A Brief History of Time

A Brief History of Time


Stephen Hawking

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A Russian physicist and mathematician, Friedmann made two assumptions about the universe in 1922: first, that is looks roughly the same in every direction, and second, this should be true from wherever one looks. These ideas suggested that the universe is not static, as Albert Einstein was arguing at the time. He predicted what Edwin Hubble later found—that the universe is expanding. Even so, Friedmann’s work was not widely known in the West until the 1930s. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson’s discovery of the homogeneity of background microwave radiation throughout the universe proved Friedmann’s ideas. Later, Friedmann models were used to explore what the universe might have looked like in its early stages.

Alexander Friedmann Quotes in A Brief History of Time

The A Brief History of Time quotes below are all either spoken by Alexander Friedmann or refer to Alexander Friedmann. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
The Search for a Unifying Theory of the Universe Theme Icon
). Note: all page numbers and citation info for the quotes below refer to the Bantam edition of A Brief History of Time published in 1988.
Chapter 3 Quotes

Many people do not like the idea that time has a beginning, probably because it smacks of divine intervention. (The Catholic Church, on the other hand, seized on the big bang model and in 1951 officially pronounced it to be in accordance with the Bible.)

Related Characters: God , Alexander Friedmann
Page Number: 49
Explanation and Analysis:
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Alexander Friedmann Character Timeline in A Brief History of Time

The timeline below shows where the character Alexander Friedmann appears in A Brief History of Time. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 3
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
Yet a Russian physicist called Alexander Friedmann tackled this head on. He assumed first that the universe looked uniformly the same in... (full context)
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
...the sun, they determined it was coming, uniformly, from the whole universe. They had confirmed Friedmann's first assumption. (full context)
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
The Danger of Stubbornness  Theme Icon
...too. We argue this on the basis of modesty; we cannot prove it yet. In Friedmann's model, the universe is expanding, like a balloon with every point expanding from every other... (full context)
Human Curiosity and Ingenuity Theme Icon
Three models obey Friedmann's assumptions, though he only suggested one himself. In the first, gravity can slow and eventually... (full context)