Twilight of the Idols


Friedrich Nietzsche

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Twilight of the Idols Terms


An aphorism is a short statement that conveys some kind of truth. Nietzsche is known for his frequent use of aphorism, irony, and other literary elements. read analysis of Aphorism

Apollonian and Dionysian

Apollo and Dionysus are gods of Greek mythology. They represent opposing values and forces—Apollo is the god of light, reason, and balance, and Dionysus is the god of wine, religious ecstasy, fertility, and insanity. So… read analysis of Apollonian and Dionysian


For Nietzsche, “decadence” refers to moral and cultural decline, especially as characterized by overindulgence. read analysis of Decadence


Dialectics refers to a method of intellectual investigation that draws on dialogue and discussion. In Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche condemns Socrates for bringing dialectical thinking into western philosophy (the Socratic method, a form… read analysis of Dialectics


In Twilight of the Idols, the ego refers to the self—that is, the conscious subject. Nietzsche examines how the ego causes people to misinterpret the world, arguing that people project the ego (personal biases)… read analysis of Ego
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The German Reich

The German Reich refers to the German nation-state that existed from 1871 (following the unification of Germany) to 1945 (the fall of the Third Reich). When Nietzsche discusses the German Reich in Twilight of theread analysis of The German Reich


A maxim is a short statement that conveys a truth, especially as a rule of conduct. In the section titled “Maxims and Arrows,” Nietzsche offers a series of 44 numbered maxims that propose rules or… read analysis of Maxim


Philosophical nihilism rejects fundamental aspects of human existence (such as morality or objective truth) on the basis that life is meaningless and moral truths are unknowable. read analysis of Nihilism

Theory of Forms

The Theory of Forms is a philosophical concept attributed to Plato. The theory argues that there exists a physical world and a world of ideas or forms. The physical world consists of objects and physical… read analysis of Theory of Forms

Value Judgment

A value judgement is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness (morality or immorality) of something based on a particular set of values. Throughout Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche criticizes various philosophers and concepts… read analysis of Value Judgment