I'll say that she was not Edward's daughter.

RICHARD

Wrong not her birth. She is a royal princess.

RICHARD

Don't lie about her birth. She is a royal princess.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

To save her life, I’ll say she is not so.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

To save her life, I'll say she isn't.

RICHARD

Her life is safest only in her birth.

RICHARD

Her royal birth is what makes her safest.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

And only in that safety died her brothers.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Her brothers died because of that same "safety."

RICHARD

Lo, at their births good stars were opposite.

RICHARD

Alas, at birth they were badly fated.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

No, to their lives ill friends were contrary.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

No, in their lives they were opposed by bad friends. 

RICHARD

All unavoided is the doom of destiny.

RICHARD

No one can avoid the doom of destiny.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

True, when avoided grace makes destiny. My babes were destined to a fairer deathIf grace had blessed thee with a fairer life.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

That's true, when someone who has avoided God's grace is controlling that destiny. My children would have been destined to better deaths if you had been blessed with a more virtuous life.

RICHARD

You speak as if that I had slain my cousins.

RICHARD

You speak as if I had killed my nephews.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Cousins, indeed, and by their uncle cozened Of comfort, kingdom, kindred, freedom, life. Whose hand soever launched their tender hearts, Thy head, all indirectly, gave direction. No doubt the murd'rous knife was dull and blunt Till it was whetted on thy stone-hard heart, To revel in the entrails of my lambs. But that still use of grief makes wild grief tame, My tongue should to thy ears not name my boys Till that my nails were anchored in thine eyes, And I, in such a desp'rate bay of death, Like a poor bark of sails and tackling reft, Rush all to pieces on thy rocky bosom.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Indeed, your nephews were cheated by their uncle of their comfort, kingdom, relatives, freedom, and life. Some other hand might have pierced their tender hearts, but you're the one who gave the order. No doubt the murderous knife was dull and blunt until it was sharpened against your hard heart of stone, and after that it could rejoice among my little lambs' bloody innards. But constant talk of grief makes wild grief tame, so I won't say my boys' names again until I've anchored my fingernails in your eyes and gouged them out. I am like a poor boat without sails in a stormy bay of death, and I'll break myself to pieces against your rocky heart.

RICHARD

Madam, so thrive I in my enterprise And dangerous success of bloody wars As I intend more good to you and yours Than ever you or yours were by me harmed!

RICHARD

Madam, if I am successful in these dangerous, bloody wars to which I am marching off, I then intend to do more good to you and your relatives than I've ever done them harm!

QUEEN ELIZABETH

What good is covered with the face of heaven,To be discovered, that can do me good?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

What good is there still undiscovered in this world that can do me good now?

RICHARD

The advancement of your children, gentle lady.

RICHARD

The advancement of your children, noble lady.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Up to some scaffold, there to lose their heads.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Advancing them up to some scaffold, to lose their heads.

RICHARD

Unto the dignity and height of fortune, The high imperial type of this earth’s glory.

RICHARD

Advancement to the dignity and height of fortune, the most kingly symbol of this world's glory.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Flatter my sorrow with report of it.Tell me what state, what dignity, what honor,Canst thou demise to any child of mine?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Flatter me in my sorrow then. Tell me what rank, what dignity, or what honor you could possibly offer to any child of mine?

RICHARD

Even all I have— ay, and myself and all— Will I withal endow a child of thine; So in the Lethe of thy angry soul Thou drown the sad remembrance of those wrongs Which thou supposest I have done to thee.

RICHARD

Only everything I have—yes, including myself. That's what I'll give to a child of yours. May Lethe drown your sad memories of the wrongs you imagine I've done to you.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Be brief, lest that the process of thy kindness Last longer telling than thy kindness' date.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Explain yourself quickly, before this speech about your kindness outlasts whatever kindness you have.

RICHARD

Then know that from my soul I love thy daughter.

RICHARD

Then know that from my soul I love your daughter Elizabeth.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

My daughter’s mother thinks it with her soul.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

And I believe it with my soul.

RICHARD

What do you think?

RICHARD

What do you believe?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

That thou dost love my daughter from thy soul. So from thy soul’s love didst thou love her brothers,And from my heart’s love I do thank thee for it.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

That you love my daughter from your soul—far from your soul. Just like you loved her brothers. And from my heart's same love I thank you for it.

RICHARD

Be not so hasty to confound my meaning.I mean that with my soul I love thy daughterAnd do intend to make her Queen of England.

RICHARD

Don't be so quick to confuse my meaning. I mean that I love your daughter with my soul, and I intend to make her Queen of England.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Well then, who dost thou mean shall be her king?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Well then, who will be her king?

RICHARD

Even he that makes her queen. Who else should be?

RICHARD

The same man who makes her queen. Who else should it be?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

What, thou?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

What, you?

RICHARD

Even so. How think you of it?

RICHARD

Of course. What did you think?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

How canst thou woo her?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

How would you go about wooing her?

RICHARD

That would I learn of you,As one being best acquainted with her humor.

RICHARD

That's what I want to learn from you, since you know her temperament best.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

And wilt thou learn of me?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

And will you learn from me?

RICHARD

Madam, with all my heart.

RICHARD

Madam, with all my heart.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Send to her, by the man that slew her brothers, A pair of bleeding hearts; thereon engrave “Edward” and “York.” Then haply she will weep. Therefore present to her—as sometime Margaret Did to thy father, steeped in Rutland’s blood— A handkerchief, which say to her did drain The purple sap from her sweet brother’s body, And bid her wipe her weeping eyes withal. If this inducement move her not to love, Send her a letter of thy noble deeds; Tell her thou mad’st away her uncle Clarence, Her uncle Rivers, ay, and for her sake Mad’st quick conveyance with her good aunt Anne.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Then send to her—from the man who killed her brothers—a pair of bleeding hearts. Write "Edward" and "York" on them. Then she might weep. So to wipe up her tears, present her with a handkerchief—like the one Margaret gave to your father, steeped in his son Rutland's blood—and tell her that this handkerchief wiped up the blood that drained from her sweet brother's body. Tell her to wipe her weeping eyes with it. If all this doesn't convince her to love you, then send her a letter describing your other noble deeds. Tell her that you secretly killed her uncle Clarence, her uncle Rivers, yes, and speedily killed her good aunt Anne for her sake.

RICHARD

You mock me, madam. This is not the wayTo win your daughter.

RICHARD

You mock me, madam. This is not the way to win your daughter.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

There is no other way,Unless thou couldst put on some other shape And not be Richard, that hath done all this.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

There is no other way, unless you could change your shape and be someone other than the Richard who has committed all these deeds.

RICHARD

Say that I did all this for love of her.

RICHARD

Say that I did all those things out of love for her.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Nay, then indeed she cannot choose but hate thee,Having bought love with such a bloody spoil.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

No, for then she has no choice but to hate you, as you tried to buy her love with murder.

RICHARD

Look what is done cannot be now amended. Men shall deal unadvisedly sometimes, Which after-hours give leisure to repent. If I did take the kingdom from your sons, To make amends I’ll give it to your daughter. If I have killed the issue of your womb, To quicken your increase I will beget Mine issue of your blood upon your daughter. A grandam’s name is little less in love Than is the doting title of a mother. They are as children but one step below, Even of your metal, of your very blood, Of all one pain, save for a night of groans Endured of her for whom you bid like sorrow. Your children were vexation to your youth, But mine shall be a comfort to your age. The loss you have is but a son being king, And by that loss your daughter is made queen. I cannot make you what amends I would; Therefore accept such kindness as I can. Dorset your son, that with a fearful soul Leads discontented steps in foreign soil, This fair alliance quickly shall call home To high promotions and great dignity. The king that calls your beauteous daughter wife Familiarly shall call thy Dorset brother. Again shall you be mother to a king, And all the ruins of distressful times Repaired with double riches of content. What, we have many goodly days to see! The liquid drops of tears that you have shed Shall come again, transformed to orient pearl, Advantaging their love with interest Of ten times double gain of happiness. Go then, my mother; to thy daughter go. Make bold her bashful years with your experience; Prepare her ears to hear a wooer’s tale; Put in her tender heart th' aspiring flame Of golden sovereignty; acquaint the Princess With the sweet silent hours of marriage joys; And when this arm of mine hath chastisèd The petty rebel, dull-brained Buckingham, Bound with triumphant garlands will I come And lead thy daughter to a conqueror’s bed, To whom I will retail my conquest won, And she shall be sole victoress, Caesar’s Caesar.

RICHARD

Whatever is done cannot be undone. Men make mistakes sometimes, and then they repent when they have the time. If I did take the kingdom from your sons, then to make up for it I'll give it to your daughter. If I've killed your children, then I'll give them new life by having children with your daughter. A grandmother is hardly loved less than a mother. Grandchildren are just one step removed from children, made of your same substance and your very blood. They take the same amount of effort, minus that one night of labor which you suffered for your daughter's sake. Your children troubled you in your youth, but my children will comfort you in your old age. Your only real loss is that your son wasn't king, but through that loss your daughter will become queen. I can't repay you as much as I'd like to, so accept what kindness I can offer. Your son Dorset—who fled in fear and joined the French army against me—would come quickly home to high promotions and great dignity if this marriage takes place. The king who calls your beautiful daughter "wife" will call Dorset "brother." Once again you'll be the mother to a king, and all the ruins of unhappy times will be repaired with double their value in contentment. Why, we can look forward to many good days ahead! The liquid tears you've shed will return, transformed into pearls. Your happiness will increase to ten times its original size, plus interest. Go then, my future mother-in-law; go to your daughter. Use your experience to make her bold in her youthful innocence. Prepare her ears to hear my courting words. Put in her tender heart the ambition to be queen. Acquaint the Princess with the sweet, silent hours of joy in marriage, and when I've punished that petty rebel, dull-brained Buckingham, I will return crowned with victory wreaths and lead your daughter to a conquerer's bed. I will transmit all my victory to her, and she will be the  real conqueror—the emperor of the emperor.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

What were I best to say? Her father’s brother Would be her lord? Or shall I say her uncle? Or he that slew her brothers and her uncles? Under what title shall I woo for thee, That God, the law, my honor and her love Can make seem pleasing to her tender years?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

What should I say to her? Her father's brother wants to be her husband? Or should I say it's her uncle? Or should I say it's the man who killed her brothers and uncles? Under what name should I go wooing on your behalf? What name can please God, the law, and my honor, and also seem appealing to such a young woman?

RICHARD

Infer fair England’s peace by this alliance.

RICHARD

Imply that fair England's peace depends on this marriage.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Which she shall purchase with still-lasting war.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

So she will purchase that peace with everlasting war.

RICHARD

Tell her the king, that may command, entreats—

RICHARD

Tell her that the King, who has the power to command, instead begs her—

QUEEN ELIZABETH

That, at her hands, which the king’s King forbids.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Begs her to do what God, the King of Kings, forbids—marriage between an uncle and a niece.

RICHARD

Say she shall be a high and mighty queen.

RICHARD

Say that she will be a high and mighty queen.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

To vail the title, as her mother doth.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Only so that she can give up that title, as her mother has.

RICHARD

Say I will love her everlastingly.

RICHARD

Say I will love her forever.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

But how long shall that title “ever” last?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

But how long will that "ever" last?

RICHARD

Sweetly in force unto her fair life’s end.

RICHARD

For as long as her fair life lasts.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

But how long fairly shall her sweet life last?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

But how long will her sweet life last?

RICHARD

As long as heaven and nature lengthens it.

RICHARD

As long as heaven and nature lengthen it.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

As long as hell and Richard likes of it.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

As long as hell and Richard decide.

RICHARD

Say I, her sovereign, am her subject low.

RICHARD

Say that I, her king, am her lowly subject.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

But she, your subject, loathes such sovereignty.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

But she, your actual subject, hates such a king.

RICHARD

Be eloquent in my behalf to her.

RICHARD

Speak well of me to her.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

An honest tale speeds best being plainly told.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

An honest tale works best when it's told plainly.

RICHARD

Then plainly to her tell my loving tale.

RICHARD

Then plainly tell her my loving tale.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Plain and not honest is too harsh a style.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Plain and not honest is too harsh to hear. Lies need some decoration.

RICHARD

Your reasons are too shallow and too quick.

RICHARD

Your answers are too shallow and too lively.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

O no, my reasons are too deep and dead—Too deep and dead, poor infants, in their graves.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Oh no, my reasons are too deep and too dead—too deep and too dead, just like my poor infants in their graves.

RICHARD

Harp not on that string, madam; that is past.

RICHARD

Don't harp on that string, madam—that's in the past.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Harp on it still shall I till heart-strings break.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

I'll harp on it until my heartstrings break.

RICHARD

Now by my George, my Garter, and my crown—

RICHARD

Now, by my Saint George, my garter, and my crown

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Profaned, dishonored, and the third usurped.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

The first one profaned, the second dishonored, and the third stolen.

RICHARD

I swear—

RICHARD

I swear—

QUEEN ELIZABETH

By nothing, for this is no oath. Thy George, profaned, hath lost his lordly honor; Thy garter, blemished, pawned his knightly virtue; Thy crown, usurped, disgraced his kingly glory. If something thou wouldst swear to be believed, Swear then by something that thou hast not wronged.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

By nothing—because this is no proper oath. Your Saint George, profaned by you, has lost his lordly honor. Your garter, stained by you, has lost its knightly virtue. Your crown, stolen by you, has disgraced its kingly glory. If you want to swear by something that I might believe in, then swear by something that you haven't wronged.

RICHARD

Then, by myself—

RICHARD

Then I swear by myself—

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Thyself is self-misused.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

You've misused yourself.

RICHARD

Now, by the world—

RICHARD

By the world then—

QUEEN ELIZABETH

'Tis full of thy foul wrongs.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

It's full of your foul crimes.

RICHARD

My father’s death—

RICHARD

By my father's death—

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Thy life hath it dishonored.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Your life has dishonored his death.

RICHARD

Why then, by God.

RICHARD

Why then, by God.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

God’s wrong is most of all. If thou didst fear to break an oath by Him, The unity the king my husband made Thou hadst not broken, nor my brothers died. If thou hadst feared to break an oath by Him, Th' imperial metal circling now thy head Had graced the tender temples of my child, And both the princes had been breathing here, Which now, two tender bedfellows for dust, Thy broken faith hath made the prey for worms. What canst thou swear by now?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

You've abused God most of all. If you really feared to break an oath sworn by God, you never would have broken the oath of friendship and unity we made to the king my husband before he died—and my brothers wouldn't have been killed. If you really feared to break an oath sworn by God, then the crown you now wear would instead be gracing the tender head of my child—and both the princes would still be alive. Your broken oaths have resulted in many corpses, and much food for the worms. What can you swear by now?

RICHARD

The time to come.

RICHARD

By the future.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

That thou hast wrongèd in the time o'erpast; For I myself have many tears to wash Hereafter time, for time past wronged by thee. The children live whose fathers thou hast slaughtered, Ungoverned youth, to wail it in their age; The parents live whose children thou hast butchered, Old barren plants, to wail it with their age. Swear not by time to come, for that thou hast Misused ere used, by times ill-used o'erpast.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

You've already wronged that with your past actions. I myself have many tears left to cry in the future because of your past crimes. The children whose fathers you slaughtered are still alive, and they will grow up without guidance, unfortunate in their adulthood. The parents whose children you butchered are still alive too, old barren plants who will be miserable in their old age. Don't swear by the future, for with your past you've already ruined it.

RICHARD

As I intend to prosper and repent, So thrive I in my dangerous affairs Of hostile arms! Myself myself confound, Heaven and fortune bar me happy hours, Day, yield me not thy light, nor night thy rest, Be opposite all planets of good luck To my proceedings if, with dear heart’s love, Immaculate devotion, holy thoughts, I tender not thy beauteous princely daughter. In her consists my happiness and thine. Without her follows to myself and thee, Herself, the land, and many a Christian soul, Death, desolation, ruin and decay. It cannot be avoided but by this; It will not be avoided but by this. Therefore, dear mother—I must call you so— Be the attorney of my love to her: Plead what I will be, not what I have been; Not my deserts, but what I will deserve. Urge the necessity and state of times, And be not peevish found in great designs.

RICHARD

May I succeed in my dangerous battles to the same degree that I truly intend to repent and prosper! May I ruin myself; be deprived of happiness by heaven and destiny; my days be dark; my nights sleepless; and my luck be bad if I don't love your beautiful, royal daughter with dear affection, pure devotion, and holy thoughts. Both my happiness and yours depends on her. Without her as my queen, death, desolation, ruin, and decay will fall on me, you, your daughter, the land, and many a Christian soul. It cannot be avoided except by this marriage. It will not be avoided except by this marriage. Therefore, dear mother-in-law—for I must call you that now—be my advocate, pleading on my behalf to her. Describe what I will be, not what I have been. Don't mention what I deserve now, but what I will deserve. Remind her of how necessary this marriage is for the good of the country right now, and tell her not to be foolishly willful about such an important decision.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Shall I be tempted of the devil thus?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Will I let myself be tempted by the devil like this?

RICHARD

Ay, if the devil tempt you to do good.

RICHARD

Yes, if the devil tempts you to do good.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Shall I forget myself to be myself?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Will I forget to be who I am?

RICHARD

Ay, if your self’s remembrance wrong yourself.

RICHARD

Yes, if your memories of yourself only hurt you.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Yet thou didst kill my children.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

But you killed my children.

RICHARD

But in your daughter’s womb I bury them,Where, in that nest of spicery, they will breedSelves of themselves, to your recomforture.

RICHARD

But I will bury them in your daughter's womb, and in that nest of fragrant spices they will be reborn again, to grow and comfort you.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Shall I go win my daughter to thy will?

QUEEN ELIZABETH

Will I really go win my daughter over for you?

RICHARD

And be a happy mother by the deed.

RICHARD

And make yoursel a happy mother by doing so.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

I go. Write to me very shortly,And you shall understand from me her mind.

QUEEN ELIZABETH

I'll go. Write to me very soon, and I'll tell you how she feels.

RICHARD

Bear her my true love’s kiss; and so, farewell.

RICHARD

Give her my true love's kiss. And so, farewell.

Exit QUEEN ELIZABETH

Relenting fool and shallow, changing woman!

Weak fool! Shallow, fickle woman!

Enter RATCLIFFE, with CATESBY behind

How now, what news?

Hello, what's the news?

RATCLIFFE

Most mighty sovereign, on the western coast Rideth a puissant navy. To our shores Throng many doubtful hollow-hearted friends, Unarmed and unresolved to beat them back. 'Tis thought that Richmond is their admiral; And there they hull, expecting but the aid Of Buckingham to welcome them ashore.

RATCLIFFE

Most mighty king, a powerful navy is sailing to our western coast. Many weak, unreliable allies of ours have gathered at the shore to meet the ships—but they are unarmed and undecided about whether or not to fight them. It's thought that Richmond is the invading navy's admiral. Right now the ships are just drifting around offshore, waiting for Buckingham to welcome them to land.

RICHARD

Some light-foot friend post to the duke of Norfolk—Ratcliffe, thyself, or Catesby. Where is he?

RICHARD

Send some speedy ally to the duke of Norfolk. You go yourself, Ratcliffe—or Catesby. Where is Catesby?

CATESBY

Here, my good lord.

CATESBY

Here, my good lord.

RICHARD

Catesby, fly to the duke.

RICHARD

Catesby, hurry to the Duke of Buckingham.

CATESBY

I will, my lord, with all convenient haste.

CATESBY

I will go as quickly as I can, my lord.

RICHARD

Ratcliffe, come hither. Post to Salisbury. When thou com’st thither [to CATESBY] Dull, unmindful villain, Why stay’st thou here and go’st not to the duke?

RICHARD

Ratcliffe, come here. Ride quickly to Salisbury. When you get there—

[To CATESBY] You stupid, mindless villain, why are you still here and not on your way to the Duke?

CATESBY

First, mighty liege, tell me your Highness' pleasure,What from your Grace I shall deliver to him.

CATESBY

First, mighty King, tell me what your Highness wants, so I can deliver your message to him.

RICHARD

O true, good Catesby. Bid him levy straightThe greatest strength and power that he can make And meet me suddenly at Salisbury.

RICHARD

Oh, true, good Catesby. Tell him to gather the largest army he can in a hurry, and meet me at Salisbury right away.

CATESBY

I go.

CATESBY

I'm off.

Exit

RATCLIFFE

What, may it please you, shall I do at Salisbury?

RATCLIFFE

And what would you like me to do at Salisbury?

RICHARD

Why, what wouldst thou do there before I go?

RICHARD

Why, what would you do there before I arrive?

RATCLIFFE

Your Highness told me I should post before.

RATCLIFFE

Your Highness just told me that I should hurry there.

RICHARD

My mind is changed.

RICHARD

I've changed my mind.

Enter STANLEY

Stanley, what news with you?

Stanley, what's the news?

STANLEY

None good, my liege, to please you with the hearing,Nor none so bad but well may be reported.

STANLEY

My lord, it's nothing so good that it will please you to hear it, but nothing so bad that I can't report it.

RICHARD

Hoyday, a riddle! Neither good nor bad. What need’st thou run so many mile about When thou mayst tell thy tale the nearest way? Once more, what news?

RICHARD

Aha, a riddle! Neither good nor bad. Why do you need to run in such wide circles when you can get straight to the point with your story? I'll ask you again: what's the news?

STANLEY

Richmond is on the seas.

STANLEY

Richmond is on the seas.

RICHARD

There let him sink, and be the seas on him!White-livered runagate, what doth he there?

RICHARD

Let him sink there, so the seas will be on him! The cowardly rebel, what is he doing there?

STANLEY

I know not, mighty sovereign, but by guess.

STANLEY

I don't know, mighty king. I can only guess.

RICHARD

Well, as you guess?

RICHARD

Well, what do you guess?

STANLEY

Stirred up by Dorset, Buckingham, and Morton,He makes for England, here to claim the crown.

STANLEY

That he's been stirred up by Dorset, Buckingham, and Morton, and now he's coming to England to claim the crown.

RICHARD

Is the chair empty? Is the sword unswayed? Is the king dead, the empire unpossessed? What heir of York is there alive but we? And who is England’s king but great York’s heir? Then tell me, what makes he upon the seas?

RICHARD

Is the throne empty? Does the royal sword have no owner? Is the king dead, the kingdom dispossessed? What living heir of the York family is there but me? And who can be England's king but great York's heir? So tell me, what is he doing at sea?

STANLEY

Unless for that, my liege, I cannot guess.

STANLEY

Unless it's for that then I cannot guess, my lord.

RICHARD

Unless for that he comes to be your liege, You cannot guess wherefore the Welshman comes.Thou wilt revolt and fly to him, I fear.

RICHARD

Unless he's coming to be your new king, you can't guess why that Welshman Richmond is coming? You will rebel and join him, I fear.

STANLEY

No, my good lord. Therefore mistrust me not.

STANLEY

No, my good lord. Don't distrust me.

RICHARD

Where is thy power, then, to beat him back? Where be thy tenants and thy followers? Are they not now upon the western shore, Safe-conducting the rebels from their ships?

RICHARD

Where is your army, then, to beat him back? Where are your tenants and your followers? Aren't they on the western shore right now, helping his rebels disembark safely from their ships?

STANLEY

No, my good lord. My friends are in the north.

STANLEY

No, my good lord. My friends are in the north.

RICHARD

Cold friends to me. What do they in the northWhen they should serve their sovereign in the west?

RICHARD

Then they're cold friends to me. What are they doing in the north when they should be serving their king in the west?

STANLEY

They have not been commanded, mighty king. Pleaseth your Majesty to give me leave, I’ll muster up my friends and meet your Grace Where and what time your Majesty shall please.

STANLEY

They haven't been commanded to do so, mighty king. If it would please your Majesty, I'll gather up my friends and meet your Grace wherever and whenever your Majesty wants.

RICHARD

Ay, thou wouldst be gone to join with Richmond,But I’ll not trust thee.

RICHARD

Yes, you want to leave so you can join Richmond. But I won't trust you.

STANLEY

Most mighty sovereign,You have no cause to hold my friendship doubtful.I never was nor never will be false.

STANLEY

Most mighty king, you have no reason to doubt my friendship. I never have been false, and never will be.

RICHARD

Go then and muster men, but leave behindYour son George Stanley. Look your heart be firm. Or else his head’s assurance is but frail.

RICHARD

Go then and get your men, but leave behind your son, George Stanley. Make sure your loyalty stays firm, or else he has a good chance of losing his head.

STANLEY

So deal with him as I prove true to you.

STANLEY

So treat him as well as my faithfulnes deserves.

Exit

Enter a MESSENGER

MESSENGER

My gracious sovereign, now in Devonshire, As I by friends am well advertisèd, Sir Edward Courtney and the haughty prelate, Bishop of Exeter, his elder brother, With many more confederates are in arms.

MESSENGER

My gracious king, my friends have informed me that Sir Edward Courtney and his elder brother—the arrogant Bishop of Exeter—are now in Devonshire with an army.

Enter SECOND MESSENGER

SECOND MESSENGER

In Kent, my liege, the Guilfords are in arms,And every hour more competitorsFlock to the rebels, and their power grows strong.

SECOND MESSENGER

My lord, Buckingham's supporters—the Guilfords—are armed and gathering in Kent. Every hour more men flock to join the rebels, and their army grows strong.

Enter THIRD MESSENGER

THIRD MESSENGER

My lord, the army of great Buckingham—

THIRD MESSENGER

My lord, great Buckingham's army—

RICHARD

Out on you, owls! Nothing but songs of death. [he striketh him] There, take thou that till thou bring better news.

RICHARD

Enough, you owls! All I hear are songs of death. [He strikes the THIRD MESSENGER] There, take that until you bring me better news.

THIRD MESSENGER

The news I have to tell your Majesty Is that by sudden floods and fall of waters Buckingham’s army is dispersed and scattered, And he himself wandered away alone, No man knows whither.

THIRD MESSENGER

The news I have to tell your Majesty is that sudden floods and heavy rains have dispersed and scattered Buckingham's army. Buckingham himself has wandered away alone, though no one knows where.

RICHARD

I cry thee mercy. There is my purse to cure that blow of thine. [he gives money] Hath any well-advisèd friend proclaimed Reward to him that brings the traitor in?

RICHARD

I beg your pardon. Here's some money to cure that blow I gave you.

[He gives money]
 Has any quick-thinking friend of mine offered a reward to whoever brings that traitor in?

THIRD MESSENGER

Such proclamation hath been made, my lord.

THIRD MESSENGER

Yes, that proclamation has been made, my lord.

Enter FOURTH MESSENGER

FOURTH MESSENGER

Sir Thomas Lovell and Lord Marquess Dorset, 'Tis said, my liege, in Yorkshire are in arms. But this good comfort bring I to your Highness: The Breton navy is dispersed by tempest. Richmond, in Dorsetshire, sent out a boat Unto the shore to ask those on the banks If they were his assistants, yea or no— Who answered him they came from Buckingham Upon his party. He, mistrusting them, Hoisted sail and made his course for Brittany.

FOURTH MESSENGER

It's reported that Sir Thomas Lovell and the Lord Marquess of Dorset are gathering an army in Yorkshire. But I bring your Highness this comfort: Richmond's navy has been dispersed by a storm. At Dorsetshire, Richmond sent a boat to shore to ask the men on the banks if they were his allies. They answered that they were with Buckingham. Richmond didn't trust them, and he hoisted sail and returned to Brittany.

RICHARD

March on, march on, since we are up in arms,If not to fight with foreign enemies,Yet to beat down these rebels here at home.

RICHARD

March on, march on, since we're already prepared for battle. Even if we don't have to fight foreign enemies, we'll still beat down these rebels here at home.

Enter CATESBY

CATESBY

My liege, the duke of Buckingham is taken. That is the best news. That the earl of Richmond Is with a mighty power landed at Milford, Is colder tidings, yet they must be told.

CATESBY

My lord, the Duke of Buckingham has been captured. That's the best news. There's worse, but it must be told: The Earl of Richmond has landed at Milford with a mighty army.

RICHARD

Away towards Salisbury! While we reason here, A royal battle might be won and lost. Someone take order Buckingham be brought To Salisbury. The rest march on with me.

RICHARD

We must go away towards Salisbury! While we talk here, a royal battle might be won and lost. Someone deliver the order that Buckingham should be brought to Salisbury. The rest of you, march on with me.

Flourish. Exeunt

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Matt cosby
About the Translator: Matt Cosby
Matt Cosby graduated from Amherst College in 2011, and currently works as a writer and editor for LitCharts. He is from Florida but now lives in Portland, Oregon, where he also makes art, plays the piano, and goes to dog parks.