Enrique’s Journey

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Sonia Nazario Character Analysis

The author of Enrique’s Journey, she learns (to her shock) that her housekeeper Carmen had left children behind when she came to the United States to work. This leads Nazario, herself a daughter of immigrants, to investigate the phenomenon of single mothers coming to the United States to support their children left behind, the impact this “abandonment” has on them and the families they leave behind, and the children who often come searching for the parents who they feel left them. Nazario’s investigation leads her to Enrique, and the book both tells Enrique and his family’s story and of Nazario’s experience retracing Enrique’s steps as he endures the treacherous journey to try to reach his mother Lourdes in the United States.

Sonia Nazario Quotes in Enrique’s Journey

The Enrique’s Journey quotes below are all either spoken by Sonia Nazario or refer to Sonia Nazario. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
). Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the Random House edition of Enrique’s Journey published in 2007.
Prologue Quotes

"I was stuck by the choice mothers face when they leave their children. How do they make such an impossible decision? Among Latinos, where family is all-important, where for women motherhood is valued far above all else, why are droves of mothers leaving their children? What would I do if I were in their shoes?"

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker)
Page Number: xii
Explanation and Analysis:

In this passage, Sonia Nazario talks about her motivation for writing the book. She was talking to her housekeeper Carmen, and gradually discovered that Carmen had left behind her children in order to come to America and seek fortune there. Nazario was amazed that a kind, talented woman would abandon her children in order to move to a new country; she couldn't help but wonder if she (Nazario) would do the same thing, if her best chance of finding a job was in America.

The passage lays out the basic project of the book: to study Latin-American culture and Latino immigration by focusing on a single family. The last sentence of the passage might be the most important: "What would I do?" Nazario's goal isn't just to describe her subjects' experiences: she wants to create a dialogue between reader and subject, creating empathy and, perhaps, political change.

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"Then I began to retrace his steps, doing the journey exactly as he had done it a few weeks before. I wanted to see and experience things as he had with the hope of describing them more fully."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique
Page Number: xix
Explanation and Analysis:

Nazario retraces the progress made by Enrique: a young man who tried to enter the United States to see his mother again. Nazario hoped to learn something about the experience of immigration by retracing Enrique's steps. From the beginning, it seems, she conceived of Enrique as a symbol for immigrants in general and from Latin America in particular.

Nazario combines the specificities of Enrique's experience with the breadth of her knowledge as a journalist: in other words, the book we're about to read will be both a look at the life of one immigrant, and the story of the immigration experience as a whole.

"Although I often felt exhausted and miserable, I knew I was experiencing only an iota of what migrant children go through...The journey gave me a glimmer of how hard this is for them."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker)
Page Number: xxii
Explanation and Analysis:

In order to understand Enrique's journey, Nazario literally took the journey herself, walking and traveling through the different parts of Mexico in order to enter America. Nazario isn't trying to say that she underwent as much hardship as Enrique did (that's simply not true), but she does believe that she came to understand his experience a little better by imitating it herself.

Nazario wants to convey the difficulty and the stakes of Enrique's experience to her readers: the novel will give us a snapshot of Enrique's journey not through our own personal experience, but through another's--we'll be able to learn about the hardships he underwent through Nazario's journalism.

1. The Boy Left Behind Quotes

"[Enrique] will remember only one thing that she says to him: 'Don't forget to go to church this afternoon'."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique, Lourdes
Page Number: 5
Explanation and Analysis:

In this passage, Nazario describes some of Enrique's last memories of his mother, leading up the moment when she abandons him and leaves for the United States. Lourdes loves Enrique, but she also needs to find a decent job--thus, she leaves her child and goes to the U.S. Enrique, a little boy at the time, has no idea why his mother is leaving him: from his perspective, she's leaving for no reason. Nazario conveys the senselessness of the abandonment by describing a particularly vivid memory of Enrique's: just before Lourdes left, she told Enrique to go to church. From Lourdes's perspective, the quote is probably insignificant (it's unlikely she remembers it after all these years). But because Enrique misses his mother so intensely, he remembers her words perfectly. The passage is a sign, then, that Enrique continues to long for his mother, even after she leaves him for America: in a way, Lourdes is Enrique's church; the woman who gives his life a purpose and a meaning.

"In their absence, these mothers become larger than life. Although in the United States the women struggle to pay rent and eat, in the imaginations of their children back home they become deliverance itself, the answer to every problem. Finding them becomes the quest for the Holy Grail."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker)
Page Number: 7
Explanation and Analysis:

Enrique's mother is an incredibly important figure: perhaps even more important as an absence than she'd be if she were present in his life. Enrique knows that he's supposed to have a mother; most of his friends do. The fact that he has no mother is such a basic part of his existence--a part that sets him apart from his peers and the rest of his family--that it becomes the source of all his problems (at least in his mind). Whenever everything bad happens to Enrique, he blames it one his lack of a mother. By the same logic, finding his mother becomes the solution to all of Enrique's problems. Because she's not there to take of him, Lourdes becomes a kind of "holy grail," something idealized and longed for, and which Enrique must quest after to achieve.

"This had been his first home, the small stucco house where he and Lourdes lived until Lourdes stepped off the front porch and left. His second home was the wooden shack where he and his father lived with his father's mother, until his father found a new wife and left. His third home was the comfortable house where he lived with his uncle Marco."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique, Lourdes, Luis, Maria Marcos
Page Number: 31
Explanation and Analysis:

In the absence of a mother to take care of him, Enrique finds himself moving from house to house, since his family situation just isn't stable. Although his father is supposed to take care of him, Enrique finds that his father isn't much good at parenting--he seems more interested in remarrying and enjoying himself. As a result, Enrique moves between many different households according to his father's situation: there's no stability in his life. One could say that Enrique is used to traveling and moving around: growing up, he's never able to find "roots" anywhere, which perhaps helps explain why he would choose to journey to the United States.

The passage is tragic because it suggests that Enrique's life is fragmented and twisted because his mother isn't there to take care of him. Enrique knows that a mother is supposed to comfort her children and provide a sense of stability--in the absence of such stability, he gets "thrown around" a lot. 

2. Seeking Mercy Quotes

"When Enrique's mother left, he was a child. Six months ago, the first time he set out to find her, he was still a callow kid. Now he is a veteran of a perilous pilgrimage by children, many of whom come looking for their mothers and travel any way they can."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique, Lourdes
Page Number: 49
Explanation and Analysis:

In this passage, Nazario flashes back to the first time that Enrique tried to meet up with his mother in the United States. Enrique was only a small child, and he didn't get very far; and yet as he's grown older, Enrique has continued to try to journey to America. His love for his mother, and his assuredness that meeting his mother will solve all his problems, is total. One could say that Enrique's coming-of-age is just a steady process of trying to come to America and failing, again and again, until finally he succeeds.

As always Nazario makes it clear that she's not just telling the story of one immigrant, but many: there are thousands of young Enriques trying to come to America to rejoin their beloved families.

"In spite of everything, Enrique has failed again--he will not reach the United States this time, either. He tells himself over and over that he'll just have to try again."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique
Page Number: 60
Explanation and Analysis:

Enrique attempts to enter the United States for the seventh time; he catches a ride from an undercover border patrol officer, who just sends Enrique back to his home town. Enrique is discouraged from entering the U.S. again and again, and yet he keeps telling himself that he'll try again the next day. Enrique's courage and commitment to finding his mother is enormous: he refuses to give up, showing us how important the "stakes" of his travels are.

Enrique's journey to America is important because it symbolizes the journeys that millions of other immigrants have attempted, some successfully, some not. Enrique isn't motivated by crime, greed, or any other material motive: he just wants to see his mother again.

3. Facing the Beast Quotes

"Nearly one in six migrant girls detained by authorities in Texas says she has been sexually assaulted during her journey, according to a 1997 University of Houston study."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker)
Page Number: 78
Explanation and Analysis:

It's difficult for any Latin-American immigrant to enter the United States, but it's particularly difficult for immigrant women to do so. Immigrant women are essentially forced to put their trust in strangers; people whom they hope will treat them with respect on their journey to the U.S. Instead, their "helpers" will often sexually assault them, recognizing that an illegal immigrant can't go the authorities to prosecute a sex criminal.

The passage is a good example of how Nazario situates Enrique's journey within the context of immigration as a whole. Enrique isn't a representative immigrant--because there's no such thing. Thus, Nazario enhances her book by adding information about some of the overall trends in the immigration experience: how immigration is different for women and men, the old and the young, etc.

"At the rate of nearly one every other day, the Red Cross estimates, U.S.-bound Central American migrants who ride freight trains lose arms, legs, hands, or feet."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker)
Page Number: 88
Explanation and Analysis:

One of the most common, and dangerous methods that immigrants use to enter the United States from the south is to ride a freight train. Doing so is extremely risky, because immigrants must ride on the outside of the train, meaning that they're often horribly injured, and can lose arms and legs. It's a testament to the immigrants' desperation that they continue to try to sneak into the country, even to the point where they hurt themselves. Enrique's dedication to entering the United States, in order to see his mother again, is no anomaly among Latino immigrants, as evidenced by the Red Cross's statistics about injuries on the freight trains.

"He was five years old when his mother left him. Now he is almost another person. In the window glass, he sees a battered young man, scrawny and disfigured. It angers him, and it steels his determination to push northward."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique
Page Number: 100
Explanation and Analysis:

Enrique continues to be steadfast in his desire to reach the United States and reunite with his mother. He's changed visibly by his experiences attempting to enter America; his body is hurt, and his mind filled with traumatizing experiences. And yet Enrique never gives up. Even when he's confronted by real, material evidence of the way his journey is destroying his life--his battered reflection in the window glass--he continues with his quest. One could even argue that Enrique becomes more obsessed with entering America after he sees how he's changed. Enrique has sacrificed his present happiness for the sake of reuniting with his mother in the future: he can't give up now, because he has nothing left to lose.

4. Gifts and Faith Quotes

"Somewhere over there lives his mother. She has become a mystery, too. He was so young when she left that he can barely remember what she looks like: curly hair, eyes like chocolate. Her voice is a distant sound on the phone."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique, Lourdes
Page Number: 135
Explanation and Analysis:

The great irony of Enrique's journey is that although he's traveling to reunite with his mother, he can barely remember her: the actual physical evidence he remembers of her is so vague that it could be said to describe all sorts of people. Perhaps it's fair to say that Enrique is as interested in the idea of having a mother as he is in his specific mother's life. Enrique's lack of knowledge of his mother's life shouldn't be taken as a criticism of their relationship: rather, Enrique seems absolutely right to want to reunite with his mother--his actions seem like basic human nature (children want to be with their parents, particularly if they haven't seen their parents in a long time). The difference, of course, is that Enrique, unlike most people in the U.S., has to travel thousands of miles and break various laws in order to see his mother; as a result, his memory of his mother begins to fade, tragically.

5. On the Border Quotes

"Outside the church after dinner, many migrants engage in a crude kind of street therapy: Who has endured the worst riding the trains?"

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker)
Page Number: 146
Explanation and Analysis:

Nazario describes some of the ways that immigrants and other downtrodden people survive their lives without falling into despair. Instead of trying to forget their hardships, the immigrants turn their hardships into entertainment: they make a game out of who endured the worst pain on the trains.

The immigrants' "game" is a powerful survival mechanism, designed to help traumatized, lonely people find a sense of community. The music historian Albert Murray said that the point of the blues isn't to cause sadness: it's to get rid of sadness by singing about it. Much the same could be said of the games the immigrants play: therapeutically, their games rid the immigrants of some of their pain.

"His mother is a stranger...But he can feel her love."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique, Lourdes
Page Number: 178
Explanation and Analysis:

 Enrique is still far away from his mother: he's living in Nuevo Laredo, working to ensure that he has enough money to travel into the United States. Enrique gets a tattoo of his mother's name in order to remind him of his devotion to his mother and provide himself with a constant reminder of his quest to enter the United States. Nazario sums up Enrique's relationship with his mother by saying that, although Lourdes is far away, Enrique can feel her love.

The passage is important because it acknowledges the vast distances between Enrique and his mother--both literal and metaphorical. At the same time, it suggests that it is possible for Enrique to love his mother, despite having never really known her.

6. A Dark River, Perhaps a New Life Quotes

"Children like Enrique dream of finding their mothers and living happily ever after. For weeks, perhaps months, these children and their mothers cling to romanticized notions of how they should feel toward each other. Then reality intrudes."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Enrique, Lourdes
Page Number: 191
Explanation and Analysis:

The tragedy of Enrique's journey, as Nazario has already hint, is that his quest isn't really that meaningful in the end. Enrique risks his life and his freedom in order to reunite with his mother, a woman he doesn't know well. Enrique is sure that meeting with his mother will solve all of his problems: over the years, his mother has become a nearly mystical figure, a "holy grail." Inevitably, then, when Enrique reunites with his mother, he'll be somewhat disappointed: the idea of his reunion will always be more satisfying and perfect than the real thing.

Without any need to idealize their parents, immigrants like Enrique can see their mothers for what they really are: kind, loving people who are nonetheless flawed. Ultimately, then, Enrique's journey is tragic because reality intrudes.

7. The Girl Left Behind Quotes

"'It's like a miracle,' [Lourdes] says. It is as if all the hurt he felt inside had to come out and now he is ready to move on."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Lourdes
Page Number: 235
Explanation and Analysis:

Enrique continues to resent his mother for abandoning him when he was only a young child--even if he understands the harsh economic realities that led her to do so. And yet when he comes to America to live with his mother, he begins to change his relationship with her. As if in revenge, Enrique separates from his mother for a second time: he moves to North Carolina with his friends, voluntarily. Enrique quickly begins to realize that he really does love his mother: he begins to think more about why she left him to come to America.

As Lourdes puts it, Enrique has gone through two "rounds" of pain: the first when Lourdes left him to come to America; the second when he separated from Lourdes to live in North Carolina. Because of these painful separations, Enrique has come to see the truth about Lourdes: she's a kind, loving, but ultimately imperfect woman who tried to do her best to provide for her family, even if that meant abandoning her family. Enrique, it would seem, is ready to move on with his life, instead of dwelling on his love and resentment for his mother. One could say that Enrique's real journey has been psychological, not literal: he's come to see the light about his family situation.

"Maria Isabel does not say goodbye to her daughter. She does not hug her. She gets out of the car and walks briskly into the bus terminal. She does not look back. She never tells her she is going to the United States."

Related Characters: Sonia Nazario (speaker), Maria Isabel, Jasmin
Page Number: 240
Explanation and Analysis:

Maria Isabel is Enrique's girlfriend, and she plans to leave their daughter, Jasmin, to come to the United States--repeating almost exactly the book's opening events. Maria Isabel chooses to leave her daughter because she thinks that she'll stand a better chance of getting to live with her daughter in America later if she goes there alone now. But as the passage shows, Maria's confidence in her plan doesn't make the pain of saying goodbye any less. Rather, Maria can't force herself to say goodbye to her daughter at all: she suppresses her emotions, afraid that if she sees her child one more time, she won't be able to force herself to leave for America after all.

Of course, this passage also mirrors the scene early in the book in which Enrique's mother left Enrique to come to America. The message is clear: abandonment and a flawed immigration system leads to a vicious cycle, in which one fractured family eventually leads to another one down the line.

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Sonia Nazario Character Timeline in Enrique’s Journey

The timeline below shows where the character Sonia Nazario appears in Enrique’s Journey. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Prologue
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario opens the book by describing the moment that inspired her to find Enrique’s story. One... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Carmen explains her story to Nazario, telling her that her husband left her for another woman, that she could not provide... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
...him, arrives unanticipated in Los Angeles after embarking on a journey to reunite with her. Nazario hears about his trip and, following up, learns about the dangers he faced hitchhiking through... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario outlines the changes in immigration to the United States in recent years, with about 700,000... (full context)
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Compassion and Faith Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario decides to learn as much as she can about the treacherous journey that children like... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Compassion and Faith Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario’s plan is to experience for herself the trip that young migrants make to reunite with... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario’s reconstruction of the journey requires her to face serious danger, witnessing the near death of... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Compassion and Faith Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Towards the end of the prologue, Nazario lays out her own background to show the ways that she relates to these stories.... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario ends by describing her awe at the tenacity of the young people who make this... (full context)
2. Seeking Mercy
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
After this episode, Nazario turns the story back six months to when Enrique made his first attempt to travel... (full context)
3. Facing the Beast
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
...one of the main threats that female migrants often encounter and are forced to endure. Nazario cites evidence that one in six female migrants are subject to sexual assault. Finally, Enrique... (full context)
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Compassion and Faith Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario also points out another group of people who do not make it out of Chiapas:... (full context)
4. Gifts and Faith
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Compassion and Faith Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
...At times, even whole communities resist the threats of police in solidarity with the migrants. Nazario recounts an incident in 2000, when drunk police officers shot at migrants and even beat... (full context)
5. On the Border
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
...have been killed by dehydration in the intense heat, or have gotten shot by ranchers. Nazario further details what border security is like. The number of border agents has skyrocketed since... (full context)
6. A Dark River, Perhaps a New Life
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
...Rio Bravo at this location, is dangerous. The current is strong and there are whirlpools. Nazario notes that fifty-four migrants have died this year alone trying to cross the Rio Bravo... (full context)
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario reports that if caught, authorities can deport migrants back to their home countries. First, though,... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario reflects on Enrique's journey and points out that his story is real, not fictional. Though... (full context)
Epilogue
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Not long after Nazario publishes the articles on Enrique’s journey that come to make up this book, the TV... (full context)
Afterword: Women, Children, and the Immigration Debate
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
Nazario ends the book by presenting some more details and data about immigration to the United... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Compassion and Faith Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
...can create life-long problems for children and parents. At the Newcomer School in Los Angeles, Nazario learns about the difficulties that immigrant students face, such as feelings of resentment, abandonment, and... (full context)
Family and Abandonment Theme Icon
Perseverance and Survival Theme Icon
Compassion and Faith Theme Icon
Humanization and Dehumanization  Theme Icon
Immigration  Theme Icon
...the security measures (and incredible dangers) of the journey into the United States. In conclusion, Nazario cites experts who believe that the immigration problem can only be solved by helping bolster... (full context)