The Narrative of Frederick Douglass

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Frederick Douglass Character Analysis

Douglass, the Narrative’s author and protagonist, was born a slave in Tuckahoe, Maryland, to a woman named Harriet Bailey. His father was an unknown white man who may have been his master. Douglass begins life belonging to Captain Anthony, who is a steward on Colonel Edward Lloyd’s plantation. Later, Douglass is moved Baltimore to live with Hugh Auld and Sophia Auld, relatives of Anthony’s son-in-law, Thomas Auld. Douglass believes that education is a path to self-emancipation, and for this reason, he teaches himself to read and write in Baltimore. Douglass then suffers as a slave to Thomas Auld, then Edward Covey and, after Covey, William Freeland. Under Freeland, he attempts his first escape, which fails. Throughout his enslavement, Douglass finds that the most religious masters are, hypocritically, often the cruelest to their slaves. Douglass spends his final months of slavery in Baltimore with Hugh, where he learns the trade of caulking ships. Douglass successfully escapes to New York, where he marries Anna Murray, and then makes his way to Massachusetts, where he becomes an antislavery advocate.

Frederick Douglass Quotes in The Narrative of Frederick Douglass

The The Narrative of Frederick Douglass quotes below are all either spoken by Frederick Douglass or refer to Frederick Douglass. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
The Self-Destructive Hypocrisy of Christian Slaveholders Theme Icon
). Note: all page and citation info for the quotes below refers to the Dover Publications edition of The Narrative of Frederick Douglass published in 1995.
Chapter 1 Quotes

“The whisper that my master was my father, may or may not be true; and, true or false, it is of but little consequence to my purpose whilst the fact remains, in all its glaring odiousness, that slaveholders have ordained, and by law established, that the children of slave women shall in all cases follow the condition of their mothers; and this is done too obviously to administer to their own lusts, and make a gratification of their wicked desires profitable as well as pleasurable; for by this cunning arrangement, the slaveholder, in cases not a few, sustains to his slaves the double relation of master and father.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 2
Explanation and Analysis:

When Frederick Douglass introduces himself at the opening of his autobiography, his narrative is already constrained by his slavery; because he is a slave, he has been kept "ignorant" of the fundamental details of his life: the date of his birth, the identity of his father, the personality of his mother. Douglass cannot even begin his story without explaining the "law" and custom which governs interactions among slaveowners and slaves.

Yet Douglass can express his personal reaction to these laws. As Douglass admits the existence of these regulations, he also describes their inherent "odiousness." Douglass even uses the slaveowners' own values and morals to illustrate the immorality of their laws; their rule that slave women's children always become slaves allows slave owners to freely have sexual intercourse with their slave women. Their law permits and fosters their "lust" --  a feeling which leads to sin, according to the slaveowners' own Christian tradition. 

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On watching Captain Anthony whip Aunt Hester: “I remember the first time I ever witnessed this horrible exhibition. I was quite a child, but I well remember it. I never shall forget it whilst I remember any thing. It was the first of a long series of such outrages, of which I was doomed to be a witness and a participant. It struck me with awful force. It was the blood- stained gate, the entrance to the hell of slavery, through which I was about to pass. It was a most terrible spectacle. I wish I could commit to paper the feelings with which I beheld it.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Captain Anthony, Aunt Hester
Related Symbols: The Whipping of Aunt Hester
Page Number: 4
Explanation and Analysis:

As Douglass recalls his life under his first master, he describes how  the overseer Mr. Plummer was "hardened" by his "long life of slaveholding"; slavery damages its slaveholders as well as its slaves. Captain Anthony, the master himself, was such a malicious individual that he whipped Douglass's Aunt Hester, drawing blood and screams from her, until he was too tired to continue. For Douglass, this anecdote is the first of a lifetime's worth. By only detailing one of these whippings, Douglass suggests how the horrors of slavery evade easy comprehension; even readers of his narrative can only ever be partial witnesses to the wholly unChristian and torturous behavior of the individuals who enforce the systems of slavery. 

Chapter 2 Quotes

“The slaves selected to go to the Great House Farm, for the monthly allowance for themselves and their fellow-slaves, were peculiarly enthusiastic. While on their way, they would make the dense old woods, for miles around, reverberate with their wild songs, revealing at once the highest joy and the deepest sadness…I have sometimes thought that the mere hearing of those songs would do more to impress some minds with the horrible character of slavery, than the reading of whole volumes of philosophy on the subject could do.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 8
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass gives a more detailed explanation of his master Lloyd's many properties, which included a home plantation ("the seat of government for the whole twenty farms") and over twenty other farms. Within this description, he also lists slaves' meager monthly and yearly allowances of a little food and clothing; the stark contrast is apparent although Douglass does not directly mention it. He does, however, mention the ways slaves would sing, vibrantly, as they went to the home plantation to collect their provisions and apparel. It is in these human voices, which reflected the "highest joy and deepest sadness," that Douglass locates the "horrible character of slavery." Douglass implies that the cruelty of enslavement can only be expressed in intangible, fleeting human voices and real, personal experiences, which are more removed from his contemporary white reader than the "volumes of philosophy" which Douglass mentions as well. 

“I have often been utterly astonished, since I came to the north, to find persons who could speak of the singing, among slaves, as evidence of their contentment and happiness. It is impossible to conceive of a greater mistake. Slaves sing most when they are most unhappy.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 9
Explanation and Analysis:

After Douglass reflects on the singing which enlivened slaves' walks to the home plantation on allowance day, he briefly stops recounting his experiences in the South to acknowledge the setting in which he writes: the North. He rightly accuses Northerners of misinterpreting slaves' songs; as Douglass explains, slaves do not sing when they are happy, but rather when are unhappy and isolated. Their songs are akin to the songs a man might make while alone on an island; they are communal expressions of sadness and alienation. By reinterpreting slaves' singing, Douglass continues to advocate that Northerners forget their old beliefs about slaves and adopt truer, and often more negative, views of slaves' lives. By changing the ways Northerners perceive little daily events such as songs, Douglass may change the way they understand slavery as a whole. 

Chapter 3 Quotes

On Old Barney and Young Barney: “No excuse could shield them, if the colonel only suspected any want of attention to his horses—a supposition which he frequently indulged, and one which, of course, made the office of old and young Barney a very trying one. They never knew when they were safe from punishment. They were frequently whipped when least deserving, and escaped whipping when most deserving it.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Colonel Edward Lloyd, Old Barney and Young Barney
Related Symbols: Old Barney and Young Barney
Page Number: 10
Explanation and Analysis:

In addition to recounting stories of inhumane cruelty towards slaves, Douglass tells anecdotes in which cruelty was spurred by lies and arbitrary whims. Any slave with tar found on his or her person was accused of attempting to enter the fruit garden (which had a tarred fence). Similarly, the two slaves who took care of Lloyd's excellent horses were often accused of negligence, regardless of whether they neglected Lloyd's horses or not. Their master was able to falsely accuse them of shirking their duties whenever that suited his whims. This story does not only illustrate the uncertainty that plagued slaves' daily lives; it also exposes the falsehoods delivered by slaveowners, and it suggests that Douglass's writing is in a separate moral sphere, one devoted to truth as well as justice.

“…slaves, when inquired of as to their condition and the character of their masters, almost universally say they are contented, and that their masters are kind. The slaveholders have been known to send in spies among their slaves, to ascertain their views and feelings in regard to their condition. The frequency of this has had the effect to establish among the slaves the maxim, that a still tongue makes a wise head. They suppress the truth rather than take the consequences of telling it, and in so doing prove themselves a part of the human family.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 11
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass recounts a story that is "reported of" Colonel Lloyd, admitting that this particular anecdote may be a rumor as he continues to attempt to only express the truth in his narrative. According to this story, Lloyd once met one of his slaves and asked him how he was treated by his master. The slave replied honestly, saying that he was worked too hard and not treated well. Then, a few weeks afterwards, this particular slave was apparently sold to a slave-trader in Georgia, forever severed from his family and friends. This demonstrates how slaves were treated when they told the truth. 

After this anecdote, Douglass explains that many slaves must lie when they are asked how they are doing; they claim that their master treats them kindly because they are afraid of such punishment. This illustrates how the sins of slave-owners compound; slaves are forced into morally questionable activities (perhaps the least of which is simple lying) because of the way their owners are allowed to treat them.

Chapter 4 Quotes

“I speak advisedly when I say this,—that killing a slave, or any colored person, in Talbot county, Maryland, is not treated as a crime, either by the courts or the community.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Related Symbols: Demby
Page Number: 14
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass relates how another overseer, the solemn young man Mr. Gore, shot the slave Demby while Demby was submerging himself in a creek, in an attempt to assuage his pain after receiving wounds from the whip. Just as Mr. Gore coldly completed this murder, Lloyd calmly accepted it; Gore claimed that Demby was setting a dangerous example of uncontrollable conduct for the other slaves, and Lloyd determined that this explanation justified the murder. After presenting this specific instance, Douglass reminds the reader that such murders are not considered murders in Maryland -- "courts" as well as the "community" equally allow slaveowners to kill a slave without consequences. This simple description of the legal and social situation is thus grounded in a particular incident, allowing the reader to realize the emotional and powerful force of such law and social custom. 

Chapter 5 Quotes

“The ties that ordinarily bind children to their homes were all suspended in my case. I found no severe trial in my departure. My home was charmless; it was not home to me; on parting from it, I could not feel that I was leaving any thing which I could have enjoyed by staying…I looked for home elsewhere, and was confident of finding none which I should relish less than the one which I was leaving.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 17
Explanation and Analysis:

Although Douglas begins Chapter 5 by describing his special relationship to his master -- who served as a sort of "protector" to him and felt particularly attached to him because Douglass helped Lloyd find the birds he shot -- we quickly realize that Douglass was as deprived of domestic attachments as many slave children were. Indeed, when Douglass left his "home," he felt that it was not actually a home; he found he could not imagine a worse one. Slaves such as Douglass were not only deprived of material comforts and freedom, but rather they were also deprived of familial experiences which others may take for granted, and which Douglass only retrospectively realizes he was missing as a slave. Douglass here removes Northerners' mistaken perceptions that slaves could enjoy their lives despite the hardships and build supportive attachments to the spaces of their enslavement; their songs were not songs of joy, and their living spaces were not homes.  

“From my earliest recollection, I date the entertainment of a deep conviction that slavery would not always be able to hold me within its foul embrace; and in the darkest hours of my career in slavery, this living word of faith and spirit of hope departed not from me, but remained like ministering angels to cheer me through the gloom. This good spirit was from God, and to him I offer thanksgiving and praise.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 19
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass reflects that he was the only slave child to be sent to Baltimore -- he was "the first, last, and only choice." Ever dedicated to the truth, Douglass admits that he interprets this choice as an act of Providence in his favor. Douglass feels that God sent him faith and hope that he would be removed from slavery. According to Douglass, he was divinely ordained to be freed from slavery -- and, perhaps, to share his former experiences as a slave with the rest of humanity. Douglass implies that his narrative was inspired by God; it is grounded in the Christian faith, the faith which many of his readers claim. As a good Christian (and unlike the hypocritical "Christian" slaveowners), Douglass then directly offers "thanksgiving and praise" to God, and this act reveals a piety which might allow many of his readers to connect with him as well as his mission.

Chapter 6 Quotes

On Sophia Auld’s transformation of character: “But, alas! this kind heart had but a short time to remain such. The fatal poison of irresponsible power was already in her hands, and soon commenced its infernal work. That cheerful eye, under the influence of slavery, soon became red with rage; that voice, made all of sweet accord, changed to one of harsh and horrid discord; and that angelic face gave place to that of a demon.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Sophia Auld
Page Number: 19
Explanation and Analysis:

Although Douglass' next mistress, Sophia Auld, initially appeared to be a virtuous slave owner ("of the kindest heart and finest feelings"), her quick transformation demonstrates that virtuous slave owners hardly exist for long; the mere fact of owning a slave causes individuals to become cruel ("red with rage," or with "harsh and horrid discord," like a "demon"). Essentially, slavery destroys slaveowners as well as slaves (although in a less physical and extreme way, of course), proving the adage that "absolute power corrupts absolutely." Yet Douglass does not begrudge Auld for this; he pities her, introducing his description of her new temperament with "But, alas!" He refrains from accusatory language, revealing his own moral goodness while also indicating that he is more antagonistic towards slavery itself than towards slave-owning individuals.

“I now understood what had been to me a most perplexing difficulty—to wit, the white man’s power to enslave the black man… The very decided manner with which he spoke, and strove to impress his wife with the evil consequences of giving me instruction, served to convince me that he was deeply sensible of the truths he was uttering… and the argument which he so warmly urged, against my learning to read, only served to inspire me with a desire and determination to learn. In learning to read, I owe almost as much to the bitter opposition of my master, as to the kindly aid of my mistress. I acknowledge the benefit of both.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Hugh Auld, Sophia Auld
Page Number: 20
Explanation and Analysis:

Shortly after arriving in Baltimore, Mrs. Auld begins to teach Douglass how to read. She only is able to explain up to "words of three or four letters," however, before Mr. Auld learns about this endeavor and forbids Mrs. Auld from continuing. In his vehement declaration that Douglass must not become literate, Mr. Auld unwittingly provides Douglass with the most useful lesson of all: literacy is the key to freedom. Through denying slaves the right to read or write, slaveowners deprive slaves of the knowledge they need to attain freedom from their bondage. Most slaves cannot realize this, however, because few slaveowners describe this phenomenon as directly as Mr. Auld did when he found Mrs. Auld teaching Douglass. This explains why Douglass has uniquely been able to attain literacy, which suggests that Douglass is a genuine representation of all slaves. In his wisdom, Douglass reveals the particular reason for his triumph, as well as crediting both Mr. and Mrs. Auld.

Chapter 7 Quotes

On reading The Columbian Orator: “The moral which I gained from the dialogue was the power of truth over the conscience of even a slaveholder.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Related Symbols: The Columbian Orator
Page Number: 24
Explanation and Analysis:

After Douglass managed to learn to read, through piecing together lessons in the street from various white children ("hungry little urchins") whom he gave bread, he becomes fascinated with the book The Columbian Orator. This text includes a variety of "interesting matter," especially a dialogue between a slaveowner and slave which displays the slave's intelligence and eloquence (through "smart" and "impressive" remarks) and results in the slave's emancipation. For Douglass, this conversation gives voice to sentiments inside himself; it articulates his feeling that he craves and deserves freedom and liberty. The slave in this dialogue also serves as a model for Douglass: he speaks the "truth" in order to exert power and contradict his owner's seemingly guiltless yet morally culpable "conscience." Douglass will echo this achievement in his own narrative.

“The reading of these documents enabled me to utter my thoughts, and to meet the arguments brought forward to sustain slavery; but while they relieved me of one difficulty, they brought on another even more painful than the one of which I was relieved. The more I read, the more I was led to abhor and detest my enslavers. I could regard them in no other light than a band of successful robbers, who had left their homes, and gone to Africa, and stolen us from our homes, and in a strange land reduced us to slavery.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Related Symbols: The Columbian Orator
Page Number: 24
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass explains that he read certain passages of The Columbian Orator many times, such as the dialogue between slave and master and Sheridan's speech about Catholic emancipation, and he analyzes how these readings affected him in multiple ways. Yes, they allowed him to articulate his innate sentiments in opposition to slavery and replaced his ignorance with understanding; they also, however, made him gain additional feelings -- of hostility and even hatred towards the slaveowners that he came to "abhor" and "detest." As these readings allowed Douglass to truthfully come to terms with his condition as slave, the truth threatened Douglass' moral virtue (making him loathe his slaveowners as much as he deplored his own position) although it also allowed him to develop his abolitionist perspective and argument. In learning the "truth," Douglass not only works towards his own freedom and that of others, but also must accept the harsh reality that even the "kindest" of slaveowners are complicit in an impossibly evil institution.

“As I writhed under it, I would at times feel that learning to read had been a curse rather than a blessing. It had given me a view of my wretched condition, without the remedy. It opened my eyes to the horrible pit, but to no ladder upon which to get out. In moments of agony, I envied my fellow-slaves for their stupidity. I have often wished myself a beast.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Related Symbols: The Columbian Orator
Page Number: 24
Explanation and Analysis:

As Douglass continues to reflect on the way The Columbian Orator influenced his development, he more directly articulates the negative aspects of realizing the truth about his position (his "wretched condition") as a slave. After reading the work, had a more refined perspective, but still lacked the political or social means to improve his circumstance. He began to have a liminal sort of existence; he was still a slave, but he saw the ignorance (what he called the "stupidity") of his "fellow" slaves, which prevented him from fully belonging to their community. He even wished he was a "beast," feeling that it would be better to live ignorant of the full evils of his position than to be aware of them and still unable to change them.

Chapter 8 Quotes

“We were all ranked together at the valuation. Men and women, old and young, married and single, were ranked with horses, sheep, and swine. There were horses and men, cattle and women, pigs and children, all holding the same rank in the scale of being, and were all subjected to the same narrow examination…at this moment, I saw more clearly than ever the brutalizing effects of slavery upon both slave and slaveholder.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 27
Explanation and Analysis:

Shortly after Douglass arrives in Baltimore, his first master dies without a proper will. All of his first master's property must therefore be valued, in order to determine how this property can be equally divided between the master's children, Andrew and Lucretia. As one piece of this extensive evaluation process, Douglass is called back to Baltimore. This suggests the power of slavery; masters can control a slave's actions even when this slave now belongs to someone else. Masters exert influence in their death, as in their life.

This anecdote also underscores how Douglass, like all of his fellow slaves, is treated as a mere piece of property; slaveowners have "horses and men, cattle and women, pigs and children, all holding the same rank in the scale of being." When a man owns a slave, he treats a fellow human being like an animal, without engaging in any kind of shared humanity. In this way, slavery is "brutalizing" for "both slave and slaveholder." Douglass harnesses a striking visual -- an immense gathering of creatures and people -- to make memorable this structural criticism of the practice of slavery.

“at this time, this most needful time, the time for the exercise of that tenderness and affection which children only can exercise towards a declining parent—my poor old grandmother, the devoted mother of twelve children, is left all alone, in yonder little hut, before a few dim embers. She stands—she sits—she staggers—she falls—she groans—she dies—and there are none of her children or grandchildren present, to wipe from her wrinkled brow the cold sweat of death, or to place beneath the sod her fallen remains. Will not a righteous God visit for these things?”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Betsy Bailey
Page Number: 29
Explanation and Analysis:

Soon after Douglass' first master dies, his children die as well, which causes all of his slaves to be divided from each other and their familial bonds, "in the hands of strangers." Douglass implies that his grandmother is treated the worst, however; she is sent to a desolate hut in the woods, to supposedly provide for herself for the rest of her days. Just as her present owners fail to acknowledge her present state (she has no hope of caring for herself, in her enfeebled condition), they also fail to recognize her prior experiences. She not only took care of her master throughout his life, but she also brought him a fair portion of his wealth: her children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. 

Douglass can only imagine how his "poor old" grandmother spent her last moments in "yonder little hut." He briefly lists the possibilities ("she stands—she sits—she staggers—she falls—she groans—she dies"), in order to fictionally be present with his grandmother, and to give at least a posthumous audience to her isolated suffering. Once again he appeals to the justice and truth of God, and wonders how he could allow such things to take place.

Chapter 9 Quotes

“A great many times have we poor creatures been nearly perishing with hunger, when food in abundance lay mouldering in the safe and smoke-house, and our pious mistress was aware of the fact; and yet that mistress and her husband [Rowena Hamilton and Thomas Auld] would kneel every morning, and pray that God would bless them in basket and store!”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Captain Thomas Auld, Rowena Hamilton
Page Number: 31
Explanation and Analysis:

While Douglass was living at St. Michael's, he and the other three slaves were each only allowed to eat "less than a half of a bushel of corn-meal" each week. As this depressingly exact description suggests, Douglass and the others were deprived of the variety and quantity of food necessary to comfortably sustain an individual. Yet, as they worked in this household, they were surrounded by abundance ("in the safe and the smoke-house"), and they were able to observe their owners' greedy and hypocritical prayers for further prosperity. Unlike slaves who work the fields, these slaves were in direct daily contact with their owners, and so could see the stark realities of their masters' hypocrisy.

“In August, 1832, my master attended a Methodist camp-meeting held in the Bay-side, Talbot county, and there experienced religion…if it had any effect on his character, it made him more cruel and hateful in all his ways; for I believe him to have been a much worse man after his conversion than before. Prior to his conversion, he relied upon his own depravity to shield and sustain him in his savage barbarity; but after his conversion, he found religious sanction and support for his slaveholding cruelty.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Captain Thomas Auld
Page Number: 32
Explanation and Analysis:

As Douglass continues to describe his experiences under the service of Thomas Auld at St. Michael's, he describes how "adopted slaveholders" such as Auld, who acquired their slaves later in life through means such as marriage, were actually the worst sort. A similar contradiction applies for religious slaveholders; when Auld "experienced religion," this actually made him a more cruel (and, thus, less Christian) owner. Here, Douglass continues to unpack the paradoxes of slavery that might be unapparent to a reader in and from the North, as he also elicits questions about the significance of religion as a kind of "experience" rather than a doctrine, and as a phenomenon that is adapted to suit one's other interests and ideas. Douglass illustrates how fellowship, in particular contexts such as the religious communities which Auld joins, can paradoxically breed harshness and cruelty.

Douglass also provides the example of Mr. Wilson's "little Sabbath school," a religious undertaking which did indeed provide religious comforts to those in need (particularly, the slaves at St. Michael's). In dong so, Douglass situates the cruelty of slaveowners with slavery, not merely with religion. He is a Christian himself, but condemns the use of Christianity to uphold and justify slavery.

Chapter 10 Quotes

“If at any one time of my life more than another, I was made to drink the bitterest dregs of slavery, that time was during the first six months of my stay with Mr. Covey…I was broken in body, soul, and spirit. My natural elasticity was crushed, my intellect languished, the disposition to read departed, the cheerful spark that lingered about my eye died; the dark night of slavery closed in upon me; and behold a man transformed into a brute!”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Edward Covey
Page Number: 37
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass then works as a field hand for Mr. Covey, his most brutal master yet. Under Covey's demanding, and often furtive, watch, Douglass and his fellow slaves are relegated to a life of "work, work, work." Douglass claims that even his innate intellectual curiosity is extinguished under this man's control, as Douglass loses his passion for literacy also with his optimistic outlook. Furthermore, he feels himself fundamentally broken, transformed from a man into a "brute" -- essentially experiencing the underlying project of slavery itself (the dehumanization of an entire race of people). Yet Douglass also describes how, during this period of his life, he would often deliver "an apostrophe to the moving multitude of ships" -- eloquent declarations about freedom and bondage that serve as tribute to his enduring human spirit. 

“This battle with Mr. Covey was the turning-point in my career as a slave. It rekindled the few expiring embers of freedom, and revived within me a sense of my own manhood…My long-crushed spirit rose, cowardice departed, bold defiance took its place; and I now resolved that, however long I might remain a slave in form, the day had passed forever when I could be a slave in fact. I did not hesitate to let it be known of me, that the white man who expected to succeed in whipping, must also succeed in killing me.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker), Edward Covey
Page Number: 43
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass experiences a "glorious resurrection ... to the heaven of freedom" during his time under Mr. Covey's watch. One hot August afternoon, at the Biblically significant time of 3pm (the same time of Christ's crucifixion), Douglass finally loses his physical strength. When he is whipped by Mr. Covey, as expected, he decides to complain to his master about Mr. Covey's behavior -- which he later does. On his way back from his master's house (his journey after complaining to his master), Douglass receives a superstitious root from the slave Sandy Jenkins. The root seems to prevent Douglass from being beaten; as Douglass carries it, Mr. Covey speaks to him kindly. Then, the next day, when Mr. Covey attempts to whip Douglass, Douglass engages in a physical combat with Mr. Covey.

Douglass successfully fights Covey off; they brawl, and Covey does not whip Douglass as he intends to do. With this physical victory, Douglass has reclaimed his "manhood." He is a slave in "form," but not in "fact." He has taken one step towards freedom, and this progression begins to suggest how complicated and difficult the process to attaining freedom must be -- it doesn't just mean physically escaping the South, but also rebuilding one's identity as a human being in full possession of one's self.

“For of all slaveholders with whom I have ever met, religious slaveholders are the worst. I have ever found them the meanest and basest, the most cruel and cowardly, of all others.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 46
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass moves on January first, 1934, and then comes under the control of William Freeland, who replaces Covey. In Douglass's estimation, Freeland is not as nefarious as Covey; he does not maintain a pretense of Christian piety, which serves as a protective barrier (a "dark shelter") which can most powerfully cover "the darkest, foulest, grossest, and most infernal deeds of slaveholders." Here, Douglass redefines who the worst slaveowners are; they are not merely "adopted slaveowners," who receive slaves later in life, but they are the Christian owners who attempt to justify their deeds (the most foul actions) with the covering of hypocritical piety.

“I held my Sabbath school at the house of a free colored man, whose name I deem it imprudent to mention; for should it be known, it might embarrass him greatly, though the crime of holding the school was committed ten years ago. I had at one time over forty scholars, and those of the right sort, ardently desiring to learn…I look back to those Sundays with an amount of pleasure not to be expressed. They were great days to my soul. The work of instructing my dear fellow-slaves was the sweetest engagement with which I was ever blessed.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 48
Explanation and Analysis:

While working for Freeland, Douglass begins to share his literary experience (and the knowledge and freedom which these experiences provide him) with his "dear fellow-slaves." This, more than any other item Douglass has shared, most effectively captures how Douglass's ability to read and write is not exceptional, and all slaves deserve the treatment which Douglass receives as a freed man.

Yet, even as Douglass reveals the events of this "Sabbath school" (a school which spreads Douglass's gifts with others in Christian fellowship), Douglass captures the still-present need for secrecy. He reluctantly refrains from revealing the freed man who hosted these literary sessions (despite his usual commitment to total truth), emphasizing how slaves are still struggling under social structures which restrain the improvement of their circumstance.

Chapter 11 Quotes

“The impression which I had received respecting the character and condition of the people of the north, I found to be singularly erroneous. I had very strangely supposed, while in slavery, that few of the comforts, and scarcely any of the luxuries, of life were enjoyed at the north, compared with what were enjoyed by the slaveholders of the south…The people looked more able, stronger, healthier, and happier, than those of Maryland. I was for once made glad by a view of extreme wealth, without being saddened by seeing extreme poverty.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 66-67
Explanation and Analysis:

After Douglass arrives in New Bedford, he receives his name ("Douglass") from Nathan Johnson and realizes that many of his impressions about Northerners were wrong. Douglass explains that, previously, he believed that because Northerners lacked slaves, they must also have lacked the luxury and comforts enjoyed by Southerners. He is surprised, however, by the profound well-being of Northern people, which seems to even surpass that of Southerners.

This indicates that slavery is indeed not essential to economic or other sorts of prosperity, thus mitigating an enduring, implicit argument in favor of slavery. It also suggests that an individual's perspective can easily be misguided; Douglass indirectly implies that Northerners' opinions about Southerners might be as wrong as his own prior opinions about Northerners. 

“The [Liberator] paper became my meat and my drink. My soul was set all on fire. Its sympathy for my brethren in bonds—its scathing denunciations of slaveholders—its faithful exposures of slavery—and its powerful attacks upon the upholders of the institution—sent a thrill of joy through my soul, such as I had never felt before!”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 69
Explanation and Analysis:

Following his move to New Bedford, Douglass has another literary discovery: The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper. Just as The Columbian Orator spurred Douglass's individual development and honed his personal beliefs against slavery, The Liberator fosters Douglass's impulse to support and participate in the abolitionist movement. First, reading brought personal convictions to Douglass; now, it allows him to share in the collective convictions which encouraged him to write this narrative at all. Finally, we see literature's power to connect individuals in the pursuit of justice -- the very power which Douglass is relying on in this narrative. Finally, Douglass's sympathy for the fellowship of all slaves merges with the broader social project and progress of the abolitionist movement.

Appendix Quotes

“What I have said respecting and against religion, I mean strictly to apply to the slaveholding religion of this land, and with no possible reference to Christianity proper; for, between the Christianity of this land, and the Christianity of Christ, I recognize the widest possible difference—so wide, that to receive the one as good, pure, and holy, is of necessity to reject the other as bad, corrupt, and wicked.”

Related Characters: Frederick Douglass (speaker)
Page Number: 71
Explanation and Analysis:

Douglass provides an Appendix here in order to clarify certain points which he feels he may have misrepresented in his narrative. Firstly, he comments on religion; as a Christian man himself, Douglass clarifies that he is not against Christianity, but is only opposed to the hypocritical form of Christianity common among slaveowners. After the narrative proper, Douglass directly praises Christian doctrine itself -- as "good, pure, and holy," and as essential to life. He thus aligns his narrative with the Christian audience from the North, allying himself to his likely audience through the medium of religion, while also avoiding any criticisms that he is "unchristian" because of his condemnation of religious slaveowners. Indeed, this critique of people who twist and corrupt religion for their own cruel purposes is one of the most enduring lessons of Douglass's narrative.

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Frederick Douglass Character Timeline in The Narrative of Frederick Douglass

The timeline below shows where the character Frederick Douglass appears in The Narrative of Frederick Douglass. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 1
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Douglass was born in Tuckahoe, Maryland. Like most slaves, he does not know when he was... (full context)
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Douglass’s mother is named Harriet Bailey, and his father is an unknown white man rumored to... (full context)
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Because of his separation from his mother, and her untimely death, Douglass has no idea who his father is. Ultimately, this fact makes little difference, since slaveholders... (full context)
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If this mulatto population keeps growing, Douglass observes that slavery will no longer be able to persist under its so-called biblical justification,... (full context)
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Douglass has had two masters. The first was a sailor from the Chesapeake named Captain Anthony.... (full context)
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...whipped by Anthony for spending time with a slave from a nearby plantation, named Ned. Douglass remembers that Hester was very attractive. Anthony seems to be jealous of her spending time... (full context)
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Fearful that he may be next, the young Douglass hides in a closet after witnessing the whipping. This was his first real glimpse of... (full context)
Chapter 2
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...qualms whipping a slave bloody in front of her own children. He died soon after Douglass arrived at Colonel Lloyd’s. Severe was replaced by the less sadistic Mr. Hopkins, who was... (full context)
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...their way to the farm, they sang incoherent-seeming songs of woe and prayer that filled Douglass with an inexpressible sorrow whenever he heard them. To Douglass, these songs indicate the dehumanizing... (full context)
Chapter 3
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...slaves receive a whipping regardless of whether or not they could have controlled the problems. Douglass has even seen Old Barney, a sixty-year-old man, forced to kneel and receive thirty lashes.... (full context)
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...was sold to a Georgia trader as punishment for his truthful responses. This, according to Douglass, is the sort of fate that befalls any slave who speaks truthfully. (full context)
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...is considered better to suppress the truth than to face the consequences of telling it. Douglass himself remembers lying about his happiness when asked. (full context)
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...better than others’, and will sometimes fight amongst themselves about the goodness of their masters. Douglass writes that “it was considered as being bad enough to be a slave; but to... (full context)
Chapter 4
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...prideful, and he can twist any action into a punishable act of impudence. According to Douglass, Gore lives by the maxim, “It is better that a dozen slaves should suffer under... (full context)
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Douglass observes that killing a black person, slave or free, is not treated as a crime... (full context)
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Lastly, Douglass recounts the story of Colonel Lloyd’s neighbor, Mr. Beal Bondly, who killed one of Lloyd’s... (full context)
Chapter 5
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While a child on Colonel Lloyd’s plantation, Douglass wasn’t subjected to much hard labor, and only had to perform a few chores. He... (full context)
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At age seven or eight, Douglass is sent away from the Lloyd plantation in order to live in Baltimore with Mr.... (full context)
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On the boat ride over to Baltimore, Douglass stops in Annapolis, the state capital. He is awed by the city’s size, though he... (full context)
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Douglass arrives in Baltimore and is taken to his new home in Fells Point, near a... (full context)
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To Douglass, his move to Baltimore laid the foundations for his freedom. He believes it quite possible... (full context)
Chapter 6
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Sophia Auld is, at first, everything Douglass expected her to be. Her dedication to her trade as a weaver has left her... (full context)
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However, Mrs. Auld is soon warped by the corrupting power of owning slaves. After Douglass moves in, she generously begins teaching him his ABC’s, but just as Douglass is beginning... (full context)
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Mr. Auld’s words affect Douglass deeply, and he realizes that Mr. Auld’s exhortations against educating slaves must mean that learning... (full context)
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In Baltimore, Douglass notices that slaves are treated much more humanely, and live almost like freemen. City-dwelling slaveholders... (full context)
Chapter 7
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Douglass spends seven years living with Master Hugh’s family. During this time, he manages to teach... (full context)
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Douglass observes that slavery has harmed mistress Sophia Auld as much as it has damaged him.... (full context)
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Sophia's efforts to stifle Douglass’s education fall short, because Douglass is determined to educate himself. His most successful ploy is... (full context)
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After Douglass learns to read, he comes across two books that he reads over and over. The... (full context)
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While Douglass’s reading brings him an intellectual means of confronting his enslavement, it also forces him to... (full context)
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Douglass becomes miserable, and begins to regret his existence and wish himself dead. Meanwhile, he listens... (full context)
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Douglass encounters two Irish dockworkers, who sympathize with his life of enslavement and encourage him to... (full context)
Chapter 8
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When Douglass is roughly ten or eleven, his old master, Captain Anthony, dies. Douglass is summoned back... (full context)
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Because Douglass knows what it is like to be treated kindly, the evaluation makes him even more... (full context)
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Shortly after Douglass returns to Baltimore, his mistress, Lucretia, dies. Soon after, Master Andrew dies as well. The... (full context)
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...a woman named Rowena Hamilton. Thomas and Hugh have a falling-out, and as a consequence, Douglass is taken from Hugh and sent to live with Thomas in St. Michael’s, a town... (full context)
Chapter 9
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At this point, Douglass can now give accurate dates when describing his experience. He left Baltimore and arrived at... (full context)
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...of 1932, Thomas Auld goes to a Methodist camp-meeting and returns with strong religious faith. Douglass hopes that this faith might make Thomas emancipate his slaves, or at least treat them... (full context)
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...house, and eat well while the slaves starve. However, not all of the white people Douglass meets are unkind: one of the preachers, Mr. Cookman, is sympathetic to the slaves, and... (full context)
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Douglass and Master Thomas do not get along, because Thomas thinks Douglass’s city upbringing has made... (full context)
Chapter 10
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On January 1st, 1833, Douglass leaves Master Thomas’s to work as a field hand for Mr. Covey. Douglass’s city upbringing... (full context)
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During Douglass’s first six months living with Covey, he was whipped roughly once a week. Covey works... (full context)
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...fieldwork. Covey often sings hymns with his family, but is not a strong reader, and Douglass is usually required to read the hymns. However, Douglass often refuses, which unsettles Covey, and... (full context)
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Douglass is broken by his six months with Covey. He is forced to work in every... (full context)
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Covey’s house is on the Chesapeake Bay, and Douglass’s regular sight of the far-ranging ships in the harbor makes him fearful and sad about... (full context)
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While fanning wheat for Covey in August of 1833, Douglass collapses from heat exhaustion and is unable to continue working. Covey hits Douglass and demands... (full context)
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Douglass spends the night in St. Michael’s, and returns to Covey’s the next day. He sees... (full context)
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The next day, Sunday, Douglass returns to Covey’s carrying the root on his right side. On his way back, he... (full context)
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The fight with Covey renews Douglass’s self-confidence and his desire to be free, and he experiences a satisfaction that could only... (full context)
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Douglass is at first surprised that Covey doesn’t have him whipped by a constable. Douglass theorizes... (full context)
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Douglass’s year of service to Mr. Covey ends on Christmas Day of 1833. Slaves are given... (full context)
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On January 1st, 1834, Douglass is sent to live with William Freeland, who lives near St. Michael’s. Freeland is a... (full context)
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Mr. Freeland treats Douglass more fairly than Covey did, giving his slaves both enough to eat and enough time... (full context)
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Douglass passes a relatively easy year with Mr. Freeland. He attributes some of his comfort to... (full context)
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It is important to Douglass to convince his fellow slaves to escape with him. They meet frequently to plan their... (full context)
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Douglass’s escape plan involves his group of slaves paddling a canoe up the Chesapeake to reach... (full context)
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On the day the slaves had planned to flee, Douglass goes to work as usual. However, he is overcome with an inexplicable feeling of betrayal.... (full context)
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...appraise and demean the imprisoned slaves. After some time in jail, all the slaves except Douglass are taken home; this separation pains Douglass dearly. Douglass believes that he will be the... (full context)
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While languishing in jail, Douglass abandons hope. His master, Thomas Auld, announces plans to send him to Alabama. However, Thomas... (full context)
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When Douglass arrives in Baltimore, he is apprenticed to a ship-builder named William Gardner, who will teach... (full context)
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Douglass returns to Master Hugh that day, and Sophia cares for his wounds. Hugh is outraged... (full context)
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With no chance for redress, Hugh nurses Douglass back to health in his home, and then apprentices the slave to another caulker, Mr.... (full context)
Chapter 11
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Douglass introduces this chapter as a description of his successful escape. However, he says that he... (full context)
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Douglass also expresses his frustration with the very public way in which the underground railroad—a network... (full context)
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In 1838, Douglass grew dissatisfied with forfeiting all of his earnings to Master Hugh. Sometimes, Hugh would let... (full context)
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Master Thomas comes to Baltimore, and Douglass requests that he be allowed to work for pay. Thomas refuses this request, and tells... (full context)
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After a few months of this arrangement, Douglass neglects to pay Hugh his weekly tribute on time because he has gone to spend... (full context)
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After this confrontation, Douglass decides to attempt an escape on the third of September. He works extremely diligently in... (full context)
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Douglass has mixed feelings about escaping, because he will be forced to part with the beloved... (full context)
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Douglass reaches New York City on September third, and initially feels great relief. However, this relief... (full context)
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Fortunately, Douglass is aided by a free black abolitionist and journalist, Mr. David Ruggles, who takes the... (full context)
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Douglass and his new wife board a steamboat for Newport, Rhode Island. Despite having no money... (full context)
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Douglass begins to feel safe with Johnson. Douglass realizes that the name he had picked for... (full context)
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The comfort and splendor of life in New Bedford astounds Douglass, because he didn’t think such prosperity would have been possible without owning slaves. He had... (full context)
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On his third day in town, Douglass finds work loading oil onto a ship. He is unable to make use of his... (full context)
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After a few months spent in New Bedford, Douglass begins to read the Liberator, the abolitionist newspaper run by William Lloyd Garrison. Douglass becomes... (full context)
Appendix
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Douglass realizes that his tone in the body of his narrative may have resembled a condemnation... (full context)
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Douglass condemns the hypocrisy of so-called Christians who brutally beat slaves, use them for prostitution, disband... (full context)