Julius Caesar

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Themes and Colors
Manhood and Honor Theme Icon
Logic and Language Theme Icon
Public vs. Private Theme Icon
Politics and Morality Theme Icon
Fate Theme Icon
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Julius Caesar, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Logic and Language Theme Icon

Though there is certainly violence in Julius Caesar, characters spend far more time talking to one another than they do fighting or killing, and much of that talk takes the form of argument and debate. But unlike the arguments we are used to, those in Caesar focus primarily on discerning what is right—what should or must be done—rather than on characters trying to get their way. In Rome, accusing someone of acting in his self-interest, rather than for the good of Rome, is a serious insult. Though ideally this process should involve logic alone, certain characters in Caesar—just as in life—are skilled at manipulating language to make something seem logical when it is not.

This difference materializes most clearly in the arguments between Brutus and Cassius. Brutus—who reluctantly concludes that he must kill Caesar—thinks that his course is dictated by logic, but Cassius—who wants to kill Caesar because he is jealous—has used cunning to convince Brutus. Cassius suggests no direct actions at first, only drops hints, and even the notes he has Cinna throw into Brutus's window contain strategic blank spaces. Though it is Cassius's plan from the beginning, Brutus becomes the first character to explicitly state that Caesar must be killed. Though Brutus is probably the most intelligent character in the play, he is better at using this intelligence to govern his own actions than to control others; the speech he makes to the plebians after the murder is brief and spare, drawing only on logic. Antony, however—who combines the skills of Brutus and Cassius—turns the crowd around with a much more effective speech, involving both logic, emotion, and skillful speaking "tricks" such as visual aids, audience participation, and suspense.

Logic and Language ThemeTracker

The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of Logic and Language appears in each scene of Julius Caesar. Click or tap on any chapter to read its Summary & Analysis.
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Logic and Language Quotes in Julius Caesar

Below you will find the important quotes in Julius Caesar related to the theme of Logic and Language.
Act 1, scene 2 Quotes
But those that understood him smil'd at one another, and shook their heads; but for mine own part, it was Greek to me.
Related Characters: Casca (speaker), Julius Caesar
Related Symbols: Rome
Page Number: 1.2.294-295
Explanation and Analysis:

This line is the origin of the common idiom 'it's all Greek to me.' Caesar and his train have left the stage, leaving only Brutus, Cassius, and Casca, the speaker of this quote. Casca is relating to Brutus and Cassius what happened during the public event while the two were plotting. He explains that the cheers they heard were caused by Antony offering Caesar a crown (three times). A cynic, Casca suggests that it was harder for Caesar to reject the crown each time it was offered. He then describes Caesar's epileptic fit, another infirmity ironically paired with power.

The quote specifically refers to the public speech made in Greek by Cicero, a famous orator. Casca cannot summarize the speech because he doesn't speak Greek. Note that in this scene, Casca speaks in prose, while Brutus and Cassius continue to speak in verse (iambic pentameter), a sign that Casca is less educated and less skilled with Language. The cheering people, the language barrier, and Cicero's public speech in Greek emphasize the growing divide in Rome, and the importance of controlling the public opinion. Public oration and persuading the common people to see a certain viewpoint will become extremely important when Brutus and Antony speak after Caesar's assassination.

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Act 3, scene 2 Quotes
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault;
And grievously hath Caesar answer'd it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest, —
For Brutus is an honorable man;
So are they all, all honorable men, —
Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honorable man.
Related Characters: Mark Antony (speaker), Julius Caesar, Marcus Brutus
Related Symbols: Body, Blood, & Pain, Rome
Page Number: 3.2.82-96
Explanation and Analysis:

This quote is excerpted from one of the most famous speeches in Shakespeare. Brutus has already spoken to the public, beginning with "Romans, countrymen, and lovers." Brutus says that he loved and honored Caesar, but killed him because he loved Rome more. The public responds well, even to the point of wanting to crown Brutus. But Brutus makes the crucial mistake of leaving before Antony speaks. Antony, a powerful orator, makes an incredibly skillful speech in which he appeals to emotion, and turns the public against Brutus and the conspirators.

He begins by referring to the public as his friends, stressing immediately his difference from Brutus. Antony then goes on to "bury Caesar," seeming to respect the wishes of the conspirators but actually reminding the public of their love for Caesar while simultaneously casting doubt on "Brutus and the rest." Antony repeats Brutus's name many times, and ironically suggests that Brutus is "honorable." By using his skill with language and making public displays of his private emotions—at one point he pauses in his speech theatrically because he is overcome with emotion and tears—Antony is able to refute Brutus and turn the populace against him, beginning the civil war he predicted in his soliloquy. He carefully reveals Caesar's will and describes the murder with gruesome detail, even displaying Caesar's bloodied body, until the people are so riled up that they begin to riot. All the while, Antony maintains a show of innocence, claiming that he is a bad speaker and doesn't want to cause a commotion.

Act 4, scene 3 Quotes
Remember March, the ides of March remember:
Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake?
What villain touch'd his body, that did stab,
And not for justice? What, shall one of us
That struck the foremost man of all this world
But for supporting robbers, shall we now
Contaminate our fingers with base bribes,
And sell the mighty space of our large honours
For so much trash as may be grasped thus?
I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon,
Than such a Roman.
Related Characters: Marcus Brutus (speaker), Julius Caesar
Related Symbols: Omens, Body, Blood, & Pain, Rome
Page Number: 4.3.19-29
Explanation and Analysis:

The two sides are preparing their armies, Octavius and Antony against Brutus and Cassius. But Cassius and Brutus are losing trust and getting frustrated with each other. In this quote, Brutus and Cassius are speaking in private: Cassius is mad at Brutus for punishing one of their officers for a small offense, and Brutus is accusing Cassius of taking bribes. Here he evokes the prophesy of the ideas of March and the ideals for which they murdered Caesar: justice, honor, and the good of Rome. Brutus claims that they assassinated Caesar for being corrupt, and that it would be extremely hypocritical for them to be corrupt in turn. A man of honor and principles, especially Roman principles, Brutus claims he would rather be a dog than a hypocritical man.

Like Caesar, who died in part because of his unwillingness to change his principles or sacrifice his self image of invulnerability, Brutus begins to hurt himself by sticking so firmly to his principles. His insistence on being honorable and his firm belief that the killing was purely logical and justifiable is the reason that Antony was allowed to live, despite Cassius's objections. Now Antony has turned the people against the conspirators, and Brutus and Cassius are fighting amongst themselves because of Brutus's stubborn honor.