A line-by-line translation

The Comedy of Errors

The Comedy of Errors Translation Act 5, Scene 1

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Enter SECOND MERCHANT and ANGELO the goldsmith

ANGELO

I am sorry, sir, that I have hindered you,But I protest he had the chain of me,Though most dishonestly he doth deny it.

ANGELO

I'm sorry, sir, to have delayed you, but I promise he took the chain from me, even though he dishonestly denies it. 

SECOND MERCHANT

How is the man esteemed here in the city?

SECOND MERCHANT

What's the man's reputation here in the city?

ANGELO

Of very reverend reputation, sir,Of credit infinite, highly beloved,Second to none that lives here in the city.His word might bear my wealth at any time.

ANGELO

He's very well respected, sir, and trusted and beloved by all. He's second to none that lives here in the city. I'd bet all my money on his telling the truth at any time. 

SECOND MERCHANT

Speak softly. Yonder, as I think, he walks.

SECOND MERCHANT

Speak softly. I think he's walking this way. 

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE and DROMIO OF SYRACUSE again

ANGELO

'Tis so; and that self chain about his neck Which he forswore most monstrously to have. Good sir, draw near to me. I’ll speak to him.— Signior Antipholus, I wonder much That you would put me to this shame and trouble, And not without some scandal to yourself, With circumstance and oaths so to deny This chain, which now you wear so openly. Beside the charge, the shame, imprisonment, You have done wrong to this my honest friend, Who, but for staying on our controversy, Had hoisted sail and put to sea today. This chain you had of me. Can you deny it?

ANGELO

That's him. He's wearing the same chain around his neck that he swore he didn't have, the villain. Good sir, come close to me. I'll speak to him.

[To Antipholus of Syracuse] Antipholus, sir, I'm dumbfounded that you would put me to all this shame and trouble, and scandalize yourself in the process, swearing up and down that you didn't have the chain which you're wearing so openly. Besides the cost, the shame, and getting sent to prison, you've done wrong to my honest friend here, who was supposed to set sail today if it weren't for your shenanigans. You got this chain from me. Can you deny it?

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

I think I had. I never did deny it.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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SECOND MERCHANT

Yes, that you did, sir, and forswore it too.

SECOND MERCHANT

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

Who heard me to deny it or forswear it?

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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SECOND MERCHANT

These ears of mine, thou know’st did hear thee.Fie on thee, wretch. 'Tis pity that thou liv’stTo walk where any honest men resort.

SECOND MERCHANT

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

Thou art a villain to impeach me thus.I’ll prove mine honor and mine honestyAgainst thee presently if thou dar’st stand.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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SECOND MERCHANT

I dare, and do defy thee for a villain.

SECOND MERCHANT

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They draw Enter ADRIANA, LUCIANA, the COURTESAN and others

ADRIANA

Hold, hurt him not, for God’s sake. He is mad.—Some get within him; take his sword away.Bind dromio too, and bear them to my house!

ADRIANA

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DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

Run, master, run. For God’s sake, take a house.This is some priory. In, or we are spoiled.

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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Exeunt ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE and DROMIO OF SYRACUSE to the priory

Enter the Lady ABBESS

ABBESS

Be quiet, people. Wherefore throng you hither?

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

To fetch my poor distracted husband hence.Let us come in, that we may bind him fastAnd bear him home for his recovery.

ADRIANA

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ANGELO

I knew he was not in his perfect wits.

ANGELO

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SECOND MERCHANT

I am sorry now that I did draw on him.

SECOND MERCHANT

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ABBESS

How long hath this possession held the man?

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

This week he hath been heavy, sour, sad,And much different from the man he was.But till this afternoon his passionNe'er brake into extremity of rage.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

Hath he not lost much wealth by wrack of sea? Buried some dear friend? Hath not else his eye Stray’d his affection in unlawful love, A sin prevailing much in youthful men Who give their eyes the liberty of gazing? Which of these sorrows is he subject to?

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

To none of these, except it be the last,Namely, some love that drew him oft from home.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

You should for that have reprehended him.

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

Why, so I did.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

Ay, but not rough enough.

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

As roughly as my modesty would let me.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

Haply in private.

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

And in assemblies too.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

Ay, but not enough.

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

It was the copy of our conference. In bed he slept not for my urging it; At board he fed not for my urging it. Alone, it was the subject of my theme; In company I often glancèd it. Still did I tell him it was vile and bad.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

And thereof came it that the man was mad. The venom clamors of a jealous woman Poisons more deadly than a mad dog’s tooth. It seems his sleeps were hinder’d by thy railing, And therefore comes it that his head is light. Thou sayst his meat was sauced with thy upbraidings. Unquiet meals make ill digestions. Thereof the raging fire of fever bred, And what’s a fever but a fit of madness? Thou sayest his sports were hinderd by thy brawls. Sweet recreation barred, what doth ensue But moody and dull melancholy, Kinsman to grim and comfortless despair, And at her heels a huge infectious troop Of pale distemperatures and foes to life? In food, in sport, and life-preserving rest To be disturbed, would mad or man or beast. The consequence is, then, thy jealous fits Have scared thy husband from the use of wits.

ABBESS

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LUCIANA

She never reprehended him but mildlyWhen he demeaned himself rough, rude, and wildly.— [to ADRIANA] Why bear you these rebukes and answer not?

LUCIANA

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ADRIANA

She did betray me to my own reproof.Good people, enter and lay hold on him.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

No, not a creature enters in my house.

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

Then let your servants bring my husband forth.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

Neither: he took this place for sanctuary,And it shall privilege him from your handsTill I have brought him to his wits againOr lose my labor in assaying it.

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

I will attend my husband, be his nurse,Diet his sickness, for it is my officeAnd will have no attorney but myself;And therefore let me have him home with me.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

Be patient, for I will not let him stir Till I have used the approvd means I have, With wholesome syrups, drugs, and holy prayers, To make of him a formal man again. It is a branch and parcel of mine oath, A charitable duty of my order. Therefore depart and leave him here with me.

ABBESS

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ADRIANA

I will not hence and leave my husband here;And ill it doth beseem your holinessTo separate the husband and the wife.

ADRIANA

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ABBESS

Be quiet and depart. Thou shalt not have him.

ABBESS

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Exit ABBESS

LUCIANA

Complain unto the Duke of this indignity.

LUCIANA

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ADRIANA

Come, go. I will fall prostrate at his feetAnd never rise until my tears and prayersHave won his grace to come in person hitherAnd take perforce my husband from the Abbess.

ADRIANA

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SECOND MERCHANT

By this, I think, the dial points at five.Anon, I’m sure, the Duke himself in personComes this way to the melancholy vale,The place of death and sorry executionBehind the ditches of the abbey here.

SECOND MERCHANT

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ANGELO

Upon what cause?

ANGELO

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SECOND MERCHANT

To see a reverend Syracusian merchant,Who put unluckily into this bayAgainst the laws and statutes of this town,Beheaded publicly for his offense.

SECOND MERCHANT

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ANGELO

See where they come. We will behold his death.

ANGELO

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LUCIANA

Kneel to the duke before he pass the abbey.

LUCIANA

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Enter the DUKE OF EPHESUS and EGEON the merchant of Syracuse, bare head, with the headsman and other officers

DUKE

Yet once again proclaim it publicly,If any friend will pay the sum for him,He shall not die; so much we tender him.

DUKE

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ADRIANA

Justice, most sacred duke, against the Abbess.

ADRIANA

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DUKE

She is a virtuous and a reverend lady.It cannot be that she hath done thee wrong.

DUKE

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ADRIANA

May it please your Grace, Antipholus my husband, Whom I made lord of me and all I had At your important letters, this ill day A most outrageous fit of madness took him, That desp'rately he hurried through the street, With him his bondman, all as mad as he, Doing displeasure to the citizens By rushing in their houses, bearing thence Rings, jewels, any thing his rage did like. Once did I get him bound and sent him home Whilst to take order for the wrongs I went That here and there his fury had committed. Anon, I wot not by what strong escape, He broke from those that had the guard of him, And with his mad attendant and himself, Each one with ireful passion, with drawn swords, Met us again and, madly bent on us, Chased us away, till, raising of more aid, We came again to bind them. Then they fled Into this abbey, whither we pursued them, And here the Abbess shuts the gates on us And will not suffer us to fetch him out, Nor send him forth that we may bear him hence. Therefore, most gracious duke, with thy command Let him be brought forth and borne hence for help.

ADRIANA

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DUKE

Long since thy husband served me in my wars, And I to thee engaged a prince’s word, When thou didst make him master of thy bed, To do him all the grace and good I could. Go, some of you, knock at the abbey gate, And bid the Lady Abbess come to me. I will determine this before I stir.

DUKE

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Enter a MESSENGER

MESSENGER

O mistress, mistress, shift and save yourself. My master and his man are both broke loose, Beaten the maids a-row, and bound the doctor, Whose beard they have singed off with brands of fire, And ever as it blazed, they threw on him Great pails of puddled mire to quench the hair. My master preaches patience to him, and the while His man with scissors nicks him like a fool; And sure, unless you send some present help, Between them they will kill the conjurer.

MESSENGER

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ADRIANA

Peace, fool. Thy master and his man are here,And that is false thou dost report to us.

ADRIANA

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MESSENGER

Mistress, upon my life I tell you true.I have not breathed almost since I did see it.He cries for you, and vows, if he can take you,To scorch your face and to disfigure you.

MESSENGER

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Cry within

Hark, hark, I hear him, mistress. Fly, begone!

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DUKE

Come, stand by me. Fear nothing.—Guard with halberds.

DUKE

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Enter ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS and DROMIO OF EPHESUS

ADRIANA

Ay me, it is my husband. Witness youThat he is borne about invisible.Even now we housed him in the abbey here,And now he’s there, past thought of human reason.

ADRIANA

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

Justice, most gracious duke, O, grant me justice, Even for the service that long since I did thee When I bestrid thee in the wars and took Deep scars to save thy life. Even for the blood That then I lost for thee, now grant me justice.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

[aside] Unless the fear of death doth make me dote,I see my son Antipholus and Dromio.

EGEON

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

Justice, sweet prince, against that woman there, She whom thou gav’st to me to be my wife, That hath abusèd and dishonored me Even in the strength and height of injury. Beyond imagination is the wrong That she this day hath shameless thrown on me.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DUKE

Discover how, and thou shalt find me just.

DUKE

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

This day, great duke, she shut the doors upon meWhile she with harlots feasted in my house.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DUKE

A grievous fault.—Say, woman, didst thou so?

DUKE

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ADRIANA

No, my good lord. Myself, he, and my sisterToday did dine together. So befall my soulAs this is false he burdens me withal.

ADRIANA

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LUCIANA

Ne'er may I look on day, nor sleep on nightBut she tells to your Highness simple truth.

LUCIANA

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ANGELO

O perjured woman! —They are both forsworn.In this the madman justly chargeth them.

ANGELO

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

My liege, I am advisèd what I say, Neither disturbed with the effect of wine, Nor heady-rash, provoked with raging ire, Albeit my wrongs might make one wiser mad. This woman locked me out this day from dinner. That goldsmith there, were he not packed with her, Could witness it, for he was with me then, Who parted with me to go fetch a chain, Promising to bring it to the Porpentine, Where Balthasar and I did dine together. Our dinner done and he not coming thither, I went to seek him. In the street I met him, And in his company that gentleman. [points to the SECOND MERCHANT ] There did this perjured goldsmith swear me down That I this day of him received the chain, Which, God he knows, I saw not; for the which He did arrest me with an officer. I did obey, and sent my peasant home For certain ducats. He with none returned. Then fairly I bespoke the officer To go in person with me to my house. By th' way we met My wife, her sister, and a rabble more Of vile confederates. Along with them They brought one Pinch, a hungry, lean-faced villain, A mere anatomy, a mountebank, A threadbare juggler, and a fortune-teller, A needy, hollow-eyed, sharp-looking wretch, A living dead man. This pernicious slave, Forsooth, took on him as a conjurer, And, gazing in mine eyes, feeling my pulse, And with no face (as ’twere) outfacing me, Cries out I was possessed. Then all together They fell upon me, bound me, bore me thence, And in a dark and dankish vault at home There left me and my man, both bound together, Till gnawing with my teeth my bonds in sunder, I gained my freedom and immediately Ran hither to your Grace, whom I beseech To give me ample satisfaction For these deep shames and great indignities.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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ANGELO

My lord, in truth, thus far I witness with him:That he dined not at home, but was locked out.

ANGELO

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DUKE

But had he such a chain of thee or no?

DUKE

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ANGELO

He had, my lord, and when he ran in here,These people saw the chain about his neck.

ANGELO

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SECOND MERCHANT

Besides, I will be sworn these ears of mineHeard you confess you had the chain of himAfter you first forswore it on the mart,And thereupon I drew my sword on you,And then you fled into this abbey here,From whence I think you are come by miracle.

SECOND MERCHANT

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

I never came within these abbey walls,Nor ever didst thou draw thy sword on me.I never saw the chain, so help me heaven,And this is false you burden me withal.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DUKE

Why, what an intricate impeach is this!I think you all have drunk of Circe’s cup.If here you housed him, here he would have been.If he were mad, he would not plead so coldly. [to ADRIANA ] You say he dined at home; the goldsmith hereDenies that saying. Sirrah, what say you?

DUKE

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

Sir, he dined with her there, at the Porpentine.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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COURTESAN

He did, and from my finger snatched that ring.

COURTESAN

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

'Tis true, my liege; this ring I had of her.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DUKE

Saw’st thou him enter at the abbey here?

DUKE

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COURTESAN

As sure, my liege, as I do see your Grace.

COURTESAN

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DUKE

Why, this is strange.—Go call the Abbess hither.I think you are all mated or stark mad.

DUKE

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Exit one to ABBESS

EGEON

Most mighty duke, vouchsafe me speak a word.Haply I see a friend will save my lifeAnd pay the sum that may deliver me.

EGEON

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DUKE

Speak freely, Syracusian, what thou wilt.

DUKE

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EGEON

[to ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS ] Is not your name, sir, calledAntipholus?And is not that your bondman Dromio?

EGEON

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

Within this hour I was his bondman sir,But he, I thank him, gnawed in two my cords.Now am I Dromio, and his man, unbound.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

I am sure you both of you remember me.

EGEON

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

Ourselves we do remember, sir, by you.For lately we were bound as you are now.You are not Pinch’s patient, are you, sir?

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

Why look you strange on me? you know me well.

EGEON

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

I never saw you in my life till now.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

O, grief hath changed me since you saw me last,And careful hours with time’s deformèd handHave written strange defeatures in my face.But tell me yet, dost thou not know my voice?

EGEON

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

Neither.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

Dromio, nor thou?

EGEON

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

No, trust me, sir, nor I.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

I am sure thou dost.

EGEON

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

Ay, sir, but I am sure I do not, and whatsoever a man denies, you are now bound to believe him.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

Not know my voice! O time’s extremity, Hast thou so crack’d and splitted my poor tongue In seven short years that here my only son Knows not my feeble key of untuned cares? Though now this grainèd face of mine be hid In sap-consuming winter’s drizzled snow, And all the conduits of my blood froze up, Yet hath my night of life some memory, My wasting lamps some fading glimmer left, My dull deaf ears a little use to hear. All these old witnesses—I cannot err— Tell me thou art my son Antipholus.

EGEON

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

I never saw my father in my life.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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EGEON

But seven years since, in Syracusa, boy,Thou know’st we parted. But perhaps, my son,Thou sham’st to acknowledge me in misery.

EGEON

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

The Duke and all that know me in the cityCan witness with me that it is not soI ne'er saw Syracusa in my life.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DUKE

I tell thee, Syracusian, twenty yearsHave I been patron to Antipholus,During which time he ne'er saw Syracusa.I see thy age and dangers make thee dote.

DUKE

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Enter the ABBESS with ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE and DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

ABBESS

Most mighty duke, behold a man much wronged.

ABBESS

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All gather to see them

ADRIANA

I see two husbands, or mine eyes deceive me.

ADRIANA

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DUKE

[looks at the ANTIPHOLUS tw ins] One of these men is genius to the other. [looks at the DROMIO tw ins] And so, of these, which is the natural manAnd which the spirit? Who deciphers them?

DUKE

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DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

I, sir, am Dromio. Command him away.

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

I, sir, am Dromio. Please, let me stay.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

Egeon art thou not, or else his ghost?

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

O, my old master.—Who hath bound him here?

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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ABBESS

Whoever bound him, I will loose his bonds And gain a husband by his liberty.— Speak, old Egeon, if thou be’st the man That hadst a wife once called Emilia, That bore thee at a burden two fair sons. O, if thou be’st the same Egeon, speak, And speak unto the same Emilia.

ABBESS

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DUKE

Why, here begins his morning story right; These two Antipholuses, these two so like, And these two Dromios, one in semblance— Besides his urging of her wreck at sea— These are the parents to these children, Which accidentally are met together.

DUKE

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EGEON

If I dream not, thou art Emilia.If thou art she, tell me where is that sonThat floated with thee on the fatal raft?

EGEON

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ABBESS

By men of Epidamnum he and I And the twin Dromio all were taken up; But by and by rude fishermen of Corinth By force took Dromio and my son from them And me they left with those of Epidamnum. What then became of them I cannot tell; I to this fortune that you see me in.

ABBESS

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DUKE

[to ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE ] Antipholus, thou cam’st fromCorinth first.

DUKE

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

No, sir, not I. I came from Syracuse.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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DUKE

Stay, stand apart. I know not which is which.

DUKE

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

I came from Corinth, my most gracious lord.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

And I with him.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

Brought to this town by that most famous warriorDuke Menaphon, your most renownèd uncle.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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ADRIANA

Which of you two did dine with me today?

ADRIANA

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

I, gentle mistress.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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ADRIANA

And are not you my husband?

ADRIANA

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

No, I say nay to that.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

And so do I, yet did she call me so,And this fair gentlewoman, her sister here,Did call me brother. [t o LUCIANA ] What I told you thenI hope I shall have leisure to make good,If this be not a dream I see and hear.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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ANGELO

That is the chain, sir, which you had of me.

ANGELO

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

I think it be, sir. I deny it not.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

And you, sir, for this chain arrested me.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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ANGELO

I think I did, sir. I deny it not.

ANGELO

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ADRIANA

I sent you money, sir, to be your bailBy Dromio, but I think he brought it not.

ADRIANA

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

No, none by me.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

This purse of ducats I received from you, And Dromio my man did bring them me. I see we still did meet each other’s man, And I was ta'en for him, and he for me, And thereupon these errors are arose.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

These ducats pawn I for my father here.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DUKE

It shall not need. Thy father hath his life.

DUKE

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COURTESAN

Sir, I must have that diamond from you.

COURTESAN

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

There, take it; and much thanks for my good cheer.

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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ABBESS

Renownèd duke, vouchsafe to take the pains To go with us into the abbey here And hear at large discoursed all our fortunes, And all that are assembled in this place That by this sympathizèd one day’s error Have suffered wrong. Go, keep us company, And we shall make full satisfaction.— Thirty-three years have I but gone in travail Of you, my sons, and till this present hour My heavy burden ne'er deliverèd.— The Duke, my husband, and my children both, And you, the calendars of their nativity, Go to a gossips' feast, and go with me. After so long grief, such nativity!

ABBESS

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DUKE

With all my heart I’ll gossip at this feast.

DUKE

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Exeunt; the two DROMIOS and the two ANTIPHOLUS brothers remain behind.

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

[to ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS ] Master, shall I fetch your stuff from shipboard?

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

Dromio, what stuff of mine hast thou embarked?

ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

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DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

Your goods that lay at host, sir, in the Centaur.

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

He speaks to me.—I am your master, Dromio.Come, go with us. We’ll look to that anon.Embrace thy brother there. Rejoice with him.

ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

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Exeunt ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE and ANTIPHOLUS OF EPHESUS

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

There is a fat friend at your master’s houseThat kitchened me for you today at dinner.She now shall be my sister, not my wife.

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

Methinks you are my glass, and not my brother:I see by you I am a sweet-faced youth.Will you walk in to see their gossiping?

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

Not I, sir. You are my elder.

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

That’s a question. How shall we try it?

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

We’ll draw cuts for the signior. Till then, lead thou first.

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE

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DROMIO OF EPHESUS

Nay, then, thus:We came into the world like brother and brother,And now let’s go hand in hand, not one before another.

DROMIO OF EPHESUS

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Exeunt

The comedy of errors
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Dan rubins
About the Translator: Dan Rubins

Dan Rubins is currently completing his MA in Shakespeare Studies from King's College London/Shakespeare's Globe and will be pursuing an MA in Elementary Inclusive Education from Teachers College, Columbia University. He holds a BA in English from Yale University. His Masters dissertation focuses on announcements of death in early modern drama, and other research areas of interest include Shakespeare in transformative contexts (prisons, schools, etc.) and rhyme in Shakespeare's dramatic texts. In addition to teaching and learning, he also writes theatre reviews (often of Shakespeare productions), composes musical theatre (frequently with Shakespearean inspirations), and sings in choirs (occasionally in Shakespearean choral settings).