Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Pdf fan Tap here to download this LitChart! (PDF)

The Narrator Character Analysis

The entire novel is told from the perspective of the narrator, a forty-year-old man who writes technical manuals for a living. He is undeniably based on Robert Pirsig, the book’s author, as the two’s biographies overlap quite similarly. However, this similarity is never stated explicitly in the book. The narrator’s identity began after a man he refers to as Phaedrus was given electroshock therapy to treat mental illness. Following that therapy, the narrator’s consciousness replaced Phaedrus’s, though they occupy the same body. As the book progresses, the narrator recounts what he has pieced together of Phaedrus’s history, in parallel with his narrative of the trip he and his son Chris take across the United States. Through a series of directed talks he calls Chautauquas, the narrator explains the philosophy of Quality that Phaedrus developed, and uses motorcycle maintenance as a metaphor to illustrate how this philosophy can be practiced.

The Narrator Quotes in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

The Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance quotes below are all either spoken by The Narrator or refer to The Narrator. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
Quality Theme Icon
). Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the HarperTorch edition of Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance published in 1974.
Chapter 1 Quotes

What is in mind is a sort of Chautauqua...that’s the only name I can think of for it...like the traveling tent-show Chautauquas that used to move across America, this America, the one that we are now in, an old-time series of popular talks intended to edify and entertain, improve the mind and bring culture and enlightenment to the ears and thoughts of the hearer. The Chautauquas were pushed aside by faster-paced radio, movies and TV, and it seems to me the change was not entirely an improvement. Perhaps because of these changes the stream of national consciousness moves faster now, and is broader, but it seems to run less deep.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 8-9
Explanation and Analysis:

The narrator begins with visual descriptions and the motivation behind the motorcycle journey that he is taking with his son, Chris. He describes images seen from the cycle, the feeling of his feet inches above the pavement, and the type of winding country road he and his friends prefer for such trips. With the time such a trip provides for deep thought, the narrator here introduces the philosophical inquiries he will undertake. To these inquiries he give the name Chautauqua, "traveling tent-show," which provided popular adult and spiritual education at the turn of the 20th century.

The narrator's assertion that Chautauquas were "pushed aside by faster-paced radio, movies, and TV" looks forward to much of the content of his philosophical inquiry, which deals with responses to changing technology and the American way of life. Here he says that the change has not been entirely good, since it has increased the "stream of national consciousness" in speed and breadth, but reduced the depth of culture and general inquiries. Much of the book will deal with what the narrator calls a "romantic" response to technology, also linked to the irrational, which resists the changes and romanticizes the past (much like this nostalgia for Chautauquas). The narrator will try to reconcile this romantic perspective with the "classical" perspective, linked with the rational, which embraces changes and new technologies.

A+

Unlock explanations and citation info for this and every other Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance quote.

Plus so much more...

Get LitCharts A+
Already a LitCharts A+ member? Sign in!

I would like, instead, to be concerned with the question "What is best?," a question which cuts deeply rather than broadly, a question whose answers tend to move the silt downstream. There are eras of human history in which the channels of thought have been too deeply cut and no change was possible, and nothing new ever happened, and "best" was a matter of dogma, but that is not the situation now. Now the stream of our common consciousness seems to be obliterating its own banks, losing its central direction and purpose, flooding the lowlands, disconnecting and isolating the highlands and to no particular purpose other than the wasteful fulfillment of its own internal momentum. Some channel deepening seems called for.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 9-10
Explanation and Analysis:

The central question of the narrator's Chautauqua will be "What is best?" Eventually, this question will lead to a philosophical inquiry into what the narrator calls Quality. The question "What is best?" he says, "cuts deeply rather than broadly," meaning that it requires intensive focus. The narrator suggests that at certain times in human history popular thought and human consciousness was too focused and deeply ingrained so that no change or progress was possible. What was "best" was determined only by the principles and decisions of authority.

The narrator observes that the current "stream of our common consciousness" is now running wild without a "central direction or purpose." Using figurative language to describe the river of thought, the narrator says that popular thought and culture are breaking into new directions, isolating people and ideas, and wasting energy in a purposeless, unfocused broadening. Again, he presents a duality or dichotomy, two sides pitted against each other like Romanticism and Classicism in the quote above. And again, the narrator will try to find a middle ground. Here he says that some deeper thought ("channel deepening") is required, but he will attempt to get deep without reverting to the entrenched, dogmatic characteristics of some eras.

Chapter 2 Quotes

And it occurred to me there is no manual that deals with the real business of motorcycle maintenance, the most important aspect of all. Caring about what you are doing is considered either unimportant or taken for granted.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Related Symbols: Motorcycle Maintenance
Page Number: 34
Explanation and Analysis:

The narrator has been captivated by the memory of previous times that his motorcycle has broken down. He remembers with embarrassment a time that he thought the cycle was broken when in fact it simply ran out of gas. He tests the heat of the cycle he is riding, and explains that since this machine has had past "seizures," he tests it from time to time to make sure they wont recur.

After the first time the engine seized, the narrator took the bike into a shop. At the time, he felt it was too important to do the repair himself. The mechanics completely botched the repair, demonstrating a lack of interest in their work. They were detached from the job and rushed it, ultimately causing damage to the machine. The narrator says the young mechanics were spectators in their work, much like the authors of the computer manuals he edits for his profession. Here, he realizes that "there is no manual that deals with the real business of motorcycle maintenance, the most important aspect of all." All current volumes simply deal with the detached, spectator business of repairing the cycle in a disinterested vacuum. The most important aspect to the narrator is simply caring about the work and being invested in what you are doing. This desire for investment, interest, and active awareness will lead to and be further explicated by the narrator's quest for a philosophy of Quality.

The novel itself can thus be seen as the narrator's manual to fill this niche. By showing the attitude required for quality, meaningful motorcycle care, the narrator hopes to communicate a productive overall life philosophy.

Chapter 3 Quotes

A second flash...WHAM and everything brilliant—and then in the brilliance of the next flash that farmhouse—that windmill—oh, my God, he’s been here! -- throttle off—this is his road—a fence and trees—and the speed drops to seventy, then sixty, then fifty-five and I hold it there.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker), Phaedrus
Page Number: 36
Explanation and Analysis:

As the group is traveling through the prairie, a storm hits. The quote here describes the sensation of thunder and lightning beginning, coupled with the strange memories that the suddenly illuminated surroundings bring. The second flash is lightning and "WHAM" is its thunder, and in the third flash a familiar farmhouse and windmill are momentarily illuminated. These images spark the narrator to say "oh, my God, he's been here!" and "this is his road." This "he" is the first mention of Phaedrus, though he is not named until later in the chapter.

Once they stop to get out of the rain, the narrator has uncanny knowledge of the town, as if he has been there before. This is the first indication that there is more to his identity than we yet know. We will come to learn about Phaedrus, the narrator's alternate past personality who haunts him like a ghost, after a psychotic break and convulsive therapy caused a mental split. The narrator-as-Phaedrus has been to the town before, which is how he knows where to find the best motel. Later, when the narrator tells Chris a ghost story and introduces Phaedrus, Chris asks his father if he saw Phaedrus out in the storm, since Sylvia said the narrator looked like he had seen a ghost. Chris doesn't know how perceptive his question really is, of course.

Laws of nature are human inventions, like ghosts. Laws of logic, of mathematics are also human inventions, like ghosts. The whole blessed thing is a human invention, including the idea that it isn’t a human invention. The world has no existence whatsoever outside the human imagination. It’s all a ghost, and in antiquity was so recognized as a ghost, the whole blessed world we live in.…Your common sense is nothing more than the voices of thousands and thousands of these ghosts from the past.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 43-44
Explanation and Analysis:

At the motel, Chris tells ghost stories and asks the narrator if he believes in ghosts. The narrator then launches into a philosophical lecture suggesting that reason and science are ghosts in their own way. He gives the example of gravity, which he ultimately argues did not exist until Isaac Newton thought of it. Thus he argues that the "laws of nature are human inventions, like ghosts." Believing in science is no more rational than believing in ghosts.

Logic and mathematics and laws like gravity are all only human invention, and thus they only exist within human minds. The narrator argues that everything we know falls into this category. The world as we know it only exists in the human imagination. Everything is a ghost. Ideas that we take for granted all originated from historical figures, now long gone, but their words and ideas still linger as ethereal guides to our assumptions about the world. Thus "common sense is nothing more than the voices of thousands and thousands of these ghosts from the past." This philosophical conversation quickly gets out of hand, as John and Sylvia and Chris all become confused and slightly uncomfortable. It also leads to a private conversation / ghost story between Chris and the narrator, in which the narrator formally introduces Phaedrus.

Chapter 5 Quotes

What we have here is a conflict of visions of reality. The world as you see it right here, right now, is reality, regardless of what the scientists say it might be. That’s the way John sees it. But the world as revealed by its scientific discoveries is also reality, regardless of how it may appear, and people in John’s dimension are going to have to do more than just ignore it if they want to hang on to their vision of reality. …
What you’ve got here, really, are two realities, one of immediate artistic appearance and one of underlying scientific explanation, and they don’t match and they don’t fit and they don’t really have much of anything to do with one another. That’s quite a situation. You might say there’s a little problem here.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker), John Sutherland
Related Symbols: Motorcycle Maintenance
Page Number: 68-69
Explanation and Analysis:

Thinking about the very different approaches to motorcycle maintenance that he and John have, the narrator recalls an incident where he tried to help John repair a bike in order to get him interested in mechanics. He realizes that beyond viewing motorcycles differently, the two men have completely different world-views and understanding of reality. The narrator is interested in what things mean, while John is only interested in what things are.

John is invested in the present experience of things. The world how he sees it is reality, "regardless of what scientists say it might be." But the narrator asserts that the world and reality are also described by scientific discoveries, and that "people in John's dimension are going to have to do more than just ignore it." The romantic dimension involved with what things are is aligned with a frustration with and distrust of technology. The narrator also calls it "grooving." But to hold on to that type of living and that reality of immediate artistic appearance, "hip" people must also try to understand the alternate reality of "underlying scientific explanation." These realities, however, seem completely at odds and like they don't relate at all. This dichotomy and contrast is one of the main problems that the narrator will try to reconcile in the Chautauqua.

Chapter 6 Quotes

But he saw a sick and ailing thing happening and he started cutting deep, deeper and deeper to get at the root of it. He was after something. That is important. He was after something and he used the knife because that was the only tool he had. But he took on so much and went so far in the end his real victim was himself.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker), Phaedrus
Page Number: 93
Explanation and Analysis:

In this chapter the narrator describes Phaedrus and his style of thought, which is quintessentially classical. It is organized and rooted entirely in logic and reason. To give an example, the narrator breaks down the components of a motorcycle in an extremely detailed, organized list. It is pure analysis; there is no room for the romantic or for value judgements or anything in line with John's worldview. Phaedrus mastered this type of rational thinking and used it as a tool. The narrator refers to the tool, used to cut things and organize them into pieces like the motorcycle, as Phaedrus' knife.

The narrator also reveals that Phaedrus' obsession with an idea or philosophical project seemingly drove him to insanity. But rather than calling him an assassin, the narrator calls Phaedrus a poor surgeon. He does this to make the point that Phaedrus was trying to do something—"he was after something and he used the knife because that was the only tool he had." The "sick and ailing thing" that Phaedrus operates is the dichotomy that the narrator has so far been outlining. The tragedy of this inquiry is that eventually he cuts so far that he ends up permanently damaging himself.

Chapter 7 Quotes

What has become an urgent necessity is a way of looking at the world that does violence to neither of these two kinds of understanding and unites them into one. Such an understanding will not reject sand-sorting or contemplation of unsorted sand for its own sake. Such an understanding will instead seek to direct attention to the endless landscape from which the sand is taken. That is what Phædrus, the poor surgeon, was trying to do.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker), Phaedrus
Page Number: 98
Explanation and Analysis:

Just before this quote the narrator introduces the metaphor of a handful of sand to describe both the Classical and Romantic modes of thought and being. Some sort of sorting, says the narrator, is essential and is done by everyone, since we are exposed to so many experiences at once that if we were aware of it all at once we could not even think. The landscape of awareness available to us is endless and unfathomable. From that landscape, we take a handful of sand, which represents details and experiences and the world we are conscious of. Taking the handful alone is an act of sorting.

But the romantic seeks to look at the whole handful of sand at once, and the classicist seeks to sort the handful into specific piles by the means of Phaedrus' "knife"—logic used to divide the world we are conscious of into distinct parts.

In the quote, the narrator describes the major project of Phaedrus and of the book itself, to find a way of looking at the world that "does violence to neither of these two kinds of understanding and then unites them into one." By violence, he means that when you attempt to look at the handful all at once, you lose some of the nuance found in the sorting, and when you sort, you lose some of the beauty of the whole. Something is always lost. Phaedrus attempted to embrace both means of viewing the world and unite them. He wanted to look at the endless landscape itself, and the idea that we grab sand at all.

Chapter 14 Quotes

This divorce of art from technology is completely unnatural. It’s just that it’s gone on so long you have to be an archeologist to find out where the two separated. Rotisserie assembly is actually a long-lost branch of sculpture, so divorced from its roots by centuries of intellectual wrong turns that just to associate the two sounds ludicrous.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Related Symbols: Motorcycle Maintenance
Page Number: 209
Explanation and Analysis:

The travelers have arrived at their destination in Bozeman, Montana, where Phaedrus used to teach, and have met DeWeese, the old friend of Phaedrus with whom they will stay. There they are greeted by a small welcoming party, during which at one point DeWeese asks the narrator to review an instruction manual for a rotisserie (a cooking appliance for roasting meat). The inspection of the manual sends the narrator on a long philosophical speech.

In this speech he returns to the split of the classical and the romantic, explaining some of the content of his private Chautauqua to his friends. Here, he elaborates on the false dichotomy between technology and art, saying that it is "completely unnatural." This idea, he says, has been carried throughout history much since the invention of reason. He says "rotisserie assembly is actually a long-lost branch of sculpture," suggesting that technology and art are one. He explains that instead of there being only one right way to assemble a piece of machinery, there are actually infinite ways. The art is in approaching the problem with peace of mind, and in the process of figuring out and choosing which way to proceed.

Chapter 15 Quotes

Quality—you know what it is, yet you don’t know what it is. But that’s self-contradictory. But some things are better than others, that is, they have more quality. But when you try to say what the quality is, apart from the things that have it, it all goes poof! There’s nothing to talk about. But if you can’t say what Quality is, how do you know what it is, or how do you know that it even exists? If no one knows what it is, then for all practical purposes it doesn’t exist at all. But for all practical purposes it really does exist.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Related Symbols: Seed Crystal
Page Number: 231
Explanation and Analysis:

Visiting the school where Phaedrus used to teach, the narrator recalls the question which acted as a "seed crystal" for his ideas and for his eventual mental breakdown. One question was a tiny catalyst that enabled him to produce an immense body of thought in a short period of time. The question was, "are you teaching Quality this year?" Phaedrus became obsessed with the question, at one point asking his students to write an essay describing what Quality is.

Here, he gives the paradox that drove Phaedrus' breakdown and much of the book's central philosophy. We know what Quality is, but it is very difficult to define it. We can name things as better than other things, but when you try to say what that "betterness" really is, it seems to not exist. He wonders, if no one knows what it is, does it exist? At the same time, it must exist! The concept eludes all rational analysis. Phaedrus cannot use his knife of reason to understand what Quality is. The chapter ends with the problem unresolved. The narrator simply asks, "What the hell is Quality? What is it?"

Chapter 17 Quotes

Mountains should be climbed with as little effort as possible and without desire. The reality of your own nature should determine the speed. If you become restless, speed up. If you become winded, slow down. You climb the mountain in an equilibrium between restlessness and exhaustion. Then, when you’re no longer thinking ahead, each footstep isn’t just a means to an end but a unique event in itself.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 258
Explanation and Analysis:

The narrator and Chris are hiking through the mountains. The narrator has compared this hike to Phaedrus' intellectual journey, so while the lines quoted refer to the literal climb, they also speak to the mindset the narrator thinks best for approaching other tasks, like intellectual pursuits or motorcycle maintenance. As he does elsewhere with the ideal mindset for fixing a motorcycle, the narrator here describes the "Zen" of mountain climbing.

The climb should be done with little effort and with no desire, the narrator says, and the speed should only be determined by the climber's reality. If you are a slow climber, climb slow. If you feel energetic, speed up. When climbing in between "restlessness and exhaustion," you are able to live in the moment. Every step and task are not just means to accomplish some goal, but rather are events for you to experience and cherish. The narrator suggests noticing things, paying attention to nature, observing, and caring. Later, he will say that someone who climbs just for the goal of reaching the top or satisfying their ego will never be happy during the hike, since they will always wish they were further ahead on the trail. The point (which itself is very "Zen") that the narrator is essentially trying to make here is that we should live in the moment.

Chapter 18 Quotes

Phaedrus’ refusal to define Quality, in terms of this analogy, was an attempt to break the grip of the classical sandsifting mode of understanding and find a point of common understanding between the classic and romantic worlds. Quality, the cleavage term between hip and square, seemed to be it. Both worlds used the term. Both knew what it was. It was just that the romantic left it alone and appreciated it for what it was and the classic tried to turn it into a set of intellectual building blocks for other purposes. Now, with the definition blocked, the classic mind was forced to view Quality as the romantic did, undistorted by thought structures.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker), Phaedrus
Page Number: 282
Explanation and Analysis:

The narrator and Chris are still hiking, and the narrator says he wants to make one last point about Quality. He begins by summarizing some of the points he has made about the split between classical and romantic, or "hip" and "square." He briefly goes over the analogy he has previously made, which says that life and awareness are an infinite landscape, and from that landscape we take a handful of sand. The romantic approach is to appreciate the whole handful; the classical approach is to sort the handful into piles.

Using this analogy again, the narrator explains that Phaedrus' refusal to define Quality in the classroom and in his thought can be understood as him trying to "break the grip of the classical sandsifting mode of understanding." Phaedrus wanted to challenge classical reason. Instead of using his "knife" or sifting the sand (using reason) to define Quality, Phaedrus wanted to find a concept that could bridge the classic and romantic worlds and unite them.

Phaedrus determined that Quality was the concept that united hip and square (classical and romantic), and that both worlds used Quality and knew what it was. Because of these ideas, Phaedrus thought that Quality was the thing that could bring rationality and irrationality, hip and square together. The romantics like John knew what quality was, and "they left it alone and appreciated it." Classicists would try to define Quality and use it as a tool for reason. But by blocking the classic mind from defining Quality, Phaedrus would force a classicist to see Quality how a romantic might, free from the confines of rationality and logic. In this way he might bridge the gap that has occupied so much of the Chautauqua.

Chapter 19 Quotes

This means Quality is not just the result of a collision between subject and object. The very existence of subject and object themselves is deduced from the Quality event. The Quality event is the cause of the subjects and objects, which are then mistakenly presumed to be the cause of the Quality!

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 304
Explanation and Analysis:

The narrator has recounted more of Phaedrus' thought process, describing in detail what followed after the Bozeman English faculty asked Phaedrus to tell them if Quality was subjective or objective. This question proves to be a dilemma, which the narrator likens to a charging bull: each side is a horn that would destroy his argument. Ultimately, Phaedrus chooses to reject both sides of the dilemma, saying that Quality is neither subjective nor objective, but rather it is a third entity; the three (subject, object, and Quality) make up the world in some kind of trinity.

But after a while, this trinitarian, three-part definition of the world no longer satisfies Phaedrus. He realized that Quality could only be found in the relationship of the subject to the object—"It is the point at which subject and object meet." After this realization, Phaedrus decides Quality must be an event instead of a thing. After a series of small steps like these, Phaedrus ultimately comes to the definition presented in the excerpted quote, which he believes has completely defeated the dilemma and satisfied his lengthy frustration with the duality of classicism and romanticism. Quality, he realizes, is the event that causes subjects and objects. Quality predates the divide between romantic and classic, and even causes this divide and is responsible for the creation of each side. With this bold move Phaedrus challenges the subject/object dualism that has been a foundation of Western thought for centuries.

Chapter 21 Quotes

No, he did nothing for Quality or the Tao. What benefited was reason. He showed a way by which reason may be expanded to include elements that have previously been unassimilable and thus have been considered irrational. I think it’s the overwhelming presence of these irrational elements crying for assimilation that creates the present bad quality, the chaotic, disconnected spirit of the twentieth century.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker), Phaedrus
Page Number: 327-328
Explanation and Analysis:

Still descending the mountain, the narrator says that he wishes to move way from the abstract intellectual pursuits of Phaedrus and connect those ideas back to everyday life and the general dissatisfaction with technology and the spirit of the 20th century. He says that he cannot say for sure if Phaedrus' comparison between Quality and Tao was correct, or good, and he even says that it's possible to "hurt" Quality just by trying to define it.

Rather, the narrator says that Phaedrus' work was done in the service of reason. By climbing the intellectual mountain (investigating Quality), Phaedrus showed how to include irrational and emotional issues under the umbrella of reason. He found a way to connect what had "previously been unassimilable" in reason and academia. The narrator goes on to say that it is the presence of irrational ideas and the need to assimilate them (understand them, and bridge the gap between classic and romantic) that is driving all of the "bad quality' and the "chaotic, disconnected spirit of the twentieth century" which drove him to begin the Chautauqua in the first place.

Chapter 24 Quotes

There has been a haze, a backup problem in this Chautauqua so far; I talked about caring the first day and then realized I couldn’t say anything meaningful about caring until its inverse side, Quality, is understood. I think it’s important now to tie care to Quality by pointing out that care and Quality are internal and external aspects of the same thing. A person who sees Quality and feels it as he works is a person who cares. A person who cares about what he sees and does is a person who’s bound to have some characteristics of Quality.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Related Symbols: Motorcycle Maintenance, The Glass Door
Page Number: 353
Explanation and Analysis:

The narrator has woken up from a Glass Door nightmare. The nightmare shows an incident at the hospital, where Phaedrus sees his family on the other side of a glass door and is unable to open it. Note that the nightmare chapter is written in a different font, since it is from Phaedrus's perspective. After waking, the narrator and Chris get back on the motorcycle, and the narrator continues with the Chautauqua.

He explains that there has been a "haze, a backup problem" so far. He began with the issue at hand, the technological hopelessness of people like John, but in order to get to Quality, he had to back up and explain "classical" and "romantic" and give the history of Phaedrus' breakdown. Now, finally turning back to his original point, the narrator shows how Quality is linked to caring. He says that the two ideas are "internal and external aspects of the same thing." In other words, someone who cares a lot about their work produces Quality, and someone who produces something with Quality is someone who cares. Motorcycle maintenance, then, is the real-life application of Phaedrus' ideas, and the narrator has thus been talking about Quality in a way even before it was formally introduced.

Stuckness shouldn’t be avoided. It’s the psychic predecessor of all real understanding. An egoless acceptance of stuckness is a key to an understanding of all Quality, in mechanical work as in other endeavors. It’s this understanding of Quality as revealed by stuckness which so often makes self-taught mechanics so superior to institute-trained men who have learned how to handle everything except a new situation.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Related Symbols: Motorcycle Maintenance
Page Number: 366
Explanation and Analysis:

At this point in the Chautauqua, the narrator is discussing the feeling of stuckness that occurs when reason fails to solve a problem. The example he uses is of a screw stuck in a motorcycle you are trying to repair. Like the screw itself, you become stuck, unable to remove it and unable to proceed. Such a moment can be extremely frustrating.

However, the narrator suggests that moments like this are actually key to new ideas and recognizing Quality. Stuckness is what comes before true understanding. Rather than avoiding stuckness, he says it should be embraced. Without ego, we need to accept this position of stuckness as a key to understanding Quality. It is this patience and embrace of stuckness, he says, that makes self-taught mechanics better than "institute-trained men." The self-taught person knows how to move past stuckness and figure out ingenious solutions to new problems, but the institute-trained person knows only a set of procedures which sometimes can lead to the unfamiliar stuckness he or she can't handle.

Chapter 25 Quotes

The way to solve the conflict between human values and technological needs is not to run away from technology. That’s impossible. The way to resolve the conflict is to break down the barriers of dualistic thought that prevent a real understanding of what technology is ... not an exploitation of nature, but a fusion of nature and the human spirit into a new kind of creation that transcends both. When this transcendence occurs in such events as the first airplane flight across the ocean or the first footstep on the moon, a kind of public recognition of the transcendent nature of technology occurs. But this transcendence should also occur at the individual level, on a personal basis, in one’s own life, in a less dramatic way.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 373-374
Explanation and Analysis:

Here the narrator reiterates a point made earlier in the Chautauqua. The aversion that John and Sylvia feel to technology needs to be solved, and running away from it wont solve the problem. Indeed, the narrator said early on how reliant they all are on technology, despite their hatred of it. The best way to approach the conflict, he says, is "to break down the barriers of dualistic thought" (classicism vs romanticism) which prevent a true understanding of what technology really is.

Technology is not an exploitation of nature. Rather, it is a "fusion of nature and human spirit.. a new kind of creation that transcends both." We recognize this special transcendence of nature in major technological revolutions or events, like the first airplane or the moon landing. But the narrator says we also need to recognize how special and artful technology is on a personal (and "less dramatic") level. As we know by now, proper understanding and application of Quality, both as a designer of technology and as a user and a consumer, will alleviate the problem and help us to recognize technology for what it truly is and should be. This sort of recognition, the narrator believes, will make people like John and Sylvia feel like they don't want to or have to run from technology any more.

Chapter 26 Quotes

If you’re going to repair a motorcycle, an adequate supply of gumption is the first and most important tool. If you haven’t got that you might as well gather up all the other tools and put them away, because they won’t do you any good.

Gumption is the psychic gasoline that keeps the whole thing going. If you haven’t got it there’s no way the motorcycle can possibly be fixed. But if you have got it and know how to keep it there’s absolutely no way in this whole world that motorcycle can keep from getting fixed. It’s bound to happen. Therefore the thing that must be monitored at all times and preserved before anything else is the gumption.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Related Symbols: Motorcycle Maintenance
Page Number: 389-390
Explanation and Analysis:

In this stage of the Chautauqua, the narrator addresses the necessity of gumption, meaning spirit, initiative, or drive. He says that in order to repair a motorcycle (or approach any task), first and foremost you need enough gumption to get you through it. No matter what else you have, like literal tools and expertise, without gumption you won't get anywhere in your repair.

The narrator deems gumption the "psychic gasoline" that energizes and sustains the whole process. Without it the motorcycle will never be fixed, since you won't have the energy or the drive to fix it and break past "stuckness" and frustration, and to keep focusing and striving for Quality. With enough gumption and the ability to sustain your gumption levels, however, nothing in the world can stop you from completing your task and fixing the motorcycle. Therefore, the narrator says, when repairing a motorcycle one must constantly monitor and preserve his or her levels of gumption. He will go on to explain "gumption traps," or possible pitfalls which might enable you to lose gumption, and methods to avoid them and keep your drive at a healthy, working level.

A very strong case can be made for the statement that science grows by its mu answers more than by its yes or no answer. Yes or no confirms or denies a hypothesis. Mu says the answer is beyond the hypothesis. Mu is the "phenomenon" that inspires scientific enquiry in the first place! There’s nothing mysterious or esoteric about it. It’s just that our culture has warped us to make a low value judgment of it.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Related Symbols: Mu
Page Number: 413
Explanation and Analysis:

Here the narrator is continuing to discuss possible "gumption" traps. He has introduced the truth trap, which is concerned with "yes" or "no" questions. The narrator introduces a third option: the Japanese Mu, which means "no thing." It is a kind of "no" answer; it means that the question is too small, or the answer is neither yes nor no. Our natural inclination is to resist "mu," but it is even present in the sciences.

What's more, the narrator asserts that mu answers actually contribute more to science than yes or no answers. The reason he gives is that yes or no simply tells you that a certain hypothesis is correct or incorrect. But "mu says the answer is beyond the hypothesis." Mu, he says, is the very "phenomenon" that inspires scientists to study and explore in the first place. The narrator says that we should place more value on mu, and that it is an error that "our culture has warped us to make a low value judgment of it." Like embracing "stuckness," the narrator says that we should embrace mu as part of his Zen solution.

Note also that much of his (and Phaedrus') project has been to unify or break the duality of classic and romantic. Mu is the same type of answer and gesture—a rejection of duality. It refutes what seems like should only be "yes" or "no," and provides a third option.

Chapter 29 Quotes

Quality! Virtue! Dharma! That is what the Sophists were teaching! Not ethical relativism. Not pristine "virtue." But areté. Excellence. Dharma! Before the Church of Reason. Before substance. Before form. Before mind and matter. Before dialectic itself. Quality had been absolute. Those first teachers of the Western world were teaching Quality, and the medium they had chosen was that of rhetoric. He has been doing it right all along.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 484-485
Explanation and Analysis:

This excerpt comes at the end of a long, detailed chapter which continues to describe Phaedrus' struggles with other academics at the University of Chicago, leading closer and closer to his psychotic break. The narrator describes Phaedrus' experience in a philosophy class about ancient Greek literature, and the research he did into Sophists, the pre-Socratic thinkers who supposedly taught virtue. These Sophists are given a bad name by Plato, who pits them against Socrates in his Dialogues. Phaedrus, for some reason, aligns himself with these Sophists, and distrusts Plato's rejection of them.

Looking at the ancient Greek heroes, Phaedrus has an epiphany. What we translate as "virtue" is the Greek word "areté," which means excellence. Here he realizes "Quality! Virtue! Dharma!" are all the same thing. The Sophists, he believes, were teaching Quality, not the "ethical relativism" that we commonly associate with the English word virtue. Before reason, substance, mind, and matter, and before the classical / romantic duality, Quality was absolute. These Sophists, the "first teachers of the Western world," were "teaching Quality," and they taught it through rhetoric, just as Phaedrus had been doing all along.

This realization is a major epiphany for Phaedrus in the context of his struggles with the university, and it demonstrates again that Quality is trans-historical and multicultural.

Chapter 31 Quotes

I can imitate the father he’s supposed to have, but subconsciously, at the Quality level, he sees through it and knows his real father isn’t here. In all this Chautauqua talk there’s been more than a touch of hypocrisy. Advice is given again and again to eliminate subject-object duality, when the biggest duality of all, the duality between me and him, remains unfaced. A mind divided against itself.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker), Phaedrus, Chris Pirsig
Page Number: 517
Explanation and Analysis:

The book is winding down; Phaedrus' psychotic break has been reached in the narrator's retelling, and the Chautauqua is mostly complete. Phaedrus is returning, has been slowly resurfacing, and the narrator finally realizes that Chris misses Phaedrus. Chris hates the narrator and is so frustrated because he isn't Phaedrus anymore. At night during nightmares, and in some other moments Phaedrus returns briefly, but these small episodes seem only to further torture Chris.

The narrator says here that he can imitate Phaedrus, the father that Chris wants to have and is used to, but on the level of Quality and the subconscious, Chris can tell that the narrator just isn't Phaedrus. The narrator says that in the Chautauqua he has been hypocritical, since he has worked so hard to eliminate duality—subject/object and classical/romantic—but the "biggest duality of all, the duality between me and him, remains unfaced." His mind is still divided. He is still both Phaedrus and himself.

Finally, the narrator appears ready to confront this rift within himself, and makes preparations for Phaedrus' return. He believes that his current split makes him unreliable as a father, and even plans to send Chris home and check back into a mental hospital. But in the course of the climactic, emotional conversation with Chris, in which the narrator tries to explain his insanity and his plan to send Chris home, Phaedrus emerges to comfort his son. 

Chapter 32 Quotes

For God’s sake relieve him of his burden! Be one person again!

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 528
Explanation and Analysis:

Chris has asked Phaedrus if he really was insane, and Phaedrus answers "No!" To this Chris responds, "I knew it." This phrase resonates with Phaedrus, who realizes that the split of his personality and the idea that his father was insane have been plaguing Chris for years, causing many of his problems. He realizes that Chris has been carrying Phaedrus this whole time, and that Chris is the only reason that he ever emerged from the hospital. Feeling new understanding and empathy for his son, Phaedrus/the narrator urges himself to "be one person again!" and to relieve Chris of his burden and the pain the split is causing him.

Note that this chapter, the last in the book, is written in Phaedrus' font. The narrator seems to have reconciled and become one  with Phaedrus, finally, to save Chris.

Trials never end, of course. Unhappiness and misfortune are bound to occur as long as people live, but there is a feeling now, that was not here before, and is not just on the surface of things, but penetrates all the way through: We’ve won it. It’s going to get better now. You can sort of tell these things.

Related Characters: The Narrator (speaker)
Page Number: 531
Explanation and Analysis:

These are the last lines of the book, excepting the Afterward. Chris has asked if one day he can get his own motorcycle, and Phaedrus is confident that his son will approach motorcycle maintenance with the right attitude. Phaedrus reflects that "trials never end," and that unhappiness and bad things are bound to happen, but now there is a new feeling that has been absent. It's not just a surface feeling, but a deep feeling that seems to be on the Quality level (though he doesn't say this for sure). The feeling is this: "We've won it. It's going to get better now." Phaedrus ends by asserting that finally he has reconciled with himself, and that he and Chris (and he and the narrator) have won and completed their journey. Things are going to get better for everyone. His reason for believing this fact recalls the instinctual way that Phaedrus asserts we make Quality judgements: "You can sort of tell these things."

Get the entire Zen and the Art of... LitChart as a printable PDF.
Zen and the art of motorcycle maintenance.pdf.medium

The Narrator Character Timeline in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

The timeline below shows where the character The Narrator appears in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 1
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator rides a motorcycle through the American Central Plains with his eleven-year-old son Chris. It is... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
Chris and the narrator are on a trip from Minneapolis to Montana with the narrator’s friends, John Sutherland and... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
...dissatisfied-looking group of Monday morning commuters that she saw earlier. The four resume travel, and the narrator begins to discuss a “disharmony” he observes in John and Sylvia’s marriage. Despite the narrator’s... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator also recollects a time he visited the Sutherlands’ house and found they had a leaky... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator realizes from these anecdotes that John and Sylvia are distressed by technology—or humankind’s mechanistic tendencies... (full context)
Chapter 2
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The group enters the prairies of the Great Plains from the Central Plains. The narrator recognizes inclement weather on the horizon and remembers a rain-soaked trip to Canada he took... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
...points out that the group has missed a turn but they decide to continue anyway. The narrator remembers a time when he decided to take his motorcycle to a shop instead of... (full context)
Chapter 7
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator says that the time has come to explain his own relation to Phaedrus. At a... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
At a stop, John and Sylvia express their anger at the narrator for moving so slowly. As they continue riding, however, a light shower begins. The rain... (full context)
Chapter 8
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
...in noticeably higher spirits after a relaxing night at a hotel. While others run errands, the narrator tunes his motorcycle and muses that the process is a largely rational one. He expands... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
The narrator goes to a friendly mechanic’s shop to get a motorcycle part, and notices that the... (full context)
Chapter 9
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The party makes its way through the Yellowstone Valley. The narrator begins a Chautauqua that explains the two types of logic: inductive and deductive. Inductive logic... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator enumerates the steps of the scientific method and explains that its primary role is to... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
...can’t get out of the passing lane and nearly collides head-on with the motorcyclists. Shaken, the narrator and his companions rest at a bar. (full context)
Chapter 10
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator begins to elaborate on Phaedrus’s quest for the “ghost of rationality.” He reproduces a quote... (full context)
Chapter 11
Identity Theme Icon
The narrator wakes up and his surroundings feel very familiar to him. The group decides to reach... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
...He is sent to Korea. His writings from this period are more emotional than before. The narrator recalls fragments of Phaedrus’s encounters with the country’s unfamiliar culture. Another memory dates from Phaedrus’s... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
...him to ask the sorts of larger questions that the scientific method cannot support. As the narrator relates this story, he also describes the group’s ascent through the scenic mountains of Montana. (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
...conceptions of things, which exist independently of sense data but are reinforced by sensory input. The narrator gives the example of a motorcycle, which is an a priori concept that is modified... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
To the narrator , Kant’s thought is a revolutionary breakthrough in reason, reminiscent of Nicholas Copernicus’s theory of... (full context)
Chapter 12
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator distinguishes his Chautauqua orations from the work a novelist might do, saying that he prefers... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator tells his companions about the man they’ll be visiting in Bozeman, an abstract painter named... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
Though the narrator ’s account obscured this chronology, Phaedrus did not move to Bozeman immediately after his epiphany... (full context)
Chapter 13
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator is nervous to return to the college in Bozeman, because it holds a great deal... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator praises the logical prowess of Phaedrus’s Church of Reason speech. He goes on to explain... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator also observes that Phaedrus’s devotion to the Church of Reason likely came as a result... (full context)
Chapter 14
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The party arrives in Bozeman, and the narrator ’s surroundings feel familiar, but slightly alien. The group meets DeWeese at the idyllic home... (full context)
Zen Theme Icon
...instructions for assembling a barbecue and says he’s been having trouble following them. This launches the narrator into a discussion of a set of instructions from a Japanese bike manual, which required... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator ’s lengthy speech leaves the dinner party dumbfounded. After the rest of the guests leave,... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator continues, telling the story of the Ancient Greek figure named Phaedrus. The Phaedrus of ancient... (full context)
Chapter 15
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
After two days of hanging around Bozeman, John and Sylvia head home. The next day, the narrator and Chris revisit the college where Phaedrus taught. When the father and son enter the... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
A woman comes upon the narrator in the classroom, and recognizes him as Phaedrus. She may have been one of his... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
On his way out of the classroom, the narrator comes across Phaedrus’s old office, and is overcome with memories of his philosophical breakthroughs. He... (full context)
Chapter 16
Quality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris begin their hike into the mountains. He compares their trek through the mountains... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
...the hike, Chris acts stubbornly and refuses to do a task he’s asked to do. The narrator continues to muse about Phaedrus’s new grade-less teaching scheme. The goal is to discourage students... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
...alternative systems, but next semester gives up on the system and grades normally again. In the narrator ’s words, he awaited a “seed crystal” to solidify his thought. (full context)
Chapter 17
Zen Theme Icon
Chris becomes visibly demoralized as the hike continues. The narrator recognizes that his son fears he won’t be able to climb the mountain. To distract... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator recalls the aftermath of Phaedrus’s assignment that asked his class to define Quality. The students... (full context)
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
Chris struggles with the climb. The narrator guesses that his son is treating the ascent like an ego-fulfillment task, an approach that... (full context)
Chapter 18
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Chris falls down, angry about the hike. The narrator does not condemn his son’s bratty behavior, and the pair resumes hiking. Meanwhile, the narrator... (full context)
Zen Theme Icon
Chris pretends to have hurt his ankle. The narrator carries Chris’s share of the equipment and they continue hiking. While the two rest, Chris... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator emphasizes that Quality bridges the gap between romantic and classic modes of thought. Phaedrus’s refusal... (full context)
Chapter 19
Identity Theme Icon
During the night, the narrator dreams that a glass door separates him from his wife and two sons. In this... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
Just as Phaedrus’s breakthrough is recounted by the narrator , he and Chris break out of the tree line. Chris sprints to the summit... (full context)
Chapter 20
Quality Theme Icon
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris take a nap on the summit. When he wakes, the narrator hears some... (full context)
Chapter 21
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
As he and Chris descend the mountain, the narrator muses that he cannot evaluate how truthful it is that the Tao and Phaedrus’s Quality... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Chris and the narrator complete their descent and arrive in Bozeman at night. Exhausted, they check into Bozeman’s main... (full context)
Chapter 22
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The following morning, the narrator and Chris say farewell to the DeWeeses and leave Bozeman. The narrator begins a new... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris head through Missoula and continue westward. They pause to camp by the side... (full context)
Chapter 23
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator ’s recurring nightmare is described in detail. A glass door separates him from his wife... (full context)
Chapter 24
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator awakes from his nightmare, feeling disoriented and worried. He and Chris get back on the... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The travelers get breakfast and the narrator helps Chris write a letter to his mother. Back on the road, the narrator continues... (full context)
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris have made good time on the motorcycle. They pass through Grangeville, Idaho and... (full context)
Chapter 25
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator moves away from “stuckness” to discuss a problem of a different nature: the romantic aversion... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The rational tediousness of technology is superficially remedied by stylization—a strategy the narrator finds ineffective. Instead of veneering classic understanding with romantic esthetics, the two modes of thought... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
...prevents one from separating one’s self from one’s surroundings. This reformed individual consciousness is, to the narrator , the starting point for more sweeping improvements to life worldwide. (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris camp out for the night and prepare to head into Oregon the next... (full context)
Chapter 26
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The next morning, the narrator muses that he will likely never sell his motorcycle. The countryside reminds him of a... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator then addresses a concept he calls “gumption,” which is what motivates an individual to perform... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator divides gumption traps into two broad categories: “setbacks,” which come from external circumstances, and “hang-ups,”... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator and his son stop for lunch. The narrator reflects that his relationship with Chris is... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
Back on the road, the narrator begins to discuss the internal gumption trap of ego. Ego insulates the individual from the... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
...so doing achieve the required peace of mind. Boredom is the opposite of anxiety, and the narrator encourages readers to take a break as soon as boredom sets in, or else learn... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris rest in a small, relaxed town. As they resume travel through the desert,... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
Finally, the narrator details psychomotor traps, which can be engendered by unsuitable tools, physical discomfort, or a lack... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator concludes his discussion of gumption traps by warning that an understanding of possible traps isn’t... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator notices that the people sharing the road with them appear more distracted and alienated than... (full context)
Chapter 27
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
This chapter describes in greater detail the narrator ’s recurring nightmare involving the glass door. The narrator addresses the “figure in the shadows”... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Chris, alarmed, wakes the narrator , and tells him he had been yelling in his sleep about killing someone. The... (full context)
Chapter 28
Identity Theme Icon
...Chris’s mother is infuriated by the time the two wasted. This flashback seems to inspire the narrator to seek hospitalization once he and Chris reach San Francisco. (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
The narrator decides to recount the conclusion of Phaedrus’s story. Phaedrus asks his colleague Sarah where he... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Chris asks the narrator what the purpose of their traveling is. The narrator tells his son that their goal... (full context)
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris arrive at Crater Lake and the narrator is perturbed by how disingenuously pristine... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator recollects a fragmented memory of Phaedrus commenting to the Assistant Chairman that he hadn’t noticed... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris reach a town called Grant’s Pass, where they stay in a motel. On... (full context)
Chapter 29
Quality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
In town, the narrator and Chris take care of errands. The narrator finds a welder to take care of... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator observes that people on the American coasts are much more emotionally isolated than they are... (full context)
Quality Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator gives some historical context for Plato’s rejection of the Sophistic rhetoricians. Plato so vehemently repudiated... (full context)
Chapter 30
Identity Theme Icon
The narrator and Chris pull off the freeway and drive aimlessly until they find a motel for... (full context)
Chapter 31
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The next morning, Chris is aloof, and he and the narrator ride south along the coast. They stop to look off a cliff, and the narrator... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
The narrator observes that Chris’s inquisitive, combative nature reminds him of Phaedrus. The two stop at a... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Rationality and Irrationality Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
Chris asks the narrator why he refused to open the glass door between himself and his family at the... (full context)
Chapter 32
Identity Theme Icon
Duality Theme Icon
As the two ride along the coast, Chris continues to repeat “I knew it.” The narrator realizes how his split identity has harmed Chris, and urges himself to come to grips... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The two take their helmets off and the narrator notices that they no longer have to yell to communicate. Chris stands up on the... (full context)
Identity Theme Icon
Zen Theme Icon
The narrator tells Chris that he should have no problem approaching his motorcycle with the right attitude.... (full context)