After the Race


James Joyce

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After the Race Symbols


Cars in “After the Race” represent industrial and economic power, the era’s obsession with achieving this power, and how industrial and economic might is possessed by several western European and North American countries, but not…

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The Race

The automobile race that occurs just before the events of the story symbolizes the international capitalistic competition for industrial and economic power in which Ireland is used by other countries but does not actually compete…

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The Card Game

The card game’s symbolism is two-fold. On one hand, it represents that, in international competition, Ireland will lose. The game also represents the recklessness of the Irish upper-class, as well as this class’s selfish and…

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