Pawlikowski focuses on the difference between forgiveness and reconciliation. Even though Simon did not speak the words of forgiveness, his conversation in the camp and his unwillingness to destroy Karl’s image for his mother implies to Pawlikowski that Simon’s innermost feeling comes close to forgiveness.
Pawlikowski’s argument forces the reader to question the definition of forgiveness itself. He makes a distinction between private, individual acknowledgement of repentance, and public, general forgiveness. Simon’s compassion seems to imply the former.
The public form of forgiveness, Pawlikowski writes, is reconciliation. This process requires repentance, contrition, taking responsibility, healing, and reunion, for which Karl and Simon had too little time. Thus, Pawlikowski agrees with Simon’s decision, but notes that he might have offered a sense of forgiveness while making it clear that he could not speak for all Jews, unburdening himself from the uncertainty that prompts him to write the book.
Reconciliation, on the other hand, would have involved a much larger kind of forgiveness, and may not even have been possible because the victims of Karl’s crimes were no longer alive. To Pawlikowski’s second point here, in a way, Simon did convey his personal sense of forgiveness, because Karl left him his belongings.
Pawlikowski wonders whether Simon’s own uncertainty about God is truly what haunted him in his encounter with Karl, in the sense that perhaps Simon was uncertain how to approach Karl and the question of forgiveness in light of his wavering faith.
Pawlikowski’s hypothesis does have a lot of merit, because Simon asks people of many different faiths what they would have done. This implies that Simon worries that morality can be somewhat subjective and varies from religion to religion, and thus he asks for advice from a variety of sources.
Pawlikowski concludes by addressing what he feels is an incomplete picture of Polish-Jewish relations in The Sunflower. He acknowledges the anti-Semitism that had been present, which Polish bishops have repudiated. But there was also the Zegota movement, the only organization aimed at saving Jews during the Holocaust.
Pawlikowski directly acknowledges the anti-Semitism that Simon depicts in his book, but attempts to create a fuller and more complex picture of Polish-Jewish relations.