Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Our Teacher Edition on Shakuntala can help.


In Shakuntala, bees primarily symbolize erotic attraction, particularly the fleeting, teasing touch of flirtation. In the Prologue, for instance, the actress sings an erotic song in which blossoms are “gently brushed by black woodland…

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In the early part of the play, deer symbolize innocence, especially Shakuntala’s sheltered innocence, while the pursuit of deer symbolizes the King’s romantic appetites (and the taming of those appetites). The play opens…

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Throughout the play, trees often symbolize fertility and beauty. Because Shakuntala has spent her life lovingly tending the hermitage trees, she thinks of them like “sisters,” and their allure is often associated with her own…

read analysis of Trees