The peasant woman comes into the house of Ungit to pray when Orual is taking part in an annual ritual there. The woman finds comfort only in the rough stone of Ungit, and not in the beautiful Greek-style statue, which she thinks is too refined for someone as common as she. This reinforces the impression of Ungit as a goddess whose barbarity echoes something fundamental within people. People worship her for her connection to their own sins and primal nature, rather than for her beauty.
The timeline below shows where the character The peasant woman appears in Till We Have Faces. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Part 2: Chapter 2