Under Milk Wood


Dylan Thomas

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Themes and Colors
Nostalgia  Theme Icon
Storytelling and Ordinary Life  Theme Icon
Intimacy Theme Icon
Resilience and Redemption   Theme Icon
Nature vs. Society   Theme Icon
Gossip and Community Theme Icon
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Under Milk Wood, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Nature vs. Society   Theme Icon

Under Milk Wood takes place within the town of Llareggub and in the water or woods that surround it. As the action of the play unfolds, it becomes clear that there is a difference between the types of behaviors that occur within the town of Llareggub and those that unfold beyond the town’s confines: in the surrounding sea, in the residents’ dreams, or in the milk wood trees that grow on Llareggub Hill. While characters mostly adhere to conventional social norms while they are in town, their behavior loosens when they venture into nature. Milk Wood is the place lovers go to be together: the woods are a frequent destination for Polly Garter, who engages in numerous affairs with the men in town, and Bessie Bighead was conceived in Milk Wood. The sea offers its own type of freedom, as well. While aboard the safe haven of his boat, the lazy fisherman Nogood Boyo entertains salacious thoughts about Mrs. Dai Bread Two, Dai Bread’s sensual second wife. In a bittersweet example of the freedom that nature offers, Captain Cat, a retired, blind sea captain, dives into the sea of his dreams to remember his deceased lover Rosie Probert and his shipmates who perished at sea long ago, the watery atmosphere of his dreams offering an alternate existence that’s not governed by rules and reality. Under Milk Wood construes nature and the unconscious as a sanctuary where the townspeople of Llareggub can go to indulge the behaviors and dreams that are otherwise stifled by the confines of society and reality.

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Nature vs. Society  ThemeTracker

The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of Nature vs. Society  appears in each chapter of Under Milk Wood. Click or tap on any chapter to read its Summary & Analysis.
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Nature vs. Society  Quotes in Under Milk Wood

Below you will find the important quotes in Under Milk Wood related to the theme of Nature vs. Society  .
Under Milk Wood Quotes


FIRST VOICE (Very softly)

To begin at the beginning: It is Spring, moonless night in the small town, starless and bible–black, the cobblestreets silent and the hunched, courters’–and–rabbits’ wood limping invisible down to the sloeblack, slow, black, crowblack, fishingboat-bobbing sea. The houses are blind as moles (though moles see fine to–night in the snouting, velvet dingles) or blind as Captain Cat there in the muffled middle by the pump and the town clock, the shops in mourning, the Welfare Hall in widows’ weeds. And all the people of the lulled and dumbfound town are sleeping now.

Related Characters: First Voice (speaker), Captain Cat, Second Voice
Related Symbols: Water
Page Number: 1
Explanation and Analysis:

SECOND VOICE. Mrs. Rose Cottage’s eldest, Mae, peals off her pink–and–white skin in a furnace in a tower in a cave in a waterfall in a wood and waits there raw as an onion for Mister Right to leap up the burning tall hollow splashes of leaves like a brilliantined trout.

MAE ROSE COTTAGE. (Very close and softly, drawing out the words)
Call me Dolores
Like they do in the stories.

Related Symbols: Milk Wood/Llareggub Hill
Page Number: 21
Explanation and Analysis:

Stand on this hill. This is Llareggub Hill, old as the hills, high, cool, and green, and from this small circle of stones, made not by druids but by Mrs. Beynon’s Billy, you can see all the town below you sleeping in the first of the dawn.

Related Characters: First Voice (speaker), Mrs. Beynon, Second Voice
Related Symbols: Milk Wood/Llareggub Hill
Page Number: 25
Explanation and Analysis:

Less than five hundred souls inhabit the three quaint streets and the few narrow by-lanes and scattered farmsteads that constitute this small, decaying watering-place which may, indeed, be called a ‘back-water of life’ without disrespect to its natives who possess, to this day, a salty individuality of their own. The main street, Coronation Street, consists, for the most part, of humble, two-storied houses many of which attempt to achieve some measure of gaiety by prinking themselves out in crude colours and by the liberal use of pinkwash, though there are remaining a few eighteenth-century houses of more pretension, if, on the whole, in a sad state of disrepair. Though there is little to attract the hillclimber, the healthseeker, the sportsman, or the weekending motorist, the contemplative may, if sufficiently attracted to spare it some leisurely hours, find, in its cobbled streets and its little fishing harbour, in its several curious customs, and in the conversation of its local ‘characters,’ some of that picturesque sense of the past so frequently lacking in towns and villages which have kept more abreast of the times.

Page Number: 26
Explanation and Analysis:

A tiny dingle is Milk Wood
By Golden Grove ‘neath Grongar,
But let me choose and oh! I should
Love all my life and longer

To stroll among our trees and stray
In Goosegog Lane, on Donkey Down,
And hear the Dewi sing all day,
And never, never leave the town.

Related Characters: Reverend Eli Jenkins (speaker), Voice of a Guide-Book
Page Number: 28
Explanation and Analysis:

Oh, isn’t life a terrible thing, thank God?

Related Characters: Polly Garter (speaker), First Voice, Second Voice, Reverend Eli Jenkins
Page Number: 34
Explanation and Analysis:

SECOND VOICE. Fishermen grumble to their nets. Nogood Boyo goes out in the dinghy Zanzibar, ships the oars, drifts slowly in the dab–filled bay, and, lying on his back in the unbaled water, among crabs’ legs and tangled lines, looks up at the spring sky.

NOGOOD BOYO. (Softly, lazily) I don’t know who’s up there and I don’t care.

Related Characters: Second Voice (speaker), Nogood Boyo (speaker), First Voice
Related Symbols: Water
Page Number: 41
Explanation and Analysis:

You can tell it’s Spring.

Related Characters: Captain Cat (speaker), Organ Morgan, First Voice, Second Voice
Page Number: 47
Explanation and Analysis:

Can’t hear what the women are gabbing round the pump. Same as ever. Who’s having a baby, who blacked whose eye, seen Polly Garter giving her belly an airing, there should be a law, seen Mrs. Beynon's new mauve jumper, it’s her old grey jumper dyed, who’s dead, who’s dying, there’s a lovely day, oh the cost of soapflakes!

Related Characters: Captain Cat (speaker), Polly Garter, Mrs. Beynon, First Voice
Page Number: 47
Explanation and Analysis:

CAPTAIN CAT. That’s Polly Garter. (Softly) Hullo, Polly my love, can you hear the dumb goose–hiss of the wives as they huddle and peck or flounce at a waddle away? Who cuddled you when? Which of their gandering hubbies moaned in Milk Wood for your naughty mothering arms and body like a wardrobe, love? Scrub the floors of the Welfare Hall for the Mothers’ Union Social Dance, you’re one mother won't wriggle her roly poly bum or pat her fat little buttery feet in that wedding–ringed holy to–night though the waltzing breadwinners snatched from the cosy smoke of the Sailors Arms will grizzle and mope.

Related Characters: Captain Cat (speaker), Polly Garter, First Voice, Second Voice
Related Symbols: Milk Wood/Llareggub Hill
Page Number: 48
Explanation and Analysis:

Praise the Lord! We are a musical nation.

Related Characters: Reverend Eli Jenkins (speaker), Polly Garter, Cherry Owen
Page Number: 60
Explanation and Analysis:

Captain Cat, at his window thrown wide to the sun and the clippered seas he sailed long ago when his eyes were blue and bright, slumbers and voyages; ear–ringed and rolling, I Love You Rosie Probert tattooed on his belly, he brawls with broken bottles in the fug and babel of the dark dock bars, roves with a herd of short and good time cows in every naughty port and twines and souses with the drowned and blowzy–breasted dead. He weeps as he sleeps and sails.

Related Characters: First Voice (speaker), Captain Cat, Rosie Probert, Second Voice
Related Symbols: Water
Page Number: 75
Explanation and Analysis:

I want to be a good Boyo, but nobody’ll let me.

Related Characters: Nogood Boyo (speaker), Mrs. Dai Bread Two
Related Symbols: Water
Page Number: 80
Explanation and Analysis:

We are not wholly bad or good
Who live our lives under Milk Wood,
And Thou, I know, wilt be the first
To see our best side, not our worst.

Related Symbols: Milk Wood/Llareggub Hill
Page Number: 87
Explanation and Analysis:

Llareggub Hill, that mystic tumulus, the memorial of peoples that dwelt in the region of Llareggub before the Celts left the Land of Summer and where the old wizards made themselves a wife out of flowers.

Related Characters: Reverend Eli Jenkins (speaker)
Related Symbols: Milk Wood/Llareggub Hill
Page Number: 91
Explanation and Analysis:

Blind Captain Cat climbs into his bunk. Like a cat, he sees in the dark. Through the voyages of his tears, he sails to see the dead.

Related Characters: First Voice (speaker), Captain Cat, Rosie Probert, Second Voice
Related Symbols: Water
Page Number: 92
Explanation and Analysis:

FIRST VOICE. […] And Mr. Waldo drunk in the dusky wood hugs his lovely Polly Garter under the eyes and rattling tongues of the neighbours and the birds, and he does not care. He smacks his live red lips. But it is not his name that Polly Garter whispers as she lies under the oak and loves him back. Six feet deep that name sings in the cold earth.

But I always think as we tumble into bed
Of little Willy Wee who is dead, dead, dead.

Related Symbols: Milk Wood/Llareggub Hill
Page Number: 94
Explanation and Analysis:

The thin night darkens. A breeze from the creased water sighs the streets close under Milk waking Wood. The Wood, whose every tree–foot’s cloven in the black glad sight of the hunters of lovers, that is a God–built garden to Mary Ann Sailors who knows there is Heaven on earth and the chosen people of His kind fire in Llareggub’s land, that is the fairday farmhands’ wantoning ignorant chapel of bridesbeds, and, to the Reverend Eli Jenkins, a greenleaved sermon on the innocence of men, the suddenly wind–shaken wood springs awake for the second dark time this one Spring day.

Related Symbols: Milk Wood/Llareggub Hill
Page Number: 94-5
Explanation and Analysis: