The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

by

Thomas S. Kuhn

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Thomas Kuhn Character Analysis

Kuhn, the book’s author and narrator, was a historian and philosopher of science fascinated by epistemology (or, the study of knowledge). His overarching argument in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that science develops and changes in a cyclical way (rather than a linear way) over time. Since Kuhn was fascinated by how people’s unique personalities and perceptions shape knowledge, he acknowledged that his argument, while built mostly on historical evidence, was also a product of his own subjective intuitions. There are then several moments throughout the book where Kuhn’s own self-reflective character comes through. For instance, as he tries to articulate the lived experience of a paradigm, he admits that he is “unable to explain further” what he means or how he has come to his conclusions. And even more tellingly, he devotes the entire Postscript to revising and clarifying his own conclusions. In this sense, just as Kuhn understood science to be in some way “arbitrary,” he was equally conscious of this arbitrariness in his own work.

Thomas Kuhn Quotes in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The The Structure of Scientific Revolutions quotes below are all either spoken by Thomas Kuhn or refer to Thomas Kuhn. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one:
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). Note: all page numbers and citation info for the quotes below refer to the University of Chicago Press edition of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions published in 2012.
Chapter 1 Quotes

History, if viewed as a repository for more than anecdote or chronology, could produce a decisive transformation in the image of science by which we are now possessed.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 1
Explanation and Analysis:

If these out-of-date beliefs are to be called myths, then myths can be produced by the same sorts of methods and held for the same sorts of reasons that now lead to scientific knowledge. If, on the other hand, they are to be called science, then science has included bodies of belief quite incompatible with the ones we hold today.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 3
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 2 Quotes

No natural history can be interpreted in the absence of at least some implicit body of intertwined theoretical and methodological belief that permits selection, evaluation, and criticism. If that body of belief is not already implicit in the collection of facts—in which case more than “mere facts” are at hand—it must be externally supplied, perhaps by a current metaphysic, by another science, or by personal and historical accident. No wonder, then, that in the early stages of the development of any science different men confronting the same range of phenomena, but not usually all the same particular phenomena, describe and interpret them in different ways.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 17
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 3 Quotes

Mopping-up operations are what engage most scientists throughout their careers. They constitute what I am here calling normal science. Closely examined, whether historically or in the contemporary laboratory, that enterprise seems an attempt to force nature into the preformed and relatively inflexible box that the paradigm supplies. No part of the aim of normal science is to call forth new sorts of phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the box are often not seen at all.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 24
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 4 Quotes

Once engaged, his motivation is of a rather different sort. What then challenges him is the conviction that, if only he is skillful enough, he will succeed in solving a puzzle that no one before has solved or solved so well. Many of the greatest scientific minds have devoted all of their professional attention to demanding puzzles of this sort. On most occasions any particular field of specialization offers nothing else to do, a fact that makes it no less fascinating to the proper sort of addict.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 38
Explanation and Analysis:

There must also be rules that limit both the nature of acceptable solutions and the steps by which they are to be obtained. To solve a jigsaw puzzle is not, for example, merely “to make a picture.” Either a child or a contemporary artist could do that by scattering selected pieces, as abstract shapes, upon some neutral ground. The picture thus produced might be far better, and would certainly be more original, than the one from which the puzzle had been made. Nevertheless, such a picture would not be a solution. To achieve that all the pieces must be used, their plain sides must be turned down, and they must be interlocked without forcing until no holes remain.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Related Symbols: Jigsaw Puzzles
Page Number: 38
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 5 Quotes

That process of learning by finger exercise or by doing continues throughout the process of professional initiation […] One is at liberty to suppose that somewhere along the way the scientist has intuitively abstracted rules of the game for himself, but there is little reason to believe it. Though many scientists talk easily and well about the particular individual hypotheses that underlie a concrete piece of current research, they are little better than laymen at characterizing the established bases of their field, its legitimate problems and methods.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 47
Explanation and Analysis:

An investigator who hoped to learn something about what scientists took the atomic theory to be asked a distinguished physicist and an eminent chemist whether a single atom of helium was or was not a molecule. Both answered without hesitation, but their answers were not the same. For the chemist the atom of helium was a molecule because it behaved like one with respect to the kinetic theory of gases. For the physicist, on the other hand, the helium atom was not a molecule because it displayed no molecular spectrum. Presumably both men were talking of the same particle, but they were viewing it through their own research training and practice. Their experience in problem-solving told them what a molecule must be.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 51
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 6 Quotes

New and unsuspected phenomena are, however, repeatedly uncovered by scientific research, and radical new theories have again and again been invented by scientists. […] If this characteristic of science is to be reconciled with what has already been said, then research under a paradigm must be a particularly effective way of inducing paradigm change. That is what fundamental novelties of fact and theory do. Produced inadvertently by a game played under one set of rules, their assimilation requires the elaboration of another set.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 53
Explanation and Analysis:

Anomaly appears only against the background provided by the paradigm. The more precise and far-reaching that paradigm is, the more sensitive an indicator it provides of anomaly and hence of an occasion for paradigm change.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 65
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 7 Quotes

Philosophers of science have repeatedly demonstrated that more than one theoretical construction can always be placed upon a given collection of data. History of science indicates that, particularly in the early developmental stages of a new paradigm, it is not even very difficult to invent such alternates. But that invention of alternates is just what scientists seldom undertake […] The reason is clear. As in manufacture so in science—retooling is an extravagance to be reserved for the occasion that demands it. The significance of crises is the indication they provide that an occasion for retooling has arrived.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 76
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 8 Quotes

When acute, this situation is sometimes recognized by the scientists involved. Copernicus complained that in his day astronomers were so “inconsistent in these [astronomical] investigations . . . that they cannot even explain or observe the constant length of the seasonal year.” “With them,” he continued, “it is as though an artist were to gather the hands, feet, head and other members for his images from diverse models, each part excellently drawn, but not related to a single body, and since they in no way match each other, the result would be monster rather than man.” Einstein, restricted by current usage to less florid language, wrote only, “It was as if the ground had been pulled out from under one, with no firm foundation to be seen anywhere, upon which one could have built.”

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker), Nicolaus Copernicus, Albert Einstein
Related Symbols: Jigsaw Puzzles
Page Number: 83
Explanation and Analysis:

The marks on paper that were first seen as a bird are now seen as an antelope, or vice versa. That parallel can be misleading. […] the scientist does not preserve the gestalt subject’s freedom to switch back and forth between ways of seeing. Nevertheless, the switch of gestalt, particularly because it is today so familiar, is a useful elementary prototype for what occurs in full-scale paradigm shift.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker), Aristotle, Galileo Galilei
Related Symbols: Bird/Antelope
Page Number: 85
Explanation and Analysis:

Instead, the new paradigm, or a sufficient hint to permit later articulation, emerges all at once, sometimes in the middle of the night, in the mind of a man deeply immersed in crisis. […] Almost always the men who achieve these fundamental inventions of a new paradigm have been either very young or very new to the field whose paradigm they change. And perhaps that point need not have been made explicit, for obviously these are the men who, being little committed by prior practice to the traditional rules of normal science, are particularly likely to see that those rules no longer define a playable game and to conceive another set that can replace them.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 90
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 9 Quotes

As in political revolutions, so in paradigm choice—there is no standard higher than the assent of the relevant community.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 94
Explanation and Analysis:

What occurred was neither a decline nor a raising of standards, but simply a change demanded by the adoption of a new paradigm. Furthermore, that change has since been reversed and could be again. In the twentieth century Einstein succeeded in explaining gravitational attractions, and that explanation has returned science to a set of canons and problems that are, in this particular respect, more like those of Newton’s predecessors than of his successors.

Page Number: 108
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 10 Quotes

Examining the record of past research from the vantage of contemporary historiography, the historian of science may be tempted to exclaim that when paradigms change, the world itself changes with them. Led by a new paradigm, scientists adopt new instruments and look in new places. Even more important, during revolutions scientists see new and different things when looking with familiar instruments in places they have looked before. […] In so far as their only recourse to that world is through what they see and do, we may want to say that after a revolution scientists are responding to a different world.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 111
Explanation and Analysis:

Looking at the moon, the convert to Copernicanism does not say, “I used to see a planet, but now I see a satellite.” That locution would imply a sense in which the Ptolemaic system had once been correct. Instead, a convert to the new astronomy says, “I once took the moon to be (or saw the moon as) a planet, but I was mistaken.”

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker), Nicolaus Copernicus
Page Number: 115
Explanation and Analysis:

But is sensory experience fixed and neutral? Are theories simply manmade interpretations of given data? The epistemological viewpoint that has most often guided Western philosophy for three centuries dictates an immediate and unequivocal, Yes! In the absence of a developed alternative, I find it impossible to relinquish entirely that viewpoint. Yet it no longer functions effectively, and the attempts to make it do so through the introduction of a neutral language of observations now seem to me hopeless. The operations and measurements that a scientist undertakes in the laboratory are not “the given” of experience but rather “the collected with difficulty.”

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 126
Explanation and Analysis:

Chemists could not, therefore, simply accept Dalton’s theory on the evidence, for much of that was still negative. Instead, even after accepting the theory, they had still to beat nature into line, a process which, in the event, took almost another generation. When it was done, even the percentage composition of well-known compounds was different. The data themselves had changed. That is the last of the senses in which we may want to say that after a revolution scientists work in a different world.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker), John Dalton
Page Number: 134
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 11 Quotes

But scientists are more affected by the temptation to rewrite history, partly because the results of scientific research show no obvious dependence upon the historical context of the inquiry, and partly because, except during crisis and revolution, the scientist’s contemporary position seems so secure. More historical detail, whether of science’s present or of its past, or more responsibility to the historical details that are presented, could only give artificial status to human idiosyncrasy, error, and confusion. Why dignify what science’s best and most persistent efforts have made it possible to discard?

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 138
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 12 Quotes

These examples point to the third and most fundamental aspect of the incommensurability of competing paradigms. In a sense that I am unable to explicate further, the proponents of competing paradigms practice their trades in different worlds. One contains constrained bodies that fall slowly, the other pendulums that repeat their motions again and again. In one, solutions are compounds, in the other mixtures. One is embedded in a flat, the other in a curved, matrix of space.

Page Number: 150
Explanation and Analysis:

Though a generation is sometimes required to effect the change, scientific communities have again and again been converted to new paradigms. Furthermore, these conversions occur not despite the fact that scientists are human but because they are.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 152
Explanation and Analysis:
Chapter 13 Quotes

We may, to be more precise, have to relinquish the notion, explicit or implicit, that changes of paradigm carry scientists and those who learn from them closer and closer to the truth.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 170
Explanation and Analysis:
Postscript Quotes

The law-sketch, say f = ma, has functioned as a tool, informing the student what similarities to look for, signaling the gestalt in which the situation is to be seen […] After he has completed a certain number, which may vary widely from one individual to the next, he views the situations that confront him as a scientist in the same gestalt as other members of his specialists’ group. For him they are no longer the same situations he had encountered when his training began. He has meanwhile assimilated a time-tested and group-licensed way of seeing.

Related Characters: Thomas Kuhn (speaker)
Page Number: 189
Explanation and Analysis:
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Thomas Kuhn Character Timeline in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The timeline below shows where the character Thomas Kuhn appears in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.
Chapter 1. Introduction: A Role for History
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Kuhn lays out the aim of his book: he wants to use history to change the... (full context)
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...are not actually any more or less “scientific” than the now-discounted views of the past. Kuhn thus argues that “if these out-of-date beliefs are to be called myths, then myths can... (full context)
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As historians struggle with this problem, Kuhn suggests that “a historiographic revolution in the study of science” is already underway. Rather than... (full context)
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Kuhn describes the “new image of science” that he and his fellow historians are trying to... (full context)
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The process by which these arbitrary assumptions are passed down through formal education is, in Kuhn’s words, “normal science.” Normal science “is predicated on the assumption that the scientific community knows... (full context)
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...revolutions are associated with scientists Nicolaus Copernicus, Isaac Newton, Antoine Lavoisier, and Albert Einstein. However, Kuhn believes that many less famous scientific revolutions are equally important. (full context)
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Rather than a narrative of incremental progress, then, Kuhn sees scientific history as a cycle: scientific revolutions interrupt normal science, which leads to a... (full context)
Chapter 2. The Route to Normal Science
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Kuhn begins with a definition: “normal science” is the everyday practice of scientific research, an everyday... (full context)
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Kuhn then discusses the concept of “shared paradigms.” These paradigms emerge with a very specific kind... (full context)
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A given scientific field cycles through a variety of these research paradigms; Kuhn gives the example of physics, which moved from a material view of light to a... (full context)
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...science, scholars cannot build on one another’s work because there is no agreed-upon foundation. However, Kuhn emphasizes that it is important to understand that these early thinkers were equally scientific as... (full context)
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...the same kind of audience that a book in any other field would have. Yet Kuhn argues that even if a paradigm makes discoveries narrower and less broadly useful, it is... (full context)
Chapter 3. The Nature of Normal Science
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Kuhn emphasizes that paradigms are often very limited when they emerge—they are successful not because they... (full context)
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Again, Kuhn emphasizes that normal science actually discourages novelty and original thinking. But even as Kuhn criticizes... (full context)
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...numbers or rules (“empirical work”) that make a paradigm theory applicable in the real world. Kuhn lists several examples of these kind of constants: there is Avogadro’s number in chemistry, or... (full context)
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A lot of scientific work in Kuhn’s time involves scientists doing experiments to prove “points of contact between a theory and nature.”... (full context)
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...of normal science is responding to the imperfections of the paradigm’s first major discovery (what Kuhn calls “reformulating the paradigm”). For instance, when Newton’s theories about planets’ rotation neglected the gravitational... (full context)
Chapter 4. Normal Science as Puzzle-solving
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Kuhn reiterates that normal science is not interested in novelty—and in fact, discoveries that might upend... (full context)
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...and answers are acceptable (and thus tries to prevent itself from being invalidated or overturned). Kuhn thus believes that individual scientists are motivated less by a desire to be useful to... (full context)
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Continuing his jigsaw puzzle metaphor, Kuhn suggests that just as puzzles have rules (each piece must be turned face-up and interlocked... (full context)
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Rules are important, but Kuhn does not think a paradigm is defined merely by its most important rules. Instead, he... (full context)
Chapter 5. The Priority of Paradigms
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Speaking from his own experience, Kuhn reflects that as a historian, it is easier to isolate a paradigm than it is... (full context)
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Rather than focusing on rules, then, Kuhn focuses on how a given paradigm can link a set of scientific problems. He draws... (full context)
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...more from solving an equation that involves finding the mass of a given object.  Thus, Kuhn argues, normal scientists work according to the rules of a game they might not conceptually... (full context)
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Finally, Kuhn argues that rules are more important to normal science when paradigms are starting to collapse... (full context)
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At the same time, Kuhn is careful to specify that contemporary science is not one unified study; there are many... (full context)
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To exemplify this lack of unity, Kuhn shares an anecdote about a prominent physicist and a famous chemist. Both were asked whether... (full context)
Chapter 6. Anomaly and the Emergence of Scientific Discovery
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...how does normal science, which avoids novelty, end up producing scientific revolutions? In other words, Kuhn wants to investigate how discoveries “produced inadvertently by a game played under one set of... (full context)
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Kuhn argues that a paradigm shift begins with an “anomaly”: some case or instance in which... (full context)
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...anomaly, scientists are also blurring the lines between factual and theoretical discovery. To illustrate this, Kuhn cites the history of oxygen science. In the 1770s, many different scientists were trying to... (full context)
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Lavoisier’s discovery of oxygen initiated a paradigm shift. But Kuhn is careful to point out that Lavoisier had long been skeptical of the scientific knowledge... (full context)
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...to be seen in another way, and so past scientific work was discounted and confused. Kuhn uses this example to argue that to use a given machine with a particular lens... (full context)
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Kuhn then draws on a psychological experiment to argue that the longer someone pays attention to... (full context)
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Finally, Kuhn argues that developed—specific—paradigms allow more easily for this kind of resistance. Only when scientists are... (full context)
Chapter 7. Crisis and the Emergence of Scientific Theories
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Kuhn points out that even as anomalies are constructive—leading to new discoveries and theories—they are also... (full context)
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To illustrate his point, Kuhn turns to astronomy. Ptolemy, an ancient Greek, had come up with a mostly reliable system... (full context)
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...oxygen in the 1770s struggled with competing applications of their supposedly shared paradigm. In fact, Kuhn sees the “proliferation of versions of a theory” as one of the key signs of... (full context)
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Lastly, Kuhn cites an example from physics. As early as 1815, scientists were struggling to prove Isaac... (full context)
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Kuhn notes several similarities between these three examples: one, it usually only took 20 or 30... (full context)
Chapter 8. The Response to Crisis
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Though crisis causes scientists to abandon old paradigms, Kuhn believes that—at least according to the various historical examples he has studied—scientists never do so... (full context)
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...the paradigm does not behave exactly as expected) are an everyday part of normal science. Kuhn thus posits that there is no clean line between what is an anomaly and what... (full context)
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Moreover, as Kuhn insists, a true paradigm shift is not cumulative; instead, it requires scientists to go back... (full context)
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Kuhn then begins to describe the process of “extraordinary science.” In contrast to normal science, which... (full context)
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The first step of extraordinary science, Kuhn argues, is to test out normal science by “push[ing] the rules” of a paradigm as... (full context)
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Most importantly, Kuhn believes that extraordinary science often goes hand-in-hand with new philosophical thought (much of which comes... (full context)
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Kuhn does not claim to understand how a person can eventually arrive at the beginnings of... (full context)
Chapter 9. The Nature and Necessity of Scientific Revolutions
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Kuhn explains his choice of the word “revolution,” which immediately suggests a parallel to politics. In... (full context)
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...it almost impossible for one paradigm to build on another. However, very few people share Kuhn’s belief that each paradigm is incompatible with the one that came before it. (full context)
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...which is still widely respected, and of phlogiston chemistry, which is now mostly scoffed at. Kuhn argues that rather than linking these theories to the theories that replaced them, historians should... (full context)
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As an example, Kuhn explains that some people believe Newton’s laws can be derived from Einstein’s. However, Kuhn notes... (full context)
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To demonstrate the differences between paradigms (and to hint at the cyclical nature of science), Kuhn discusses the ancient Greek belief that physical objects had innate natures. This idea had been... (full context)
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Importantly, Kuhn does not see any one paradigm as more legitimate than the others. For example, Cartesian... (full context)
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...self-contained. So, how can one paradigm ever triumph over the other? To answer this question, Kuhn suggests that in addition to being constitutive of science, paradigms “are constitutive of nature as... (full context)
Chapter 10. Revolutions as Changes of World View
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To some extent, Kuhn argues, “when paradigms change, the world changes with them.” Though scientists are not literally transported... (full context)
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Using the field of gestalt psychology, Kuhn points out that once people have seen the world in a new light, it is... (full context)
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...is really a shift in their perceptions, scientists tend not to do so. Or, as Kuhn puts it, “looking at the moon, the convert to Copernicanism does not say ‘I used... (full context)
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Kuhn also discusses the example of Uranus, a celestial body that was the subject of much... (full context)
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Kuhn notes that Galileo’s “shift of vision” did occur in part because of “his individual genius.”... (full context)
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...if Galileo had gleaned insight from impetus theory, which was compatible with an old paradigm, Kuhn believes that his new way of seeing was ultimately the result of a “lightning flash”... (full context)
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Kuhn then pauses to consider why this focus on a given scientist’s “immediate experience” is so... (full context)
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Stepping back, Kuhn notes that “neither scientists nor laymen learn to see the world piecemeal or item by... (full context)
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To exemplify this, Kuhn discusses the scientific revolution caused by John Dalton. For much of the 18th century, chemists... (full context)
Chapter 11. The Invisibility of Revolutions
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Kuhn turns his attention to the fact that the various scientific revolutions discussed in his book... (full context)
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In particular, Kuhn notes that textbooks collapse after each scientific revolution and must be completely rewritten to reflect... (full context)
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Though Kuhn acknowledges that all histories are to some extent revisionist, he believes this is especially true... (full context)
Chapter 12. The Resolution of Revolutions
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Kuhn now turns his attention to scientists who have truly discovered something new (like Copernicus, Galileo,... (full context)
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...But again, these tests do not lead to one perfect, completely accurate theory. Instead, as Kuhn writes, “verification is like natural selection: it picks out the most viable among the actual... (full context)
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...Popper believes that it is falsification of theories—and not verification—that determines which paradigm will flourish. Kuhn sees Popper’s idea of falsification as another way of talking about anomalies (and the crises... (full context)
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...to talk about contrasting ideas. There is always “misunderstanding,” then, between the competing paradigms, and Kuhn is firm that “communication across the revolutionary divide is inevitably partial.” (full context)
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Most importantly, it is difficult to compare paradigms because of something Kuhn struggles to define. “In a sense that I am unable to explicate further,” he explains,... (full context)
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But rather than seeing this miscommunication as evidence of scientists’ stubbornness, Kuhn believes that a paradigm shift is “a conversion experience that cannot be forced.” If normal... (full context)
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It is impossible to generalize about why some scientists are eventually persuaded. But Kuhn is careful to note that “conversions occur not despite the fact that scientists are human... (full context)
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...as support for the paradigm grows, additional scientists are less cautious about joining in. Yet Kuhn maintains that while it might be unreasonable for scientists to resist new paradigms forever, it... (full context)
Chapter 13. Progress through Revolutions
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Finally, Kuhn turns to the question of progress. Why is science believed to progress in a way... (full context)
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First, Kuhn reflects on the figure of Leonardo DaVinci, who could go back and forth between science... (full context)
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Kuhn next reflects on the fact that artists and people in the humanities do make a... (full context)
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Interestingly, Kuhn also notes that scientists—more than any other professionals—only address their work to one another, while... (full context)
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Kuhn also draws his readers’ attention to the way scientific education differs from other types of... (full context)
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Rather than condemning this education, however, Kuhn notes that it prepares students for normal science. And because normal science is what allows... (full context)
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Finally, Kuhn argues that science and progress are associated precisely because there are so many scientific revolutions.... (full context)
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But Kuhn does not believe that in science, “might makes right.” Instead, he tries to articulate the... (full context)
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Kuhn lays out the criteria of such communities: first, the scientists must be concerned with problems... (full context)
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Kuhn has consistently argued that “scientific progress is not what we had taken it to be.”... (full context)
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Kuhn then points out that he has not used the word “truth” at all in his... (full context)
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To articulate the difficulty of his proposal, Kuhn turns to Darwin. When Darwin proposed evolution, what upset his contemporaries was not the process... (full context)
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Kuhn has argued for something similar in science: rather than progressing toward a single goal, new... (full context)
Postscript - 1969
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Almost seven years after the initial publication of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn returns to clarify some of his ideas. Partly, he is responding to readers’ criticisms or... (full context)
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First, Kuhn reiterates that paradigms are circular—and therefore he wishes that before leaping into this circular narrative,... (full context)
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Kuhn also specifies that even in pre-paradigm periods, scientific communities share some basic ideas and beliefs.... (full context)
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Finally, Kuhn responds to the criticism that he only cares about major scientific revolutions (ones that affect... (full context)
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In the next section, Kuhn revises his blanket use of the term paradigm, which he feels he originally used in... (full context)
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Kuhn also redefines the crucial problems of a given paradigm as “exemplars.” These exemplars (usually famous... (full context)
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In the next section, Kuhn argues that exemplars deserve special attention because “the paradigm as shared example is the central... (full context)
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To exemplify this, Kuhn references the phrase “actual descent equals potential ascent”—this is a law built on Galileo’s experiments... (full context)
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Next, Kuhn clarifies his claims about intuition. Rather than referencing intuition as a mystical force, he explains... (full context)
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Kuhn thus calls attention to the neural apparatus that governs perception. In particular, he argues that... (full context)
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Speaking mostly to the philosophers of science who criticized his original text, Kuhn clarifies his remarks about the incommensurability of paradigms. Rather than saying that believers of different... (full context)
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Translation across paradigms is therefore one of the crucial tools of persuasion. However, Kuhn is realistic about the fact that translation is often difficult and complex—especially because it is... (full context)
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In the penultimate section, Kuhn responds to criticism that he has taken a relativist view of science. To make his... (full context)
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...time, while later scientific theories may be simpler or more accurate predictors than their predecessors, Kuhn reiterates his belief that science is still not getting any closer to an objective truth—to... (full context)
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In his final section, Kuhn responds to two dominant views of his original book. Critics believe Kuhn is switching back... (full context)
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Kuhn also is uncomfortable with the many readers who applaud his work because it can be... (full context)
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But on the other hand, Kuhn reiterates that he is most interested in the way that science is different from other... (full context)
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To close his book, Kuhn calls for more study of intellectual communities as a whole (both scientific and non-scientific). After... (full context)