A Rose for Emily

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Miss Emily Grierson Character Analysis

A proud woman born to a highly respected Southern family, Miss Emily seems frozen in the past, bearing herself aristocratically even when she is impoverished after her controlling father’s death. Though her thoughts and feelings are as impenetrable as the imposing, decaying house in which she lives, Miss Emily is nonetheless subject to intensive town scrutiny and gossip: the townspeople gossip about her haughtiness, her lack of a husband, and, in the days after her father’s death, her bizarre denial of his death and attempt to keep his corpse. But Miss Emily is not as frozen in the past as she first appears to be: after all, she becomes romantically involved with a laborer from the North named Homer Barron—despite the Southern social convention that women of genteel heritage not marry men of a lower class, especially men from the North. Ms. Emily seems to be, for the first time, taking control of her own life, despite what other people think. However, when it becomes apparent that Homer has no intention of marriage—which only further scandalizes the townspeople—Miss Emily goes to mad extremes to maintain control of her life: she poisons Homer, and not only lives with but sleeps next to his corpse, going so far as to create a tomb-like room for him where she can relive forever the one hopeful, self-determined period of her life. She becomes increasingly disconnected from her community, more and more reclusive, bloated-looking and pale, with “iron-gray” hair, more and more resistant to change; and it is only after her death and funeral that the townspeople realize how deeply, tragically damaged Miss Emily was.

Miss Emily Grierson Quotes in A Rose for Emily

The A Rose for Emily quotes below are all either spoken by Miss Emily Grierson or refer to Miss Emily Grierson. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
). Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the Modern Library edition of A Rose for Emily published in 1993.
Section 1 Quotes

When Miss Emily Grierson died, our whole town went to her funeral: the men through a sort of respectful affection for a fallen monument, the woman mostly out of curiosity to see the inside of her house, which no one save an old manservant—a combined gardener and cook—had seen in at least ten years.

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson, Tobe
Related Symbols: The Grierson Family House
Page Number: 47
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote comes at the very beginning of the short story, even though chronologically the event it narrates comes after most of the story's other events. By beginning the story at its end, the townspeople who act as communal narrators repress the painful events of their past and focus instead on the monumental memory of the pre-Civil War South that is so important to them. And yet as the story moves back from this moment into the past, and then back again to what the funeral-goers discover in the house, the horrors of the past prove inescapable, both in Miss Emily's personal story and in the larger story of the slave-owning South.

Miss Emily, like her once grand house, is "a fallen monument" in the sense that she represents for her community a glorious aristocratic past, but this past has been rendered painful and shabby after the Civil War and modernization. One irony of this passage is that this Southern community is so committed to preserving its idealization of the past that it never investigates that past from the inside—the inhumanity and injustice of slavery in the South, the psychological damage done to masters and slaves alike—just as no one has entered the Grierson family house in years. 

Notice also the different motives men and women have for visiting the house. The men dehumanize Miss Emily by treating her as merely a monument of their Southern heritage, while the women violate her posthumous privacy out of curiosity, even nosiness. In idealizing Miss Emily, the townspeople ironically neglect and even violate her humanity.

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It [the Grierson family house] was a big, squarish frame house that had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been our most select street But garages and cotton gins had encroached and obliterated even the august names of the neighborhood; only Miss Emily’s house was left, lifting its stubborn and coquettish decay above the cotton wagons and the gasoline pumps…

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson
Related Symbols: The Grierson Family House
Page Number: 47
Explanation and Analysis:

The narrating townspeople give this description just after telling how they've come to the Grierson family house for Miss Emily's funeral.

The house, built in the 1870s, during or just after Reconstruction, once embodied Southern pride. With its aristocratic grandeur, it defiantly recalls the plantation houses of the Old South where slaves were forced to labor before the Civil War. The house is also a conspicuous sign of luxurious wealth.

However, only the memory of the house remains intact; in reality, it is in decay, doomed for obliteration, like many reminders of the Old South (including "the august names of the neighborhood"). Progress, technology, and industry, represented in this passage by garages and cotton gins, are encroaching on what was once a slave-based, aristocratic, agricultural society. The garages and the vehicles they house threaten to render the gallantry of horse and carriage obsolete. The cotton gins (machines that separate cotton fibers from seed) had previously made cotton extremely profitable and expanded the plantation economy of the South, but ironically they now encroach on and obliterate the very neighborhoods they once made so grand.

Throughout the story, the townspeople ascribe Miss Emily's qualities to her house, as though the two were one and the same. Here the house is described as "stubborn and coquettish," qualities a house can't literally have but which Miss Emily does seem to exhibit to some extent. This is consistent with the townspeople's idealization of Miss Emily, which ironically reduces her to the status of an inanimate monument.

Alive, Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty, and a care; a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town…

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson
Page Number: 48
Explanation and Analysis:

Here at Miss Emily's funeral, the townspeople recall what Miss Emily meant to their community while alive. She was "a tradition" in that she represented the survival of aristocratic Southern pride despite the South's defeat in the Civil War. She was "a duty, and a care" in that she was unable to care for herself after the death of her father and the loss of her fortune, and the townspeople, if they were to maintain her as a "monument" to their idealized past, needed to care for her. In the time of Colonel Sartoris, for example, Miss Emily is excused from paying taxes altogether, and parents in town also send their children to be taught china-painting by Miss Emily only for the sake of providing her with a source of income.

However, the townspeople of Jefferson also have a very different attitude toward Miss Emily, one that is revealed more and more as the story unfolds—an attitude that casts this quote in an ironic light. After all, they savor Miss Emily's fall into poverty as something that humanizes her, in their eyes; they stigmatize her for her relationship with Homer Barron; and the later generation of town leaders try (but fail) to exact taxes from Miss Emily after all. She may be a tradition and a duty, but only begrudgingly so, only ideally and not when it comes to the practical work of tolerating and maintaining her. This reflects a broader tension in the story between a nostalgia for the past and the needs of the present. 



Section 2 Quotes

“Dammit, sir,” Judge Stevens said, “will you accuse a lady to her face of smelling bad?”

Related Characters: Judge Stevens (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson
Page Number: 51
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote comes when the Board of Alderman in Jefferson is debating what to do about complaints concerning a bad smell emanating from Miss Emily's house.

A younger man, a member of the more progressive rising generation, suggests that Miss Emily simply be told to clean her place up. Judge Stevens, an old man committed to maintaining old Southern values, explodes at the idea (his curse word here reveals just how passionately committed to the old values he is, so much so that he breaches decorum). From his perspective, it is a trespass of good etiquette to tell a woman that her home smells bad, especially given that Miss Emily is such a socially prominent woman. Simmering beneath such a perspective is a patriarchal attitude: women in Old Southern culture were often treated like delicate objects, to be spared reality so that men could gallantly take pleasure in them all the more. 

It is only at the end of the story that we learn what the cause of the bad smell is: the rotting corpse of Homer Barron. In superficially protecting Miss Emily's dignity, Judge Stevens ironically prevents her madness and crime from being discovered. Stephens would rather repress dark truths about Southern culture than face them by the light of day.

She told them that her father was not dead. She did that for three days… We did not say she was crazy then. We believed she had to do that. We remembered all the young men her father had driven away, and we knew that with nothing left, she would have to cling to that which had robbed her, as people will.

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson, The townspeople, Miss Emily’s father
Page Number: 52
Explanation and Analysis:

Miss Emily's father was a proud, controlling man, and he rejected many of his daughter's potential suitors out of this pride, and despite his daughter's wishes. When he dies, he leaves to his daughter only the family house, leaving her poor and unmarriageable, as this quote reveals.

However, Miss Emily insists that her father is not dead at all—that is, she insists that the passage of time is not real, that there is no such thing as change. This is indeed a kind of madness, and it is telling that the townspeople do not think of it as such—yet. This is because the townspeople themselves deny the reality of time and change, albeit in a subtler way. They live as though their glorious Southern heritage were a living tradition, and not what time has revealed it to be: dead, unrealistic, and ultimately repellent. The townspeople's madness in this respect is very similar to Miss Emily's, and Homer Barron's corpse becomes, in one sense, an image for what the South has become.

Ironically, Miss Emily most protects from the ravages of time the very father who denied her the full richness of life and self-determinatio—"that which had robber her," as the townspeople put it. But the townspeople cling to what robbed them, too: they cling to an aristocratic plantation economy that cut against the fundamental American values of democracy and equality, and they cling also to the moral evils of the institution of slavery.  

Section 3 Quotes

At first we were glad that Miss Emily would have an interest, because the ladies all said, “Of course a Grierson would not think seriously of a Northerner, a day laborer.” But there were still others, older people, who said that even grief could not cause a real lady to forget noblesse oblige—without calling it noblesse oblige.

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson, The townspeople, Homer Barron
Page Number: 53
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote comes after the death of Miss Emily's father, when Miss Emily begins to take a romantic interest in Homer Barron.

The division in Jefferson between the attitudes of the young and the old, the progressives and the conservatives, is complicated here. The younger people think it good that Miss Emily has a romantic interest, precisely because they don't think it is serious. The older people, those who fully experienced the South's defeat in the Civil War and its humiliations, know firsthand, however, that grief can override pride, and that Miss Emily may indeed be serious about Homer. "Noblesse oblige" means, literally, "nobility obliges"—in other words, that one's conduct should match one's social position. It was a concept at the heart of the Southern aristocracy, and perhaps the old people can't refer to it by name without bringing back painful memories of what they've lost.

In Jefferson, public opinion is fickle; for eventually most everyone in Jefferson comes to disapprove of Miss Emily's interest in Homer. This suggests how arbitrary and meaningless social conventions really are when it comes to judging conduct—and how dangerously oppressive they can be. Miss Emily is so repressed by social convention, after all, that she resorts to murder in order to achieve self-determination. 

She carried her head high enough—even when we believe that she was fallen. It was as if she demanded more than ever the recognition of her dignity as the last Grierson; as if it had wanted that touch of earthiness to reaffirm her imperviousness.

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson
Page Number: 53
Explanation and Analysis:

After Miss Emily takes a romantic interest in Homer Barron, the townspeople vocally disapprove, thinking that she is lowering herself by becoming involved with a Northerner of low social station. However, Miss Emily maintains her pride through it all, at least in appearance. (Although the image of Miss Emily carrying her head high is a quietly grisly foreshadowing of the discovery of her hair on a pillow next to Homer's corpse—the horrifying place where her head goes when she lowers it, as it were.) 

The townspeople themselves prey on Miss Emily's fall and endurance despite everything. They take pleasure in the penny-pinching shame she suffers after her father dies and she is reduced to poverty, which suggests their resentment of the aristocrats they (ironically) idealize. Here, they express a seemingly contrary feeling—a kind of wonder and collective pride that Miss Emily should endure her social fall with so much dignity. The townspeople are ambivalent about Southern culture, its inequalities and glories, and they express this ambivalence in their conception of Miss Emily.

The even deeper irony is that Miss Emily is anything but dignified and impervious, at least outside of the public gaze. She is mentally unstable, as we know from her denial of her father's death and eventual murder of Homer. The people project so much onto Miss Emily that she becomes, as a real human being, invisible to them.

Section 5 Quotes

…and the very old men—some in their brushed Confederate uniforms—on the porch and the lawn, talk[ed] of Miss Emily as if she had been a contemporary of theirs, believing that they had danced with her and courted her perhaps, confusing time with its mathematical progression, as the old do, to whom all the past is not a diminishing road but, instead, a huge meadow which no winter ever quite touches, divided from them now by the narrow bottle-neck of the most recent decade of years.

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson
Page Number: 58
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote, from late in the story, returns to the point in time when the story begins and ends: Miss Emily's funeral. The old men are on the lawn, talking about Miss Emily "as if she had been a contemporary of theirs," even though she is from a younger generation. This confusion is significant: it shows that these old men, like Miss Emily in denying her father's death, deny that their Southern heritage is in steep decline. They act as though Miss Emily were a Southern aristocrat from their own generation, even though she was, in private at least, something quite different altogether, as evidenced by her poverty and her love for the day laborer Homer Barron. The irony is further intensified by the fact that the men believe they danced with Miss Emily, even though it was her lonely reality to live as an unmarriageable woman by the social conventions of the Old South.

The metaphor of time as a meadow presents in a single, concrete image the nostalgic idea of time that the story is so critical of. There is a faint allusion to the Biblical Garden of Eden here, from which Adam and Eve "fell" after disobeying God. So too have the Southern gentleman "fallen" from their plantations into the modern world. Of course, their nostalgic vision conveniently and insidiously conceals the true horrors of Southern slavery that built and supported the old plantation lifestyle. The only paradises are lost paradises, remembered from a future time that has forgotten or repressed their darker aspects. It's better to travel the hard road of progress than to dwell in a nostalgic and artificial past, the passage implies.

Then we noticed that in the second pillow was the indentation of a head. One of us lifted something from it, and leaning forward, that faint and invisible dust dry and acrid in the nostrils, we saw a long strand of irony-gray hair.

Related Characters: The townspeople (speaker), Miss Emily Grierson
Related Symbols: Miss Emily’s Hair
Page Number: 59
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote comes during Miss Emily's funeral, after the townspeople discover the corpse of Homer Barron in Miss Emily's room.

The indentation on the second pillow and the "strand of iron-gray hair" (presumably Miss Emily's) are evidence that Miss Emily did indeed sleep with Homer's corpse. This is what Aristotle in his literary criticism would call the "anagnorisis," or the scene of recognition, where the townspeople and the reader at least see just how horrifically oppressed and deranged Miss Emily was (and where the mysteries presented previously in the story are resolved). Earlier Miss Emily had denied her father's death, and here she goes further and lives with a corpse as though it were alive. The image of Miss Emily sleeping next to the corpse is also one the story associates with the relationship between the townspeople and their dead Southern heritage.

Dust is a common image in Faulkner's work; here, as elsewhere, it suggests stasis (for dust only settles on what doesn't move), humiliation, and mortality. Recall also that dust appears earlier in the story, when the Aldermen visit Miss Emily's house about the taxes, for example. The image accumulates a sense of fatality and despair as the story unfolds. 

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Miss Emily Grierson Character Timeline in A Rose for Emily

The timeline below shows where the character Miss Emily Grierson appears in A Rose for Emily. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Section 1
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
...narrator, speaking in the first person plural that represents the entire town, recalls that, when Miss Emily Grierson died, all the townspeople of Jefferson, Mississippi, attended the funeral held in her house,... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
When alive, Miss Emily had been respected and cared for by the townspeople. In fact, in 1894, the then-mayor... (full context)
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
However, the next generation of town leaders came to find the tax arrangement with Miss Emily dissatisfactory; so one January they mailed her a notice of taxes due. By February, however,... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
In response, the authorities of Jefferson dispatched members of the Board of Alderman to Miss Emily ’s house. Tobe showed the men into the dusty interior; a crayon portrait of Miss... (full context)
Section 2
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
So Miss Emily vanquished the town authorities in the matter of her taxes, just as she had vanquished... (full context)
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
So the next night, after midnight, four men went to Miss Emily ’s house in secret to investigate the smell and to attempt to neutralize it by... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
The narrator recalls that this was when the townspeople had begun to feel sorry for Miss Emily . Remembering how her great-aunt Wyatt had gone mad, they came to believe that the... (full context)
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
The day after Miss Emily ’s father died, the ladies of the town visited Miss Emily and, as was the... (full context)
Section 3
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Thereafter, Miss Emily fell ill for a long time. When next seen by the townspeople, she had a... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
The townspeople were at first glad that Miss Emily had a romantic interest, even though they thought she would never think seriously about marrying... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
A year after some townspeople began saying “poor Emily”—and while two female cousins visited her— Miss Emily went to the druggist to buy poison, arsenic. The druggist told her that the law... (full context)
Section 4
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
The townspeople immediately suspected that Miss Emily intended to kill herself with the arsenic, and agreed it was for the best, especially... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
Consequently, her two female cousins came to live with Miss Emily . Nothing changed at first, but soon the townspeople came to believe that she and... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
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Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
When the townspeople next saw Miss Emily in person, she had grown fat and her hair had turned an “iron-gray.” From that... (full context)
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Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
...how the newer, post-Sartoris generation rose to power in town. The narrator also recalls how Miss Emily ’s painting pupils grew up and did not send their children to her, how Miss... (full context)
Section 5
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
During Miss Emily ’s funeral, held in what had been her house, Tobe admitted the ladies of the... (full context)
The Post Civil-War South Theme Icon
Tradition vs. Progress Theme Icon
Patriarchal Authority and Control Theme Icon
Time and Narrative  Theme Icon
Gossip, Social Conventions, and Judgment Theme Icon
...a room upstairs which no one had seen in forty years. Later, the narrator recalls—after Miss Emily was buried—they used force to open the door and gain entry. Dust pervaded the tomb-like... (full context)