The Hound of the Baskervilles

by

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Our Teacher Edition on The Hound of the Baskervilles can help.

The Power of Reason Theme Analysis

Themes and Colors
The Power of Reason Theme Icon
Strong Women Theme Icon
Natural vs. Supernatural Theme Icon
Criminal Nature vs. Criminal Nurture Theme Icon
The Superiority of Urban Life Theme Icon
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Hound of the Baskervilles, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
The Power of Reason Theme Icon

Perhaps no character in the history of literature is so endowed with pure reason as is Sherlock Holmes. His fictional prowess is such that both his first and last name have been turned into adjectives (Sherlockian, Holmesian) used to describe people of unusual perceptiveness and reasoning. While Holmes is a character with a real-life inspiration—Arthur Conan Doyle’s college professor Joseph Bell—he is also a product of the optimism of Doyle’s time, which had an increasing sense that the rationality of science would one day be able to explain all of life’s mysteries. In Holmes, Doyle creates a character who embodies this belief, with Holmes’ success at detective work suggesting that reason has the ability to cut through not only natural mysteries, like alleged hauntings, but also the criminal mysteries that man creates through his subterfuge and cunning—if one can only overcome the emotions that tend to cloud that reason.

From his introduction, Holmes shows how much information is available to a thinking, logical man if he only chooses to look for it. For instance, when Watson and Holmes discover they’ve missed a caller at Baker Street, Holmes is able to deduce the name of the caller (Dr. Mortimer), his age, his occupation, where he lives, and even what pets he owns from the walking stick that Mortimer left behind. Holmes accomplishes this through careful consideration of all of the elements of the walking stick—its dedicatory plaque, how worn it is, where it’s been chewed on—coupled with a consideration of what might reasonably be deduced from those elements. When Watson attempts this, his deductions prove all wrong, because he has failed to take into consideration all of the facts. Instead, Watson crafts a fanciful, even emotional, story featuring what he imagines about the owner. Watson’s attempts only use some of the facts, and he makes emotional deductions that aren’t supported by evidence—such as when he imagines Mortimer to be a bumbling old country doctor. This reliance on emotion, rather than reason, leads Watson astray.

A similar conflict between reason and rationality occurs when Holmes and Watson are forced to confront the possibility of a supernatural explanation for the death of Sir Charles Baskerville. The (quite understandable) emotions that the inhabitants of Baskerville Hall and Dr. Watson feel about a hellhound stalking them blind them to the empirical realities of that hound. That is, the dog leaves very real footprints, and its demonstrably real howl—that of a regular, and not otherworldly, dog—is heard throughout the moor. An eminently rational man, Holmes knows that such physical traces must come from a physical animal. Indeed, when the animal finally makes its attempt on Sir Henry Baskerville, Holmes is the first to shoot it, because he knows that—rationally—an animal that has the physical body needed to leave footprints in the moor also has a physical body that can be brought down by bullets. The others simply stand in terror. Similarly, Holmes is the first to recognize that the beast does not really have glowing eyes, and does not breathe fire, but rather has been painted with phosphorous. He is able to do this because his extreme rationality has overridden the natural emotion of fear affecting the reasoning skills of Watson and Mortimer. This, in turn, enables Holmes to unravel the hound’s mystery.

Even Holmes’ decision to “stake out” Baskerville Hall from the nomadic hut on the moor—a choice that ultimately allows the case to be solved—is one enabled by a triumph of reason over emotion. When Watson imagines Neolithic man living in these huts, he shudders and pities anyone that would have to live under such conditions. The same is true when Watson ponders the case of Selden, the escaped convict living on the moor. He feels a kind of empathy for the man on the run, even going so far as to suggest that the hardships Selden undergoes on the moor should count as partial repayment for his crimes. Holmes, however, realizes that the moor managed to keep Neolithic man alive. This means that Holmes can be sure that he won’t freeze to death on the moor, or die of dehydration or starvation. As such, any qualms he might have about living on the moor are strictly emotional grievances about giving up creature comforts. In addition, since he knows that living on the moor will give him an unbiased viewpoint of the events at Baskerville Hall, Holmes is able to forgo any such concerns about comfort and attend to his rational desire for information. This, in turn, allows the case to be cracked.

Perhaps the most convincing proof of reason’s power is not found in Holmes’ actions and deductions but rather through his inaction. The detective possesses such strong abilities that Doyle has to write him out of most of the book just to have the time to develop a thrilling plot—indeed, it’s not entirely clear what Holmes is doing for most of the book, despite the awkward recounting of events Doyle throws in at the end. Were Holmes present at Baskerville Hall from the get-go, his successes suggest that he would have solved the crime almost the moment that he met Jack Stapleton—which would have truncated most of the story! Instead, Doyle holds off Holmes’ appearance until the story reaches the height of its drama, though even this late appearance tends to lessen the dramatic effect, as the reader is certain Holmes will save the day. Thus, while Doyle clearly advocates for the power of reason through Holmes, he might also suggest that a life lived only in the pursuit of reason could be a bit too straightforward and boring—indeed, perhaps even impossible outside of the fictional realm.

Related Themes from Other Texts
Compare and contrast themes from other texts to this theme…

The Power of Reason ThemeTracker

The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of The Power of Reason appears in each chapter of The Hound of the Baskervilles. Click or tap on any chapter to read its Summary & Analysis.
How often theme appears:
chapter length:
Get the entire The Hound of the Baskervilles LitChart as a printable PDF.
The Hound of the Baskervilles PDF

The Power of Reason Quotes in The Hound of the Baskervilles

Below you will find the important quotes in The Hound of the Baskervilles related to the theme of The Power of Reason.
Chapter 1 Quotes

Mr. Sherlock Holmes, who was usually very late in the mornings, save upon those not infrequent occasions when he stayed up all night, was seated at the breakfast-table. I stood upon the hearthrug and picked up the stick which our visitor had left behind him the night before.

Related Characters: Dr. John Watson (speaker), Sherlock Holmes, Dr. James Mortimer
Related Symbols: The Walking Stick
Page Number: 249
Explanation and Analysis:

Really, Watson, you excel yourself […] It may be that you are not yourself luminous, but you are a conductor of light. Some people without possessing genius have a remarkable power of stimulating. I confess, my dear fellow, that I am very much in your debt.

Related Characters: Sherlock Holmes (speaker), Dr. John Watson, Dr. James Mortimer
Related Symbols: The Walking Stick
Page Number: 250
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 3  Quotes

I find that before the terrible event occurred several people had seen a creature upon the moor which corresponds with this Baskerville demon, and which could not possibly be an animal known to science. They all agreed that it was a huge creature, luminous, ghastly, and spectral.

Page Number: 268
Explanation and Analysis:

My first impression as I opened the door was that a fire had broken out, for the room was so filled with smoke that the light of the lamp upon the table was blurred by it.

Related Characters: Dr. John Watson (speaker), Sherlock Holmes
Page Number: 271
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 4  Quotes

Really, Mr. Holmes, this exceeds anything which I could have imagined […] I could understand anyone saying that the words were from a newspaper; but that you should name which, and add that it came from the leading article, is really one of the most remarkable things which I have ever known.

Related Characters: Sir Henry Baskerville (speaker), Sherlock Holmes
Page Number: 277
Explanation and Analysis:

We are dealing with a clever man, Watson.

Related Characters: Sherlock Holmes (speaker), Dr. John Watson, Jack Stapleton
Page Number: 283
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 5 Quotes

It might interest you to know that you have been driving Mr. Sherlock Holmes.

Related Characters: Jack Stapleton (speaker), Sherlock Holmes, Sir Henry Baskerville
Page Number: 294
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 7 Quotes

Already round this pale-faced, handsome, black-bearded man there was gathering an atmosphere of mystery and of gloom.

Related Characters: Dr. John Watson (speaker), Mr. and Mrs. Barrymore
Page Number: 306
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 8  Quotes

He is much attached to her, no doubt, and would lead a lonely life without her, but it would seem the height of selfishness, if he were to stand in the way of her making so brilliant a marriage.

Page Number: 320
Explanation and Analysis:

Some deep sorrow gnaws ever at her heart. Sometimes I wonder if she has a guilty memory which haunts her, and sometimes I suspect Barrymore of being a domestic tyrant. I have always felt there was something singular and questionable in this man's character […].

Related Characters: Dr. John Watson (speaker), Mr. and Mrs. Barrymore, Selden
Page Number: 323
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 10 Quotes

There is the death of the last occupant of the Hall, fulfilling so exactly the conditions of the family legend, and there are the repeated reports of…a strange creature upon the moor. Twice I have heard […] the distant baying of a hound.

Related Characters: Dr. John Watson (speaker)
Page Number: 341
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 11 Quotes

It is a lovely evening, my dear Watson […] I really think that you will be more comfortable outside than in.

Related Characters: Sherlock Holmes (speaker), Dr. John Watson
Page Number: 362
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 12 Quotes

The gleam of the match which he struck shone upon his clotted fingers and upon the ghastly pool which widened slowly from the crushed skull of the victim. And it shone upon something else which turned our hearts sick and faint within us—the body of Sir Henry Baskerville!

Related Characters: Dr. John Watson (speaker), Sherlock Holmes, Sir Henry Baskerville, Selden
Page Number: 369
Explanation and Analysis:

One cannot always have the success for which one hopes. An investigator needs facts, and not legends or rumors. It has not been a satisfactory case.

Related Characters: Sherlock Holmes (speaker), Dr. John Watson, Jack Stapleton
Page Number: 373
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 13  Quotes

That’s lucky for him—in fact, it’s lucky for all of you, since you are all on the wrong side of the law in this matter. I am not sure that as a conscientious detective my first duty is not to arrest the whole household.

Related Characters: Sherlock Holmes (speaker), Mr. and Mrs. Barrymore, Selden
Page Number: 377
Explanation and Analysis:

Yes, it is an interesting instance of a throwback, which appears to be both physical and spiritual. A study of family portraits is enough to convert a man to the doctrine of reincarnation. The fellow is a Baskerville—that is evident.

Related Characters: Sherlock Holmes (speaker), Jack Stapleton
Page Number: 379
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 14 Quotes

The great ordeal was in front of us; at last we were about to make our final effort, and yet Holmes had said nothing, and I could only surmise what his course of action would be.

Related Characters: Dr. John Watson (speaker), Sherlock Holmes
Page Number: 387
Explanation and Analysis:

I said it in London, Watson, and I say it again now, that never have we helped to hunt down a more dangerous man than he who is lying yonder.

Related Characters: Sherlock Holmes (speaker), Dr. John Watson, Jack Stapleton
Page Number: 396
Explanation and Analysis: